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Volume II : Continent of Europe 



HON. A.C.C.A. (LOW,) R.B.C., A.R.E, 









Vol. L America, Great Britain, Japan 
VoL II. Continent of Europe 














Continent of Europe 








r The Presentation of Sculpture i 

II The Spanish Sculptors 17 

in The French School 40 

iv The Younger French School 64 

v The Swiss Sculptors 84 

vi The Belgian School 92 

vn The Walloons and the Brussels Sculptors 112 

vin Sculpture in Holland 130 

ix Germany, Austria, Hungary 145 

X The Italian School : Piedmont, Lom- 

bardy, Rome 167 
xi The Italian School : Tuscany, Sicily, 

Naples 194 

xn Jugoslav Sculpture 211 

xni The Sculptors of Czechoslovakia 224 

xiv Poland and Lithuania 237 

xv Russian Sculpture 254 

xvi Sculpture in Sweden 268 

xvn Denmark and Norway 288 

Index 311 



IN all cases the illustrations are included by the 
express permission of each individual artist or his 
representative. The Publishers' names and ad 
dresses when known are given, as generally it is possible 
to purchase photographs of the sculpture of a larger 
size than the reproductions here provided. 

PEGASUS AND THE MUSE : Antoine Bourdelle 



THE GODDESS : Jos6 Clara. Marble, in the collec 
tion of the Marquis de Bermejillo del Rey 

Facing page 16 

DIVINITE : Jos6 Clara, Santiago Museum 17 

[GKcht, Brun, Paris.] 

PORTRAIT-HEAD, Dr. T, B. : Enric Casanovas. 

Bronze 24 

NUDE : Jos6 Dunach. Marble 32 

FORMA : Mateo Inurria. Rose marble torso, 

Museum of Modern Art, Madrid 33 


THE PRODIGAL SON (The Pardon) : Ernest 

Dubois* Marble, Luxembourg Museum, Paris 60 

[Photo. Vilhelm Trydes Vorlag] 

THE CAPTIVE : Victor S6goffin, Marble 61 

THE GIRL WITH A PITCHER : Joseph Bernard* 

Bronze, Luxembourg Museum 64 

[Photo, Giraudon, 9 rue de$ BeauxhArts, Parts.] 



Bronze 65 

[Photo. GiraudonJ] 

THE PUGILIST : Paul LandowskL Plaster, Sketch 

Statue 68 

HYMN TO THE DAWN : Paul Landowski, Bronze, 

purchased by the French Government 69 

[Photo. Giraudon] 

VICTOIRE : Celine Lepage. Stone, architectural 

detail 7 2 


[Photos. T. Roseman.] 

NUDE : Daniel Bacqu6 76 

BRETON WOMAN : Ren6 Quillivic* Grey granite* 

War Memorial at Carhaix 77 

FOLIE DE PRINTEMPS : Pierre Delannoy 80 


THE GRIEVING MERCURY : Luigi Vassalli, fMn** 

genthal Cemetery 84 

MATERNITY : A, Carl Angst* Pouillinay sand 
stone * 85 

[Photo* Ernst Linck, Ramistrasse 3, Zurich,] 

FOUNTAIN GROUP : Arnold HiinerwadeL At 

Zurich 88 

THE CLOUD : Arnold HiinerwadeL Bronze 

statuette 89 

[Photos, Ernst Linck] 

MARIE LAURENCIN : Herman Hallen Portrait in 

clay 90 

THE DANCER : Augusta Heng 91 




Viri0tte. Stone, Congo Memorial 104 
HARD WORK : Guillaume Charlier 105 
ESPERANZA : Franz Huygelen. Marble portrait bust 108 
THE COUNT OF FLANDERS : Pierre Theunis. Mar 
ble portrait bust 109 
HEAD OF A FAUN : Pierre Braecke. Study in clay 116 
PREMIER MATIN : Egide Rombaux. Marble, 
National Gallery of British Art (Tate Gallery], 
London 117 
[Photo. Wakhams, Ltd., 60 Doughty Street, London, 

THE BOGEY : Egide Rombaux. Bronze statuette, 

Art Gallery , Brighton 1 20 

THE ADOLESCENTS : Victor Rousseau, Marble 121 

THE COMING OF SPRING : Paul du Bois 124 

STRUGGLE OF THE TITANS ; A. Hesselink. Ryks 

Museum, Amsterdam 128 

PORTRAIT BUST : Toon Dupuis, Marble 129 


SELF-PORTRAIT : A, Remiens. Sandstone 133 

WOMAN AND CHILD : M* Vreugde. Wood 134 

MASK : G* Jacobs van den Hof. Hardstone 135 

HEAD OF AN OLD MAN : Rachel M. van Dantzig 135 

HEAD OF A WOMAN : Theo van Reijn, Granite , 136 

DECORATIVE FIGURE : J. Mendes da Costa. Bronze 137 

FIGURE FOR BUILDING : Dirk Wolbers. Stone ^ 138 
BUILDING DECORATION : J. van Lunteren. Post 

Office, Rotterdam 139 



GROUP : J. de Graaf. Clay sketch 139 


Eijnde. Scheepvaarthuis, Amsterdam 140 

A MAN'S HEAD : Willy Roelrink. Stone 141 

THE DANCER : Henriette Vaillant, Bronze 14* 

A STUDY : Th<rese van Hall H4 


Shreve-Yserman. Stedelijk Museum, Amster 

dam *45 

[Photo. F, P. Abrahamson, Amsterdam} 


AMAZON : Louis Tuaillon. Bronze 148 

BEARS : August GauL Bronze 149 

SORROWING WOMAN : Ernest Barladhu Wood x$a 

HEINE MEMORIAL : Georg Kolbe, Bronze, at 

Frankfort 156 

MEDITATION : Wilhelm Lehmbruck 157 

[Photos. Paid Cassirer, Viktoria$tram> 35, Bwtin, 


THE MOUNTAIN PEAK : Leonardo BistoWL Marble, 

Segantini Monument, St. Moritz 176 

DETAIL OF FRIEZE : Angelo ZanellL Victor 

Emanuel II Monument \ Rome 1 84 

ADAM AND EVE ; Eugenio MaccagnanL Marble 185 

Marble, Academy of S, Luca> Rome igz 

PROFESSOR BAIARDI : Antonio Sciortino. Bronze 

portrait-head 193 

BARONESS HAYASHI : Antonio Sciortino. Bronze 

portrait-bust 193 


THE BREEZE : Ercole Drei 196 
MEMORIAL TO UMBERTO I : Giuseppe Romagnoli. 

Bologna Town Hall 197 

TWILIGHT DREAM : Gaetano Cellini. Marble 200 

GIOVANEZZA : Domenico Trentacoste 201 

[Photo. Gigi Bassani, via Passardla N. 20, Milan.] 

THE ROUND-ABOUT DANCE : Giovanni Nicolini. 

Bronze 204 

THE Two GREYHOUNDS : Nicola d'Antino 205 

GIRL WITH A JAR : Nicola d'Antino 205 

THE BOY ARCHER : Amleto Cataldi. Bronze 268 

THE SPHINX : Attilio Selva 209 


THE DANCING WOMAN : Ivan Mestrovic. Marble 

relief 212 

YOUNG WOMAN : Toma Rosandic. Rosewood 220 

THE WOMAN : Risto Stigovic. Stone 221 


CHIRON ET ACHILLE ; George Cl&nent de 

Swiecinski 244 

MOTHER AND CHILD : Franois Black 245 

HEAD OF THE BLIND ; Moryc Lipchytz. Colossal 248 


FUNERAL MONUMENT ; Serge Zelikson 252 

SOLITUDE : L6on Droucker 253 



MOURNING WOMEN : Alexandra Archipenko. 

Sculp to -painting 264 

[Photo. T. Roseman.] 

PIERROT'S SISTER : Numa Patlegean 265 


BOY AND GIRL. Carl J. Eldh. Bronze 276 

YOUNG WOMAN : Carl J. Eldh. Marble 277 

PORTRAIT STUDY : Herman Neujd 284 

[Photo. P. H. Eneret, Stockholm.] 

PEASANT WOMAN : Ruth Milles 285 


GEORG BRANDES : Ludvig Brandstrup 288 

[Photo. H. Damgaard> Copenhagen^ 

THE INFANT BACCHUS : Anne Marie Carl-Nielsen. 

Bronze 289 


Marble group 292 

{Photo. E. Druet, 30 rue Royale, Paris.] 

STUDY FROM NATURE : Kai Nielsen 293 

PORTRAIT BUST : Johannes Kragh. Bronze 296 

ADAM : Svend Rathsack 297 

THE BRIDE : Johannes Bjerg. Bronze 300 

AFTER THE BATH : Hans W. Larsen. Bronze 301 
WOMAN WITH MIRROR : Einar Utzon-Frank. 

Bronze 304 

ADAM AND EVE : Anders Svor 305 


THE European Continental Schools of sculpture 
possess characteristics which are not shared 
with the American and British Schools ; char 
acteristics which are sufficiently marked as to suggest 
different categories. With regard to the American, 
however, once almost entirely English, the successive 
studies of its exponents in Paris and Rome have pro 
duced a definite deflection from the tradition, which 
is not by any means so marked in the English school, 
but both are still far from being indistinguishable from 
Continental work, either in spirit or in workmanship. 

The interest of the study of English and American 
sculpture is by way of being an immersion, that of 
Continental European an engrossment : there is much 
dignity in the former, but more fire in the latter. Anglo- 
American sculpture is fabricated, as a whole, with 
great technical ability and careful gravity, Continental 
sculpture with more temperament. In America and 
Great Britain artists are often made : those of the 
Continent of Europe are often born. There is a differ 
ence in the artists, and therefore a difference in their 
work. The born sculptor will produce what the made 
sculptor will shudder at ; a piece in bad taste, in poor 
material, with a technique that leaves something to be 
desired, but the bom sculptor will shudder at the cold- 
mess and want of abandon of the product of the made 

I B 


sculptor. It must be realised that because an artist is a 
sculptor, it does not follow he must be cold and chaste. 
There is as much fire and passion in the veins of a piece 
of marble as in the weave of a stretch of canvas, and the 
English and American lover of art has just as much 
right to expect and find these qualities in the work of 
his compatriots, as in the work of a Spaniard or a Pole. 
He has been ruled too long by the acts of the apostles 
of sculpture ; he needs to relax a little, to run wil4 for 
a time, to become more natural and warmer-blooded, 
to revel in the fine vision of an act of revelation* He will 
do well if he demands from his compatriots some of 
the abandon he finds in the work of the artists of the 
Continent, and that is a large field, in which there is 
an infinite variety of material for exploitation* The 
English hierarchs in sculpture are a compact band, 
mostly impervious to modern and continental influ 
ences, but accomplished in their methods, concerning 
which they have very little to learn* Their work is 
easily recognised, and instantly commands the respect 
due to steady and studied convictions* Some of them 
are Royal Academicians, although no sculptor as such 
has been President of the Royal Academy, the nearest 
approach for sculpture to that honour being in the 
person of Lord Leighton, of whom it is said, however, 
in certain quarters that he was a greater sculptor than 
painter. If there is any truth in this suggestion it is 
curious that Leighton did not become one of the hier 
archs in sculpture, for his personality and paintings 
exhibited all the symptoms. It is this settled conviction 
and a sturdy complacency concerning their work on the 
part of certain British sculptors that is responsible for 


the character of much of British sculpture. They have 
acquiesced in the tradition too readily ; have become 
stereotyped too soon ; their wooing of Datne Nature 
has been too short. Nature is constantly changing, 
while tradition is as constantly fortifying itself against 
any change whatsoever. Fine as their work is, the 
hierarchs might have improved it if they had cared to 
work with a freer hand and a freer mind. There is no 
reproach in being academic and none in being hieratic, 
the only concern is the attitude. Life is still a great 
factor where art is concerned, and if art tends to lose 
its vitality and virility it lays itself open to the danger 
of becoming sterile. I do not think for a moment that 
there is any danger of the kind apparent in any modern 
school of sculpture, but an attitude is dangerous, if 
entirely innocent, and may not only affect an artist's 
own work, and through him that of lesser artists, but 
the man in the artist may carry the attitude into other 
affairs and judge so that he may not be judged, thus 
losing the open mind. 

The artist who is too idle to meditate is lost. In his 
inertia he has forgotten to ponder upon his work, and 
he does it mechanically and thinks only of its popular 
success. He has become so facile that the effort required 
for a new monument is reduced to a minimum, and if 
an artist gives too little time to his own work he will 
not find time to interest himself in the works of others. 
If he is so strongly entrenched in his own studio, he 
will miss the spirit of the time as it grows in strength 
in the studios of the younger men. Imitation is an in 
sidious form of degeneracy in the young, but the artist 
who is too old to simulate youth is lost. 


Art is bound to improve ; it must not stand still, 
and there was never a period of which it can be said 
that improvement was not desirable, and an old artist , 
one who has deservedly achieved a high reputation and 
one whose work is admired and loved, cannot throw 
off his responsibility for the art he has practised so 
well. There is the younger generation to think of, and 
there are the future generations, too. It should become 
a law unto himself, therefore, that he will do all he can 
to foster the appreciation of his art. It is not enough 
he has given it to the world ; there are further duties* 
No sculptor has sprung into fame in a night as no poet 
ever has. Works of art take many years to produce, 
and their appreciation takes many years to grow. The 
art of sculpture might be better loved if sculptors made 
it better known. There should be a constant effort to 
educate the public in beauty, and there is no better 
medium than sculpture, and it must be the concern of 
the sculptors to spread this knowledge by the wide 
publicity which is required in this wonderful world of 
millions aching for the secrets of culture. The hier- 
archs must come down from their pedestals and leave 
no stone unturned, however unsuitable it may happen 
to be. It is this hieratic assumption that has made 
British sculpture especially insular in its character, 
but America has been affected by it* In one aspect it is 
useful, for it gives decisive character, but in another it 
is dangerous, for it clogs development and obscures 
the open mind. 

It is not only in England and America, however, 
that the hierarchs rule ; they do so everywhere : it it 
their custom, function and privilege, for to rule is 



right, and to be ruled is not a bad form of asceticism. 
A rigorous discipline is good for every artist, and it 
should be practised by all. The younger artists of the 
Continent are more intolerant of discipline than their 
English and American brothers, and they are more 
restless under control. They are less inclined to follow 
the lead of established reputations, and often make a 
point of ridiculing them. In this they lose a good deal, 
for to substitute persiflage for dignity does not make 
for development so much as for degeneration. The 
ideal attitude would be the acceptance of the hierarchical 
tradition, allied with an ever-increasing devotion to 
Dame Nature, and combined with additional incur 
sions into the domain of psychology. 

All this has nothing to do with academies and societies 
as such, but rather with individuals as human beings 
and as part of the body politic. The hierarchs exist 
inside and outside the academies and societies, and 
complain of the neglect of sculpture, or stoically 
more or less endure. Individuals could do a good 
deal to discount the current state of things, for which 
indeed they are partly responsible, but academies and 
societies might easily become more useful in exercising 
the function of publicity, and it would seem that the 
world must nowadays look to them for the propagation 
of the gospel of beauty in foreign parts, as individual 
ism becomes more and more impossible. 

Owing, no doubt, to the difficulties of conveyance, 
British sculpture has been seen very inadequately on 
the Continent of Europe, and American sculpture still 
less. Paris is the only city which has had decent oppor 
tunities of making an acquaintance with British and 


American sculptors. Rome, Venice, Munich, Vienna 
and Barcelona know something, but not much* Even 
the Venice International exhibitions, which began in 
1895, had no British sculpture until 1901, and then only 
a medal by George Frampton* In 1903, however, there 
was a bust by Frampton of Alfred East, and by 1905 a 
spurt had been made to the extent of including ten 
bronzes and one plaster cast, These included works by 
Gilbert Bayes, Frampton, Furse, Goscombe John, 
Hamo Thornycroft, and Derwent Wood, In the next 
exhibition, however, the English works were reduced 
to three, but in 1909 the British sculptors included 
were, besides Frampton and Derwent Wood, Drury* 
Pomeroy, and Poole* In varying numbers the following 
exhibitions served to inform the Continent of something 
that was being done, but even as late as 1914 there 
were less than a dozen British works, but three of them, 
by Derwent Wood and Pomeroy, were in marble. It is 
to be hoped that a better state of things will be estab 
lished if, and when, a development of International Art 
Exhibitions takes place, when difficulties of transport 
have been lessened, and that not only British, but 
American sculpture will have the opportunity of 
proving to Europe the status they have both acquired* 
For the Venice exhibitions have never kcked sculp 
ture from the other continental nations* As far back 
as the beginning of the century, Hungary was repre 
sented by five sculptors ; Belgium by half a dozen 
and France by the same number ; Spain and Germany 
were also represented. In 1914 the number of sculptors 
had grown very greatly and new nations had come in : 
Norway with Lars Utne and Ingebrigt Vik ; Poland 



with Luis de Puget, Xavery Dunikowski and Henri 
Hochmann ; and Hungary with Filippo Beck, Eugenic 
Bory, Giuseppe Damko, Giovanni Istok, B61a Markup, 
and G&za Rubletzky. Holland was represented by J. 
C. Altorf, Toon Dupuis, and J. Mendes da Costa ; 
Belgium by Georges Minne, Egide Rombaux and 
Victor Rousseau ; France by Bourdelle ; Germany 
by Franz Bernauer, Hans Adolf Buhler, Arthur Lewin- 
Funcke, Ludwig Manzel, Paul Oesten ; and Russia 
by lUa Gunzbourg. 

If it is a pity that English sculpture is not exhibited 
abroad, it is no less so that work from Paris and 
Brussels, Venice, Naples and Rome, Stockholm, Chris- 
tiania and Copenhagen, Madrid and Barcelona is not seen 
to any great extent in England and New York. London 
is very far behind in securing modern representative 
works from the Continent- Brighton has done a good 
deal in having exhibitions of the art of Spain, Belgium, 
Holland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Serbia ; 
and the director, Mr. Henry D. Roberts, and his far- 
seeing committee, are to be congratulated on including 
sculpture, yet something on a large scale remains to be 
done in England, while in the United States it is de 
plorable that out of 386 works of art at the 1920 In 
ternational Exhibition of the Carnegie Institute at 
Pitteburg, only thirteen of them were sculpture, and 
those all by one artist, and he not living Rodin. How 
much might the American art-loving public, and the 
art of sculpture benefit if proper representation were 
made at this important and world-known exhibition. 
The way has been shewn at the Panama International 
Exposition, where some attempt was made to deal 


with sculpture, but much more is urgently needed, 
and might so easily be accomplished. It would seem 
almost that at Pittsburg that part of the Mosaic law 
which forbids graven images was being adhered to 
except in the case of Rodin, and such a reading is un 
necessarily hard on the sculptors, and on those who 
care for the art and desire a wider and deeper know 
ledge of it. Some progress has been made in the better 
representation of sculpture by the formation of sculp 
tors' societies, and in this direction even the hierarcha 
have lent their aid, although with mixed motives, but the 
mere fact that they have so unbent is in itself a hopeful 

The Society of British Sculptors was virtually estab 
lished at a meeting at the Royal Institute of Painters, 
in Piccadilly, on January nth, 1904, and its avowed 
objects were the advancement of sculpture and its 
better presentation to the public. A preliminary com 
mittee, consisting of George Frampton, chairman, and 
T. Stirling Lee, W. S. Frith, W. Reynolds-Stephens, 
D. McGill, F. Derwent Wood, and F, Lynn- Jenkins, 
had already made its report on the advisability of estab 
lishing such a society. Thomas Brock took the chair at 
the general meeting, Sir Charles Lawes-Wittewronge 
was made treasurer, and F* Lynn-Jenkins, honorary 
secretary, and the membership Hst, including Acad 
emicians, members of the International Society of 
Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, and men outside any 
organisation, indicated the universal character of the 
scheme. On July ist, 1919, an ordinary general meeting 
of the society was held, at which the fourteenth aaatial 
report was read, from which it appeared that Sir Thomas 



Brock was President and Treasurer, W, Reynolds- 
Stephens, Vice-President, and the council included at 
least two of the original committee-men and nine 
others, and about a hundred members. The war inter 
fered very considerably with the activities of the 
society, but these are to be revived in the near future, 
and the original aims of the founders promulgated 
afresh. There is plenty of work for the society to do. 
London is starved for sculpture, and the society should 
do its best to feed starving London. It is not enough 
to give it a few statuettes at long intervals ; London 
must have the bread of life as well, and plentifully, and 
the society should provide exhibitions of sculpture in 
all its forms and in plenty up and down a hungry land. 
The expense would be money well spent ; funds use 
fully invested, to put the matter on no higher plane. 
At the beginning of 1921 a reunion of the Society was 
held in London at a dinner, at which the new presi 
dent, Robert W. Colton, called on all sculptors to sup 
port the Society, 

The other body in Great Britain, which set out to 
foster sculpture and at first carried out its aim, is the 
International Society of Sculptors, Painters and 
Gravers, Rodin was once its President, and Bourdelle 
and Maillol exhibited at its shows with their com 
patriots ; Italy and Belgium and the Scandinavian 
nations have been represented, but the society has 
fallen from its high estate. A sporadic appearance of 
sculpture has been made, but so badly seen as to be 
abortive. For several years no representative show has 
been held, not even a representative corridor show of 
small pieces by the younger sculptors ! Now the society 


is somewhat disorganised, and it does not fulfil its 
international functions, particularly with regard to the 
art which is set in the forefront of its redundant 
title, but in this respect fails even more pointedly in 
regard to British art. 

The National Portrait Society, which, although not 
ostensibly committed to sculpture, should obviously 
serve the art, but it struggles along with a few isolated 
pieces from time to time, and allows the Academy to 
absorb all the statues, live busts and portrait reliefs that 
are being produced in London so freely and so welL 
There are at least two other portrait societies at which 
portraits in marble and bronze are as rare as snakes in 
Iceland, and the whole thing is reduced to an absurd 
ity. The art of sculpture is adversely criticised ; the 
Academy is invariably condemned, and yet the art 
flourishes only at the Academy, and the Academy is 
the only body which takes the trouble to foster it, even 
to the extent, in 1920, of providing beautiful tapestries 
for its environment ! Outside the Academy, the Acad 
emies of Scotland, Wales and Ireland and some of the 
larger provincial municipal galleries, the exhibition of 
sculpture on a large scale is impossible. Even the Royal 
Society of British Sculptors contents itself with the 
small private galleries of the Fine Art Society in Bond 
Street, when it should have the largest and best in 
London. The conditions that make this impossibility 
are very simple : the Grafton Galleries, the Galleries 
of the Royal Institute in Piccadilly the best in 
London for the purpose not to mention others of 
less importance, may be used for the exhibition of 
pktures, and an isolated piece of small sculpture^ but 



no further can they go because they have to be hired 
out for nightly dances, balls and conversaziones, and 
at these functions sculpture would be in the way, and 
awkward to move out of the way ; would, in fact, be 
a nuisance ! There are no words available with which 
to frame a suitable comment on this unhappy state of 

In the United States the National Sculpture Society 
fulfils a similar function , and it ante-dates by some ten 
years its British brother. Its expressed object is " to 
spread the knowledge of good sculpture, to foster the 
taste for the best and encourage the production of the 
finest examples for the home, and as decorations on or 
in buildings, squares and parks and other suitable 
places ; in fact, to raise the standard of sculpture in 
all its branches/' The honorary president is Daniel C. 
French, and deceased members include Saint Gaudens, 
J. Q. A.Ward, and Bela L. Pratt. Most of the prominent 
sculptors of America, to the number of a hundred and 
twenty, are members, and the Society admits lay mem 
bers who are in sympathy with its object, and who work 
to bring it about. This is a real, practical method of 
spreading a taste for sculpture, and might very well be 
adopted in England and adapted to the existing con 
ditions* The main thing is to popularise sculpture ; 
to talk about it ; to look at it ; to demand it wherever 
it should be and is not. Half the joy of art is lost 
because sculpture is not sufficiently understood and 
appreciated, and sculptors could do a great deal more 
themselves to foster this popularity for their splendid 
art. The isolation of the artist will be a thing of the 
past in a hundred years* time, and there is no reason 


why the sculptor of to-day should refrain from what his 
descendants will have to undertake, 

In Holland there is a similar society to the Royal 
British Sculptors, the Nederland Kring van Beeld- 
houwers, with headquarters at Haarlem, and of which 
Theo Van Reijn is the honorary secretary. This society 
consists of the younger sculptors and the rebels. Sup 
plementing this, but not devoting itself particularly to 
sculpture, is the Nederland in den Vreemde, the special 
function of which is to make Holland and Dutch art 
better known abroad, and the exhibitions of paintings 
and sculpture held at Brighton in 1920, and at White- 
chapel, in London, in 1921, were under its auspices, 

Paris is, of course, full of sculptors' coteries, and the 
various Salons provide ample scope for the exhibition 
of sculpture and the development of its appreciation. 
In Brussels, too, the Spring and Autumn Salons of the 
Soci6t6 Royale des Beaux-Arts pay great attention to 
contemporary sculpture, and in Spain, especially at 
Barcelona, foreign sculpture is honoured as it is not 
often honoured in other countries. 

In Denmark there is a New Sculptors' Society, which 
includes the accepted masters as well as the younger 
men, and Max Meden is the honorary secretary* It is 
known as Billedhuggerforeningen, and it strives to 
make sculpture better known and understood, which 
is a finer plan than forming a society for the purpose 
of getting sculpture paid for at regulation prices. No 
price is too high for works of art, but no price should 
be fixed for works of art by a trades union, nor should 
a body of artists ever aspire to make themselves into a 
close corporation for any purpose whatsoever, Heaven 



knows, freedom is disappearing fast enough, let us 
pray that art, at any rate, will remain free for some 
time longer. A larger knowledge of what is being done 
in sculpture the world over is very desirable, and a 
rapprochement of sculptors will help still further. In 
London, at the galleries of the Royal Academy of Arts, 
at Burlington House, in 1921, a good beginning was 
made in this direction (one of the best post-war signs 
I have noticed) in the Exhibition of Spanish Art. There 
were nearly fifty pieces of sculpture in marble and 
bronze by modern Spanish sculptors included, and it 
is to be hoped that future years will be marked by 
> similar national exhibitions. The whole world of art 
; needs concentration in these disintegrating days, and 
) the various sculptors' societies I have mentioned might 
^ well unite for certain international functions which 
would result in great advantages to the art ; inter 
national competition could not possibly fail to be of 

A valuable consolidating influence making for right 
eousness is the presence in Rome of the various national 
Schools of America, Great Britain, France, Spain, and 
other countries. In these the travelling artist and travel 
ling student of art finds a resting-place where he can 
, pause in his acquisition of knowledge and survey the 
ground, or in some of them continue his practical 
studies. So far as Great Britain is concerned, there are 
two institutions, the British Academy of Arts, the 
Director of which is Professor Antonio Sciortino, the 
sculptor, this being a teaching school primarily, but 
available also for purposes of research. The honorary 
secretary is Mr. E Carnana Dingli, who is always 



ready to further the interests of art in any direction, 
but especially of British and Italian art the Academy's 
home is the Palazzo Patrizi at 533 Via Margutta. The 
other institution is the British School in the Valle 
Giulia, the care of which is undertaken by the Royal 
Commission for the Exhibition in London of 1851. 
There are five faculties in the School : Archaeology ; 
History and Letters ; Architecture ; Painting ; En 
graving ; and Sculpture, and the last consists -for 
1921 of Sir Thomas Brock, Sir George Frampton, 
Sir William Goscombe John, Sir William Hamo 
Thornycroft, Mr. Fred. W. Pomeroy and Sir 
Bertram Mackennal, all of the Royal Academy, Pro 
fessor J. Havard Thomas of the Slade School, and Mr, 
C. S. Jagger and Mr. Gilbert Ledward, representing 
the young men of the new generation of British Sculp 
tors. The British School administers the Rome Scholar 
ships, which are awarded annually. Similar work is 
done by the Rome schools of the other nations, and the 
value of all this is very great, particularly in spreading 
a knowledge of international sculpture and the other 
arts, and in establishing and maintaining a standard 
which can be applied when the art student or the 
traveller returns home when his wander-years are 

After all is said, I am afraid it will be many years 
before the streets and squares of the great cities of the 
world will contain modern sculpture of other countries. 
It is true that Bruce-Joy's King Edward VII is in the 
English Chamber of Commerce at Paris, that Bartlett*s 
Lafayette is in the Place du Carrousel, that Barnard *s 
Abraham Lincoln is at Manchester, and the Abraham 



Lincoln of Saint Gaudens in London, not many yards 
from Rodin's Burghers of Calais ; that Derwent Wood's 
William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, is in Washington, but 
these examples and the few more that could be added, 
some of which I have mentioned incidentally, make a 
meagre list. What a splendid effect all the governments 
could make if they set out to remedy this blot on the 
artistic reputations of the various nations, and what, a 
rich source of friendliness between them could be thus 
achieved ! It is not enough that the museums of the 
world shall be stocked with international sculpture, for 
there are millions of common people who never go into 
museums, but who frequent the streets and squares and 
public places of the cities. The Republics of South 
America seem to realise this, and commission foreign 
works for their open spaces. 

Even the museums, however, are not so stocked 
with sculpture : Brighton possesses the Bogey by 
Egide Rombaux, representing the modern Belgian 
school, and carved wood figures by Axel Pettersen of 
Sweden ; London has its Rodin collection at South 
Kensington, but that is the only really serious item* In 
the Luxembourg there are but three English and three 
American pieces of sculpture to the thirty-three pictures 
in both cases ; and while there are a dozen Belgian 
and half a dozen Italian examples of sculpture and 
three from Germany, there are but two Spanish works, 
in spite of the near frontier and in spite of the fact that 
Paris is the training school of so many Spanish 
sculptors, and the home of quite a number. It says much 
for Spanish mentality in these matters, that already at 
Barcelona and elsewhere, purchases of English and 


other foreign sculpture have been made for the museums. 
The Spanish outlook is a liberal one, and there is no 
doubt that, speaking generally, the presentation of 
sculpture on the Continent of Europe is on better 
lines than are to be found elsewhere. 



facing p. 16 



fin. i tig p* 17 



SPANISH sculpture did not exist at the be 
ginning of the nineteenth century, and it was 
due to the efforts made at Barcelona by Pro 
fessor Andres Aleu at the Academy of the Fine Arts, 
there, that the Catalan school arose and seemed likely 
to dominate the art in Spain. The two chief sculptors 
of the earlier years were Manuel Orms, and Antonio 
Fabr6s, who was also a painter, and these men did so 
well that others emulated them, and then surpassed 
them. Valencia produced Augustin Querol and Mariano 
Benlliure, and the modern school of Spanish sculpture 
was formed. Before the end of the century it was a 
living force in European art, and during the first two 
decades of the twentieth, it has challenged all other 

In Spain, Jos6 Clara is hailed as the successor to 
Rodin and is regarded as the greatest sculptor that 
Spain has ever produced. A survey of his works goes a 
long way to proving both contentions, and when his 
age is taken into consideration he is only forty-two 
it seems likely that a comparison with the great French 
master may be permissible. Clara, however, has absorbed 
all modern ideas on sculpture, and amalgamated 
them with those of the grandeur of classical work, and 
the work of the Renaissance, Phidias and Michelangelo 
are his teachers, as well as Rodin, and he has learnt 

17 c 


from his contemporaries, or has drunk at the same 
source of the stream which is vitalising their work. He 
is, however, teaching his brother artists on the Con 
tinent much more than he can ever learn from them, 
On all hands you can see in the work of the younger 
men at the Salons, and at the International Exhibitions, 
not only Clara's influence, but direct imitations of his 
style. His sculpture has been seen in Paris extensively, 
and it is now exhibited in the principal museums. His 
bronze figurine Crepuscule has been in the Luxem 
bourg for some years, and he is represented in the 
Royal Museum at Madrid by a beautiful head of a girl 
in marble. 

Jos6 Clara was born in 1878 at Olot, in Catalonia, 
and at the age of nineteen went to France to study in 
the art school at Toulouse, where he first began to 
model. After three years he went to Paris and made 
portraits in pastel at first, and then became an assistant 
in Rodin's studio, to achieve later, discipleshifx Early 
work of a decorative character was done for the Casino 
at Monte Carlo, but Clara is not a decorative artist, 
he is a realist like his master. He exhibited at the Salon, 
and his statue Torment, acquired for the Museum at 
Barcelona, was warmly praised by Bourdelte* In 1909 
he exhibited the Goddess, the statue in the collection 
of the Marquess de Bermejillo del Rey* This is a fine 
nude study of a woman sitting on her left leg, the right 
foot and the tips of the fingers of the right hand touch 
ing the base ; her left elbow pressing upon her left 
knee, and the hand supporting the chin, rests on the 
left shoulder, slightly tilting the face upwards. It is 
splendidly modelled, and already shews its sculptor's 


knowledge and command of technique. This year, too, 
his Enigma was seen at the Salon of the Soci6t6 
Nationale des Beaux- Arts, and earned for him the mem 
bership of that body, his other exhibits being a bronze 
statuette of a young girl, the head of a woman in bronze 
and marble, and a marble portrait bust of Mme. Con- 
chita Alvarez. In 1910 he was awarded medals at the 
International Exhibitions of Brussels and Madrid ; a 
gold medal in 1911, and in 1912 the first award for 
sculpture at the International at Amsterdam, and a 
medal at Santiago. 

Clara's work is varied, and perhaps equally divided 
between the ideal and the real : the putting forth of 
ideas in the form of statues, statuettes and groups and 
the making of portrait busts from life. It is almost all 
in the round ; he has paid very little attention to relief, 
and only in Serenity has he allowed the practice of 
Rodin, of leaving a large mass of unsculptured marble 
as part of the design, to obtrude. In this work the 
marble is shaped as a seat, and the surface worked 
upon, and the matrix is not made use of. The work is 
of colossal size, and was first exhibited in the open 
space in the Champs Elyses in front of the Grand 
Palais, where it stood with an architectural background, 
which was suitable to its design. The occasion was the 
Autumn Salon of 1919. Serenity is a draped statue : 
it is a full-length seated figure of full proportions, 
which the drapery is not too heavy to display. The 
figure-modelling is therefore visible, and, as is the case 
in other statues, is very accomplished. The arms are 
uncovered and thrown over the back of the marble 
seat with a gesture of complete composure and rest, 



but the head is less indicative of the subject than the 
rest of the statue. 

Other draped, or partially draped, studies shewing 
Clara's continuing love for the antique, are Pubertad, 
and Desnudo, both draped from the middle, and El 
Ritmo, in the Museum of Barcelona, a group of two 
female figures, the drapery very lightly clinging to the 
modelled forms beneath, and the work shewing in 
fluences, both of the Greek and of Rodin's method, in 
a striking concatenation. Another is the Danzarini, 
also in the Luxembourg, a quaint bending figure of a 
young girl, the torso nude, and draperies held above 
the head and descending in long folds about the legs ; 
and another, but of quite a different class, is Temira, 
a mother and child of the peasant class, the woman 
fully clothed, in sandals, the baby naked. 

The nude statues include Adolescencia, a charming 
standing figure, with one slightly bent knee giving a 
characteristic pose, the hands behind the head ; Rest, 
a seated girl with her left leg bent and her left arm 
resting upon it, with the hand to the chin, and Con 
templation, a strange extended figure of a woman 
holding back her hair and looking upwards, symbolic 
and quite modern in treatment, one of the rare reliefs 
of its author. The remaining nudes are the important 
recent works, Divinity, a pagan conception : a seated 
figure of a woman leaning to the side upon her right 
hand, her left arm, bent on her right knee, and support* 
ing the head, which is bent downwards, the face wear 
ing a slight smile, the hair dressed in a modem way 
and the whole figure realistically modelled, and 
Twilight, a heavy woman >s figure, seated, the right foot 


withdrawn to the side, the figure leaning back, the 
hands reflexed and hanging at her sides, the torso 
thrust forward. This work is in the Santiago museum, 
Chili* Clara's studies from the nude are more often of 
women than of men, but in El Trabajo, he has used 
all his knowledge, and put forth all his skill in model 
ling, and produced a memorable piece of statuary. The 
figure is seated, and the back view is a study for the 
anatomist : the surface reveals all the intricate beauty 
of bone and muscle and sinew and nerve beneath, and 
quivers with the life of the subject. The view from the 
left side is a picture of complete manhood, the slightly 
turning, firmly poised head, the twisting of the muscles 
of the torso, the raised and bent right leg and the ex 
tended arms, again a study in anatomy. I think Clara 
must have intended this work as a tour de force in the 
art of modelling, and his intention has succeeded. 

The remaining works are the busts : an interesting 
series which divides itself into two, the classic and the 
modern ; this division by way of treatment only. There 
are three studies in the Catalan studios at Barcelona 
in the classic style, Raimundo Lulio, Luis Vives, and 
Francisco Xim6nez, and other works of the same class 
are a mask of Hercules, Mancebo in the museum at 
Barcelona, La Voluntad, all male subjects, and still 
Greek in character, the female El Alba in the collection 
of the Viscount de Raucougne, Enigma, and Baco* 
Most of the portraits in the modern manner are of 
women and children, and in marble. There is Juventud 
and Sonia, delightful heads, with laughing faces, Vida 
Interna and several others not named, and almost 
equally beautiful There is also the strange Esfinge, 



and a fine head emerging from a square block of marble 
in the Circulo Ecucstrc at Barcelona, and the Erato, 
treated similarly, in the possession of 

The whole works of Jose Clara form a very import 
ant contribution to the art of sculpture, and in them 
selves are a remarkable achievement for so short a 
period as twenty years, five of which have been dis 
turbed by war. He has been decorated by the French 
Government he has lived nearly the whole of his 
artistic life in Paris as an Officer in the Legion of 
Honour. His work is almost always seen in Paris first': 
at the Salon of the 8oci6t6 Nationale in 1920 he ex 
hibited a beautiful head of a woman. In Spain he 
exhibits at the Exposicion Nacional at Madrid, and in 
1920, Serenity, in marble, Divinity, in plaster, and El 
Trabajo, which is part of a projected monument, were 
seen. His latest work is a great figure for the Park in 
Madrid, He was represented at the Spanish Exhibition 
In London in 1921 by Youth, in marble, Green Fruit, 
In bronze, and La Danseuse, At this exhibition there 
were forty fine pieces of sculpture in marble and 
bronze, most of them of small dimensions and these 
were practically unnoticed by the British Press, so 
little does sculpture interest the people of the British 
Isles, or, to put it in another way, so little is their atten 
tion drawn to it* It is a vain excuse for the art critics to 
say British sculpture is negligible* as is proved by the 
fact that sculpture of any nation exhibited in London 
passes almost unnoticed* 

Josep Llimona is a man of the 'sixties, who was 
studying in Rome In 1882, and is one of the foremost 


sculptors of Barcelona. He began to exhibit on his 
return from Italy, and at the Universal Exhibition 
of 1888 he was awarded the first medal, and he 
secured the premier prize at the International of 
1907 with the principal details of his Monument 
to Dr. Robert, the most important of which is a 
colossal nude male statue. Another important monu 
mental work is the equestrian statue of Sant Jordi 
triumphant at the Catalan Library, a patriotic work 
greatly admired in the province. His Communion 
two girls taking the sacrament and Love and the 
Children, a group of a woman and three girls, are real 
istic works, in which the figures wear ordinary costumes 
of the day. Two nude studies in marble are a kneeling 
woman with hands clasped beneath her chin, and a 
standing figure against a pillar of matrix marble, half- 
turned to it, but the line of the body helped by a long 
piece of flowing drapery from the left shoulder and 
covering the right foot. Llimona has made some fine 
portrait busts of men and women, in marble and 
bronze, and he is an admirable draughtsman. His 
Interment of Christ is at Vilafranca del Penades, and 
another Christ at Montserrat, and he has also works 
at Comilles, Madrid, Montevideo, and Buenos Aires, 

A student of Greek sculpture, of the work of Meunier 
and of that of Rosso, Enric Casanovas is one of the 
most interesting of the Catalan sculptors. He was born 
at Barcelona in 1882, apprenticed at fourteen to Josep 
Llimona, and at once adopted the creed of realism. 
Three years later he commenced his studies in Paris, 
and in 1900 first began to exhibit in Barcelona and the 
salon of the Champ de Mars. He not only visited the 



chief art centres of France, but travelled to Brussels 
and Antwerp to study the Belgian school of sculpture. 
In 1904 he returned to his native city and exhibited at 
the International Exhibition there. In 1912 he made a 
protracted visit to London in order to indulge in a 
thorough study of the Greek sculpture at the British 
Museum, and this undoubtedly influenced Casanovas 
as no other previously had done. 

He returned to Barcelona the year after, and, 
equipped by his studies, began to work also upon the 
Catalan type he found in his own province. His work, 
therefore, has a wide range, and displays different 
periods of influence, The earliest distinctly impres 
sionistic piece is The Street Boy, in terra-cotta, of 
1907, but it exhibits impressionism modified by the 
realism of Constantiri Meunier. This was exhibited 
at the Soci6t6 Nationale, and in the same year Casan 
ovas began to shew at the Salon d'Automne, of which 
later he became an associate. His most realistic works 
are the Eve, which exhibits a far more reasonable 
presentment of the subject than is the case with most 
artists, and later, some of the portrait busts which are 
admirable, such as those of unnamed boys and girls, 
and that of Dr. J. B.; other busts there are, conceived, 
however, in the neo-classical style Eros* Dona de 
Fornalutx, Dona de Deysl, in stone, and Iris and others 
in bronze. 

Of the pieces shewing the influence of Rosso *$ theo 
ries, but modified very largely by other considerations, 
is the Love and the Young Woman, a marble relief, 
made in 1910, and now to be seen in the Municipal 
Buildings at Barcelona, and the relief in stone, which 



facing p. 24 


is the first work upon which the sculptor commenced 
his direct carving, called The Dance. In the round, in 
the same manner and of about the same period, is the 
fine work, in marble, of The Woman with the Veil. 
The Girl with the Roses, of 1912, is another example 
in marble, and in stone there is a female nude. The 
most thorough-going acceptance of Rosso, however, 
is to be found in a marble relief of a crouching woman 
against the rough matrix, depending entirely for its 
virtue on the manipulation of its light and shade. 

Casanovas has made a number of monuments, in 
cluding that to Dr. Benajres, of 1913, and that to 
Monturiol, the inventor, a marble relief at Figueras, of 
the year after. To 1915 belongs the beautiful Pomona 
statue in marble, in the garden of Mr. Barris at Barce 
lona, and there is another statue, in marble, of 1918, 
of a Draped Woman, in the house of Mr. Plandiura, 
of the same city, and still another in stone made for a 
garden. These are all strongly reminiscent of the author's 
study of the Greek, as are the busts I have mentioned, 
but modified so far as the faces are concerned by the 
Catalan type, this latter being seen in the bronze statu 
ette of a Woman holding a Water Vessel. Realistic, 
too, are the two nude female figures of the bronze relief 
of The Bath, and another nude is the Young Girl in 
stone, in the Barcelona Museum, where is also a Head 
of a Woman in bronze. One of his most recent works 
is a fountain, with three female figures, in the Spring 
Salon at Barcelona in 1921, Casanovas is a good 
draughtsman, and some of his studies are reproduced 
in the brochure upon his work by Josep Pla, published 
by La Revista, at Barcelona. 



The Catalan sculptors of the younger generation 
have been very much impressed by the varied works 
of the interesting French artist-eniftsman, Aristide 
Maillol, painter, sculptor, dyer, and none more so than 
Manolo Hugue, who was born in 1875 in Cuba. His 
parents were Catalans, and when the boy was quite a 
child they returned to their native land. His artistic 
aptitude shewed itself early, both in water-colour 
painting and in sculpture, and he continued his studies 
in Paris until he joined the coterie at Ccrct, which was 
associated with MailloL Consequently, he takes for his 
subjects herdsmen and their flocks and other people 
who are rough and crude and work with their hands, 
making studies largely relief of them* His art is 
classic, but by no means academic ; it exhibits a 
relationship with Egyptian and Archaic Greek, and it 
is entirely devoid of prettiness or elegance. It is to be 
seen at Munich and Brussels, and a characteristic ex 
ample of it is the portrait of Joaquin Sunyer, himself 
a painter as well as sculptor, as is the custom with the 
followers of MailloL In fact, a coalition of all the arts 
is aimed at by these men. 

Thoroughly imbued with the feverish artistic activ 
ity of the intelligentsia of Catalonia, Josep Monegal 
is typical of it. He was born only thirty years ago at 
Barcelona, and at first studied music, literature, and 
philosophy. Painting succeeded, and it was discovered 
that he was a draughtsman* He produced large works, 
but they indicated that colour was not their author's 
true medium. Sculpture succeeded and the neo-classic 
style gained MonegaFs adherence. His most important 
work is a Fountain lately inauguratedat thetown of Vails* 



The essence of the Catalan artistic aim is the spirit 
of the native people of the country and the impress of 
the beautiful Mediterranean sea. To completely render 
this, the most authentic artists of the school have 
sought to denude themselves of other influences. In 
Julio Antonio, whose work was seen in London, is an 
example of one who, however, suffered himself to be 
affected by what are regarded as alien claims : an 
eclectic, he selected widely. He was born at the village 
of Mora d'Ebro in Catalonia, not far from Tarragona, 
but was undoubtedly influenced by a stay in Castille, 
where not only the life, but the art and literature, were 
allowed to modify the Catalonian impress. Zuloaga, 
El Greco, the sculptors of the sixteenth century, a 
study of the Greek masters and of the Italian museums, 
Gothic and baroque, blurred the character of the real 
istic vision which was his birthright. He is therefore 
not a thoroughgoing member of the Catalan school, 
but he is an accomplished sculptor all the same. The 
Monument to the Martyrs of Tarragona shews the in 
fluence of El Greco and his busts, Rosa Maria and La 
Raza Avila de los Caballeros, the Florentine influence. 
He has produced many busts, anecdotic as well as 
from the life, the principal of which are the Woman of 
Castille, the Novice, The Mine, The Goatherd, and 
the Deaf Innkeeper. His La Raza is in the Madrid 
Museum, and in this he sums up the character of the 
Castilians effectively. Grief is another well-known 
work, with a literary flavour. 

Jean Pie was born at Vilabelle in the province of 
Tarragona. He exhibited at the Autumn Salon, Paris, 
1920, a figure of Maternity ; a relief Resignation, and 



two heads of men, all in plaster. Another sculptor 
from Tarragona is Soriano Montagut, who exhibited 
in London in 1921. 

Pau Gargallo is a craftsman in metal and a sculptor 
of elegance. His work is alive, as may be seen in his 
portrait studies mostly in lead of the Violinist and 
the Man of the Pipe, and his queer decorative heads 
and figures, such as La Toilette and Senorita. In Munich 
the crafts have evidenced a tendency to become indus 
trialised, debased, but although Munich is looked upon 
in Spain as an important art centre, this process has 
not been imitated, at any rate, by the Catalonian artists, 
and Gargallo 5 s metal work is always of a high character, 
and his repouss6 work for the album which the in 
tellectuals of Barcelona presented to Marshal Joffire, 
his fine bust of the actor, Iscle Soler, the grave statue 
of the painter Pidelaserra, and the head called Dona de 
Casp, indicate this. In none of them is there a trace of 
the " snobism " which has led the artists further East 
into degeneracy. Gargallo was born in 1881 at Maella, 
in the province of Saragossa, where he lived until he 
was seven, when his parents removed to Barcelona* 
He attended the School of Fine Arts at the Llotja, and 
gained a scholarship with which he went to Paris in 
1904, and he has maintained his connection there by 
exhibiting from time to time. He also exhibits at 
Barcelona, where he lives, and is the instructor in 
sculpture at the Technical School of Fine Arts and 
the Superior School of Fine Art of the community of 

Jos6 Cardona and Jos6 Montserrat are Catalan sculp 
tors who were represented at the Spanish Exhibition 



in London, and the latter 5 s decorative detail for a foun 
tain was seen at Brighton. Joaquin Sunyer is a sculptor 
of portrait busts somewhat in the manner of Epstein ; 
less rough in their treatment than Maillol's studies, 
forcible and interesting. 

The Barcelona sculptors include Jose Dunach, who 
was born there in 1886, and went to Paris at the age of 
eighteen, and has remained there, exhibiting regularly 
at the Salons. In the Autumn Salon of 1919 he shewed 
his Catalan Woman with a Pitcher, at the Societ6 
Nationale, in 1920, a Head of a Spaniard, and a Nude, 
which attracted attention. The Catalan woman is a 
figure in costume, very simply posed and characteristic ; 
the Nude is a vivacious naturalistic study from the 
life, the figure seated, the right leg drawn up and the 
right elbow resting on the knee. It is completely in the 
style of the young Spanish School of Sculpture in 
Paris, whose leader is Jos6 Clara. At the Autumn Salon, 
1920, Dimach exhibited a portrait bust in plaster. Other 
Barcelona sculptors exhibiting at theExposicionNacional 
at Madrid, in 1920, were Juan Borrell Nicolau, who 
displayed a head in marble and a work in bronze ; Jos6 
Cardona Turro, with two bronze busts, and Jos6 Perez- 
Pere#, who exhibited in marble a statue of Leda, and 
in black porphyry, a bust. 

Antonio Bofill was born in 1874, and attended the 
School of Fine Arts at Barcelona, where he was a pupil 
of Aleu, He achieved his first award at the Salon, Paris, 
in 1902. He exhibited an Arab Boy with Monkeys at 
Brighton in 1914. Alfonso Lopez is a native of Barce 
lona, and his birth-year is 1882. He did not commence 
his real study of sculpture until he was eighteen, carving 



by day and attending the Academy at night. He 
then went to Paris, and became the pupil of Raymond 
Sudre. He exhibited at the Salon, and the Barcelona 
Municipality then granted him a scholarship* His first 
work of importance to be seen in Madrid was a Breton 
subject, which obtained for him honourable mention 
and a further scholarship. This work was seen at 
Brighton in 1914. 

Henri Casanova-Roy, who is an exhibitor at the 
Soci<t6 Nationale, was born at Barcelona, but lives in 
Paris. Gustavo Obiols was born and educated in art at 
Barcelona, but his activities are mostly confined to Paris, 
and he is the secretary of the Society of Spanish Artists 
there. At the Universal Exhibition he was awarded a 
bronze medal, and a silver one at the Exhibition at le 
Mans, as well as at Madrid and Amiens Arts Exhibi 
tions. A plaster bas-relief called Vision, was shewn at 
Brighton. Ismael Smith was born at Barcelona in 1886, 
and is a painter in water-colour as well as a sculptor, 
He gained a medal offered by the municipality in 1904, 
and two in 1907, at the International Exhibition, and 
again in 1911. He also exhibited successfully at Brussels 
in 1911, and is a constant exhibitor at the Salons of 
the Societe des Artistes Pran^ais, the 8oci6t6 Nationale, 
and the Autumn Salon* At Brighton were half-a- 
dozen of his water-colours and the same number of 
pieces of sculpture, including a bronze Dancer, one 
with castanets, and one with a Rose, in plaster, and two 
nudes in terra-cotta and plaster, Miguel and Luciano 
Osl< are brothers of Barcelona, who work together, 
and they exhibited at Madrid in 1920, a marble por 
trait bust. 



In 1918, Miquel Blay completed, at Madrid, his 
great monument to Josep Pere Varela, for Monte 
video. The Uruguayans appreciate sculpture, and 
commission works by foreign artists, as well as pro 
duce their own sculptors. This monument by Blay 
is an elaborate work, with many figures realistically 
treated in modern costume, including that of the sub 
ject of the memorial in a buttoned-up frock coat. Ad 
juncts to it, however, receive a different treatment, 
the marble allegorical figures of Education and Law, 
with the insignia of these professions, being classically 
draped, as is also the marble group of Triumph, in 
cluding a fine woman's figure of Success, preceding a 
nude male who carries a great flag of Glory. The 
figures centre around a central obelisk of worked stones 
and are well grouped and well associated with regard 
to the admixture of the real and the classical. 

The Spanish sculptors mostly centre themselves in 
Barcelona and Madrid, unless they go to Paris and 
make their homes and studios there, sending their 
works to Spain when they are able or so inclined. An 
interesting Madrid artist is Juan Jos6 Garcia, who, in 
1920, held an Exhibition of ninety of his works in 
metal, portraits in bronze, medals, plaques, ornamental 
metal work, repouss6 dishes and caskets : two prin 
cipal works were a striking bronze relief of Christ, and 
a bronze statuette of Liberty. Juan Jos6 is quite young, 
having been born only in 1893. Gregorio Domingo was 
also born in Madrid, and became a pupil of Benlliure. 
He exhibited a bronze head of a man, which was well 
modelled, at Brighton in 1914. 

The Madrid sculptors are numerous, and among 



those exhibiting in 1920 were Mariano Barroso Salz, 
with two works ; Jos6 Espinos Gisbert, the medallist ; 
Roberto Fernandez Balbucna ; Alfredo de Pablos ; 
Angel Garcia Diaz, two works in marble ; Oscar Massa, 
a portrait ; Jose Martinez Solaz ; Carlos Mingo, a 
nude in stone ; Miguel Ramos Santamaria, a statue in 
plaster ; Rafael Vela del Castello, a male torso in plas 
ter, and a bronze bust of Ignacio Veloso. 

At the Spanish Exhibition in Ixmdon, to which I 
have referred, Ricardo Colet, Ignacio Veloso and Luis 
Perinat, and Elena Sorolla y Garcia and Eva Vazquez 
Diaz contributed, the latter artist having exhibited at 

Angel Ferrant Vasquez is a Madrid artist who gained 
his first medal at the Exposition Nacional in 1910, and 
exhibited at Brighton bronzes called The Hill of Life 
and The Man with the Monkey. He works in the style 
of Constantin Meunier. Luis de Perinat y 'Ferry was a 
pupil of Benlliure, and he has exhibited at Madrid, 
Saragossa, Brussels, and Buenos Aire$> where he has 
received awards. At the Madrid Exposition National, 
in 1920, he shewed a bronze figurine, Angel de la 
Paloma, and at the Salon de$ Artistes Franyais the same 
year he was represented by Aurora, in marble and 
bronze, and at Brighton he exhibited a bronze statuette, 

Like his great colleague, Benlliure, Mateo Inurria 
lives and works in Madrid, and is associated with the 
school of that city, a school which vies with the Catalan 
school in its efforts to produce distinctive modern 
sculpture, Inurria, the son of a sculptor, was born in 
1867. He is a native of Cordova, and was a student of 


facing p. 32 




the school of art there, and studied painting as well as 
sculpture in Madrid. He gained a medal in 1895 for a 
statue of Seneca, and in 1899 obtained the first medal 
for sculpture in the Exposition Nacional, for his high 
relief, The Coal Mine. The former work is now in the 
museum of the sculptor's native town, together with 
others of importance, and at Cordova, too, are the im 
portant monuments to Antonio Barrow, a stately seated 
figure in civic robes and chain, and El Gran Capitan, 
Gonzalo de Cordoba, in armour and riding a horse, 
forming a striking group. The Coal Mine is in the 
Museo Nacional, and in the Museum of Modern Art, 
also at Madrid, is the beautiful female torso known as 
Forma. This work, in 'rose marble, is a portion of La 
Parra, a figure of a standing woman with arms extended 
and bent over her head, the right hand holding a bunch 
of grapes, in black marble. These, and other examples, 
prove Inurria to be a fine master in the art of delicate 
and graceful modelling. Forma was seen in London in 
1921. At the 1920 Exposicion Nacional, he exhibited 
both these works, and in addition The Eternal Idol, 
also in black marble, and for this he was awarded the 
coveted Medal of Honour. He has chosen to represent 
his idea as a seated nude woman without head or arms, 
the torso extended by the legs and feet. The work is a 
triumph of technique, and in this aspect must be 
judged, for there can be no real symbolism in its trun 
cated form. The form, however, is very beautiful, and 
even more so than La Parra, the best part of which is, 
no doubt, the torso. It is interesting that this should 
be so, for Inurria's capabilities for the drawing of heads 
and the realising of character are never in doubt, as is 

33 D 


proved by his portrait-busts, and by the extraordinary 
bust called Gitana, in coloured, veined marble, with 
hair treated in a whimsical, decorative fashion. Here is 
character thoroughly accentuated in the beaked nose 
and the prominent eyes and mouth. 

In La Parra, however, there is great expression in 
the whole of the tall figure, an expression of pose, 
accentuated by the facial projection, the mask raised, 
the eyes closed. This, too, may be said of Deseo, another 
nude woman, standing upright, but in a slightly re 
laxed pose, the arms held behind the head, instead of 
above, the face turned a little to the side, and again the 
eyes are closed* The complete expression is that of 
wistful languor, and it is exquisitely rendered in white 
marble, with some slight veining. La Marina is the 
fine monument to Alfonso XII in Madrid, It is Inurria's 
most realistic work, and contains two large figures, the 
one of a young sailor, holding the topmast of a ship, to 
which is attached a decorated flag, and the other, stand 
ing by his side, an old fisherman with tiller and ropes 
companions of the sea, It is a striking memorial 
Inurria's latest work is the Monumental Tomb of 
Christ the Redeemer for Buenos Aires* 

A further group of sculptors is associated with 
Valencia, and this possesses the distinction of claiming 
as its own Spain's well-known sculptor, Mariano 
Benlliure y Gil, who was born there in 1863* When 
seventeen years of age he went to Rome : his studies 
were self-studies : he never acknowledged masters, 
except the great sculptors of the past. He was 
for a time the Director of the Spanish Academy at 
Rome, and he is a member of the Academies of Madrid 



and Paris. His small group in bronze. Primer tumbo, 
is in the Luxembourg, and his monument, Gayarre, 
was a feature of the 1889 Paris Universal Exhibition. 
In 1901, at the Venice International, he was repre 
sented by bronze works, Idyll, Music, and Unawakened, 
and in 1914 by bronzes, the First Victory, the Victim, 
and a portrait head. His works at the Spanish Ex 
hibition at Brighton in the same year, were a Child's 
Head in marble, and the bronze bull-fighting group 
called there the First Thrust. 

One of his earliest statues, of a child, is in the Fernan- 
Nunez collection at Madrid, and some early reliefs are 
in the mansion of Mr. Marquend, at Washington. He 
has made a large number of monuments and memorials, 
the earlier ones being of the painter Ribera ; Cardinal 
de Ribera at Valencia in the college de Ribera there ; 
the poet Trueba at Bilbao ; and General San Martin at 
Prou. His funeral monuments include the Sagasta 
tomb in the Basilica de Atocha, Madrid, where there 
Is also the Canalejas tomb ; the Duchesse de Denia y 
Tarifa in the Madrid cemetery, San Isidro ; and that 
of Dr. Lacaze of the Laboratory of Banyuls-sur-Mer. 
His Velasquez monument is at Buenos Aires, where 
there is also his Gitana, a bust, in the Spanish Club. 

Other busts of recent date are of Queen Victoria 
Eugenia, in the Royal Palace, Madrid ; of Francisco 
Goya y Lucienties ; of the painter Sorolla in the 
Hudigton collection, New York; of Dr. Santiago 
Ramon y Cajal, and of the Duke of Alba in the Alba 
Palace at Madrid, his latest portrait made in 191 9. The 
statue of the Princess Maria Cristina in the Royal 
Palace is dated 1914, The Shipwreck is in the museum 



at Cordova- At the Spanish Exhibition in London he 
was also represented by the Vine and the Eternal Idol, 
and by a Spanish Woman in marble. He is now the 
Director of the National Art Schools of Spain. 

To the school of Valencia belongs also Ignaclo Pinazo- 
Martinez, the brother of the painter, Jos6 Pinazo. He 
tries to express the real flavour of the province of 
which he is a native, a flavour homely and decorative, 
contrasting with the more austere Castilian character 
istics. From the Academy of Arts at Valencia he was 
awarded the Travelling Scholarship, and held it in 
Rome and Paris, and in 1915 he was awarded a silver 
medal at the National Exhibition in Madrid, to be 
followed by a similar award at the International at 
Saragossa. He was made a member of the Legion of 
Honour by France, and in 1921 he was in London as the 
Secretary of the Spanish Exhibition, where he ex 
hibited his Roseta, a bust in marble from the Madrid 
Exhibition of the previous year, and another marble 
bust was Pagania, claiming attention by the peculiarity 
of the dressing of the hair. From Madrid was also the 
marble group, Valencia, seen also in London, this 
work displaying his style in all its peculiarities of floral 
decoration, with vase and other accessories, little seen 
nowadays, and little used by his brother sculptors* 
The work is intended to enunciate the sunny character 
of Valencia, and consists of a figure in the nude of a 
woman leaning gracefully back against a partly-draped 
male figure, both of goodly proportions and graceful. 
In the Salon of 1920 he was represented by two silvered 
bronze busts of girls* 

Capuz was born in Valencia in 1885, and was a 



student at the School of Fine Arts there, and passed 
on by means of a scholarship to the Spanish Academy 
at Rome. He gained a medal in the Exposition Nacional 
in 1910, and the first medal in 1912. He belongs to the 
school of applied sculpture, and exhibited at Brighton 
a polychrome terra-cotta work, and two studies in 

Jos6 T6rencio Ferrer was born in Valencia, in 1887, 
where he first studied art, going on then to Barcelona, 
and subsequently to Paris. He exhibited at Brighton 
a marble work named Timidity, a delightful sitting 
nude girl, her face partly hidden by her left arm. 

Other sculptors of Valencia are Julio Vicente Men- 
gual, who, like Pinazo, was successful in obtaining a 
medal in the Annual Exposicion at Madrid in 1915, 
exhibited in 1920 a. seated nude female statue called 
Amanecer ; and Vincente Navarro, who exhibited in 
London in 1921 a marble bust of the Queen of Spain 
and a marble female torso. At this exhibition works 
were shewn by Joaquin Bilbao Martinez and Enrique 
Perez Comendador of Seville, Juan Cristobel of 
Granada, Quintin de Torre of Bilbao, and Pedro y 
Torre Isunza of Badajoz. 

Mateo Hern&ndez, who was born in 1889, at B6jar, 
is one of the modern school of sculptors who carve 
direct. His first important work was a Christ, life-size, 
carved in granite, in 1909. In the following year he 
produced the same subject in wood, and the year after, 
a Virign in wood, with polychrome decoration. Hern- 
Andez is also a painter, and, at the Autumn Salon, 1920, 
exhibited a painted portrait and two animal studies. 
At the Artistes Ind6pendants he exhibited two bas-reliefs 



of Lions in stone, and a statue, now the property 
of the Marquis de Casa Fuerte, and three painted 
portraits. A stone relief was seen at the Arts Decoratifs 
and at the Societ Nationale (of which he is an associe) 
a Vulture in black granite, a lioness in stone, and 
another painted portrait. At the Autumn Salon (of 
which he is a soci^taire) his sculpture included por 
traits in black and green granite, and a panther, a 
vulture, and a condor, all in black granite* 

Jose Ortells is a native of Villa Real, and gained 
medals at the Exposicion Nacional in 1910, 1915 and 
1917. He exhibited at Madrid in 1920, a bronze statue 
half draped, La Manzana, in the classical style, another 
bronze, and a portrait in marble. 

At this exhibition was shewn a nude statue by Fer 
nando Campo Sobrino, and a curious semi-nude with 
strange drawn draperies from left leg to shoulder was 
by Federico Mar&, who also exhibited a relief of 

A seated nude was by Carlos Mingo, A male nude was 
Juan Santamarina's Ugolino, a contorted but not very 
convincing study, and another was Juan Adsuara's 
John the Baptist, an original conception* Ignacio Lopez- 
Gomez, a native of Desa, exhibited two Heads, and 
Jeronimo Lopez-Salazar, of Ciudad Real, a bust, 

Jaime Otero exhibited half-a-dozen works at Brighton, 
including three plaster portrait busts ; a plaster statu* 
ette, Berenice ; a marble head, Virgo Venerando ; and 
the Infant Virgin, a plaster statuette. The portrait 
busts are characteristic studies from the life, and the 
one of Angela Beloff offers some accomplished natural 
istic modelling. Alma Dolores is only less good : these 



busts are finished at the neck in a decorative way by 
delicate lace work. 

A curious group of two figures in bronze kneeling 
side by side in a mutual embrace (and shewing an 
original idea) was by Inocencio Soriano, who also 
exhibited a bust in bronze of good character, and 
among other makers of busts of quality were Alfredo 
de Robledo, Jos6 Cardona, and Francesco Mora Alonso. 

Ernesto do Canto is a Portuguese sculptor born at 
Poula, Delgada, who exhibited at the Autumn Salon 
1920, reliefs of Portuguese types in plaster, with a 
patina, and a terra-cotta Virgin and Infant. 



FRENCH sculpture of the later part of the nine 
teenth century is one half tradition and the 
other half Rodin, who, having been born in 
1840, succeeded in giving it a new complexion, a new 
outlook and new principles, which almost dominated, 
but certainly affected, its whole body. French sculpture 
as indeed any sculpture of the period' would be a 
very different thing to-day if Rodin had never been* 
Allowing, however, for his great spirit, his luminous 
gaze on things and into the future ; allowing for his 
forceful personality and the multiplicity of his works ; 
allowing also for the value of the striking series of ex 
periments he made in the art, it must be remembered 
that behind him and beside him was the whole force of 
tradition which made the French school of sculpture 
what it then was, Rodin was certainly not in the tra 
dition ; his value does not lie there at all, but as an 
innovator, in the French school or in any other, he 
has never had an equal. He was a giant, but in the 
circumstances the fortunate circumstances he was 
not a giant among pigmies. Far from it : he was a giant 
among giants. Guillaume, Cain, Rude, Seurre were 
the masters when he was born and for long after ; 
Barye, Barrias, Paul Dubois, Carpeaux, Fr6miet, In- 
jalbert, Marqueste, Falgui&re, Dalou and Boucher 
were his contemporaries, and he had also to contend 



with Puech, Dampt, Despiau, Chapu, and Bartholome. 
A formidable array of the pontiffs of French sculpture 
against the iconoclast, who was, however, to secure 
the adhesion of some of the modern men, and to in 
fluence modern work more powerfully than any other 
artist had done. The only really comparable example 
in this respect was Constantin Meunier, for Medardo 
Rosso 's influence was less direct, and merged to a great 
extent with that of Rodin. The strength of the forces 
against Rodin's influence was great. It is hard enough 
to fight tradition at all, but when it is in the full flow 
of success ; when its new officers are not only as good, 
but better than the old, when the ancient entrench 
ments have been brought up to the requirements of 
the hour, the fight must needs be a severe one. In this 
case it was a drawn battle and we have the curious 
anomaly, almost to be called a paradox, of the old and 
the new, the orthodox and the anarchistic, existing 
in strength together, and, indeed, fortifying each other. 
For it cannot be said that the traditional French school 
has suffered from the attack : it has benefited by 
adopting and adapting the methods of the enemy, and 
not all the sapping and mining, insidious as it has been, 
has seriously debilitated the defences of the old army. 
The gardens, streets, squares, and cemeteries of 
Paris are full of sculpture, and ever becoming fuller. 
The provincial cities of France are yearly adding to 
their sculptural riches, but the honours are divided. 
There is the Balzac of Falguiere in the Avenue Fried- 
land, and that by Rodin in the garden of the Hotel 
Biron ; there is his Victor Hugo in the Palais Royal 
Gardens, and Alfred de Musset, by Merci6, in the 



Place du Theatre Francis. There is Dalou's Delacroix 
monument in the Luxembourg Gardens, and Land- 
owski's Edward VII in the Place EdouardVII ; Augier, 
by Barrias, at the Od&>n ; and Gavarni, by Denys 
Puech, in the Place St. Georges, It is a catholic selection 
waiting only to be made more so by the inclusion of 
works by Bourdelle, Maillol and Bernard. 

To the Paris statues, the fountains must be added, 
and the reliefs on the public buildings, and then you 
have a museum of modern sculpture, which cannot be 
equalled in the world, Paris is, of course, the history- 
book of the French school, and the museums form the 
commentary. In the Luxembourg you must study 
Falguiere's Vainqueur au combat de Coqs ; you must 
not miss his Juno, the Woman with the Peacock, a 
gallant piece, Heroic Poesie and Diana, or his statue 
of Charcot, the physician at the Hospice de la Sal- 
petriere. Injalbert's Hippom&ne is also at the Luxem 
bourg, and his La Coupe de Dieux, and Faune and 
Faunesse ; so also is Marqueste's Cupid* Galatea, 
Perseus and the Gorgon, and Woman and Eagle, and 
his Art is at the H6tel de Ville, and his statue of Barye 
at the Pont Sully ; Carpeaux and Fr&niet's splendid 
Fountain, with the globe held up by three beautiful 
female figures, and the great horses, is in the Luxem 
bourg Gardens. There is Chapu's tomb of Gustave 
Flaubert to be seen, his statue of Le Verrier at the 
Observatory ; Guillaume's Bernard the Physiologist, at 
the College de France ; Jeanne d'Are, by Paul Dubois, 
in the Place St. Augustin ; Mercies Melssonler at 
the Louvre ; and Seurre's Moli^re in the rue de 
Richelieu, Concentrating the essence of the best French 



sculpture of the period, the sculpture that is of the true 
traditional French school only modified by the ex 
igencies of time, and represented by a great master, is 
Dalou's Triumph of the Republic in the Place de la 
Nation, a monument into which is also concentrated 
the work of Dalou's own life. Here is true characteristic 
French decorative sculpture allied with architecture, 
a monument by the great modern and to the great 
masters who preceded him, for it is a summary of the 
distinctions of developed traditional French sculpture. 
The monument to the other kind, the iconoclastic, 
revolutionary sculpture, is practically contemporary 
with the Triumph of the Republic : it is the Hotel 
Biron in the rue de Varenne, Paris : the Mus6e Rodin. 
There, in a garden with high walls and big entrance 
gates with a lodge, partly in a chapel, partly in the 
historic hotel, is the great collection of works which 
Rodin left to the French nation. Most of them were 
removed from Meudon, where Rodin lived and worked, 
some have been transferred from the Luxembourg 
Museum so as to make the collection complete. There, 
in the two buildings and in the gardens, are specimens 
of the master's works ; drawings, paintings, sketches, 
designs, on paper ; sketches, designs abandoned, half 
finished and finished in clay, plaster, terra-cotta, marble 
and bronze. Figurines, statuettes, masks, busts/reliefs, 
statues, groups five hundred examples of Rodin's 
art and activity, every one of them characterised by 
wonder and research, often very beautiful, sometimes 
tragic in failure. From the figurines in their glass cases 
to the huge Hell's Gate and the Ugolino, is a long 
journey, but it includes some of the most astonishing 



things that the art of sculpture has vouchsafed to the 
world. Many of these are known almost universally 
now, for they have been disseminated by copy after 
copy in bronze, and it is said, even in marble. In bronze 
St. John the Baptist stalks the world ; the Penseur 
broods upon it ; the man of the Age d'Airain wonders 
about it : these are living things and part of the world's 
equipment, like Hamlet and Faust, King Alfred and 
Columbus, but no artist can be judged by his master 
pieces alone. We have to appraise him by the whole of 
his works, and so, in judging Rodin, there is the Femme 
Accroupie to be considered by the side of the Kiss ; 
the Ugolino with the Burghers of Calais ; the Man 
with the Broken Nose with L 'Emprise. 

Rodin was an old man when he died in 1917, and he 
had impressed himself upon his time as few other of 
his contemporaries were able to do* Not only in France, 
but in England and other countries, his genius was 
recognised during a period, before his death, of nearly 
half a century. His work was seen in Vienna as early 
as 1873, in London in 1874, and the same year in 
Brussels, where he lived then, and where you could 
have bought a terra-cotta from his hand for a five 
pound note. At Christie's sale in London, in 1920, 
fourteen of his bronzes, all quite small, were sold for 
,2,520. A Reclining Woman from the Natorp collec-* 
tion, fetched ^567, and the statuette of Eve, from the 
Paulin collection, 651, both small signed works. In 
1888, Glasgow purchased a head of Victor Hugo in 
plaster ; in 1908, at the Franco-British Exhibition in 
London, were two of his busts. He became President 
of the International Society of Sculptors, Painters and 



Gravers ; he came to London on more than one occa 
sion, and was hailed as The Master, his friends, Lanteri 
and Legros being his sponsors. Men of power in the 
world sought him out, and of these he made many 
busts : Puvis de Chavannes, Dalou, Cesar Franck, 
Bernard Shaw, Falguiere, George Wyndham and 
Clemenceau, and he made busts of Balzac, Victor Hugo, 
Mozart, and other great men of the past. He illus 
trated and gave new and wider meanings to passages 
from the poets ; he made the personages of mythology 
live, and he gave new allegories to the world. In doing 
all this he widened the portals of the palace of beauty. 
In no country, except his own, was his peculiar power 
more recognised and appreciated than in England, 
and knowing this, he bequeathed to the Victoria and 
Albert Museum twenty pieces of bronze and marble 
illustrating the different phases of his long artistic 
career, and its development and decadence : the Age 
d'Airain, St. John, the Prodigal Son, Cybele, busts 
and torsos, a small collection compared with that of 
the Hotel Biron, but a great one in itself. 

These, then, were the two influences at work in form- 
Ing the characteristics of the Modern French School 
of Sculpture : that of tradition and the pontiffs, and 
that of Rodin the prophet. How soundly the work of 
the pontiffs was founded is well seen in the case of the 
great French master Bartholom6. 

No great artist of modern times has achieved more 
fine monuments than Albert Bartholom6, some of 
them are to Meilhac, Benoit Mahon in the Paris ceme 
tery, Sardou, and that to Rousseau for the Panth6on 
in 1912. His works for the State and the City of Paris 



are numerous, and many are to be seen in the Paris 
museums. In the Luxembourg is the bronze of a Little 
Girl Weeping, and a half-length portrait in marble of 
the sculptor's wife. His Young Girl doing her hair, the 
Little Girl Weeping, his Niobe and Christ in stone, 
were seen at the Franco-British Exhibition in London 
in 1908. Bartholom^ was born at Thiverval, and was 
destined for the law, but when twenty-four years old 
he relinquished his legal duties and began his study of 
drawing and painting. He was forty years old before 
he commenced to work as a sculptor, resembling in 
this respect his contemporary, Meunier. He is the 
President of the Soci6t< National des Beaux- Arts, and 
was to have exhibited there in 1920, but was prevented 
by illness. He is a Commander of the Legion of Honour, 
and a member of the Royal Academies of Scotland, 
Belgium, and Spain. He has worked laboriously through 
out his long life at great designs, and has not produced 
much miscellaneous work. 

Some of his smaller works in marble are a bust, 
Germaine, a high relief of a Girl at her Toilet, Regrets; 
and Femmes Coiflant, a Christ on the Cross, Au bord 
de Feau, and Baigneuse, in bronze, His beautiful marble 
relief L'Adieu, is in the Royal Museum at Brussels, 
Some of Bartholomews tombs are for the families of 
Dubufe and Pam, and for the young son of M. Lau~ 
mont, killed on the field of honour. These tombs are 
in the highest class of funeral monuments, and unite 
fitting architectural settings with sculpture, while 
avoiding the mistake of inadequately relieved mass 
made frequently by artists in Italy and Germany, and 
now being imitated in England and on the American 


continent. Several examples of Bartholomews smaller 
works have been seen at the exhibitions in London of 
the International Society of Sculptors, Painters and 
Gravers, of which he is an honorary member, 

Bartholomews Monument to the Dead in the cemetery 
of Pere Lachaise is recognised as one of the finest 
pieces of mortuary work in the world. The great tomb 
with its twenty magnificently modelled figures, and 
not one of them winged, is a dominating work, and 
since its completion in 1899, its influence has been 
great and salutary. Being absolutely normal, without 
extravagances of any description, and yet obviously 
inspired, as well as being fine from the technical point 
of view, its effect has been the more marked. It is dis 
tinctly a link between the old school and the new, but, 
apart from its historic value, and judged merely on its 
merits, it is one of the most emotional pieces of sculp 
ture we have, and inspires us with mixed feelings con 
cerning death, certainly, but with a predominating 
idea of its immense and wonderful character. The 
variety of human emotion with which the artist has 
invested his figures is surprising and impressive, but 
the dignity of the two dual central groups stays all 
emotion save that of final acquiescence in the great 
gift of eternal peace. 

Bartholomews latest works are the monument to the 
senator-aviator Reymond, who was killed at Mont- 
brison, and the symbolic statue Paris : 1914-1918, 
the monument to the dramatists and composers killed 
in the war. In 1921 Bartholom6 was elected Honorary 
Foreign Academician of the Royal Academy, London. 

Born in 1848, only eight years after Rodin, Alphonse 



Cordonmer and Paul Albert Bartholome are 
the two veterans of the French school of modern sculp 
ture, and to many minds they more truly represent the 
real spirit of French work than does Rodin. They carry 
on the fine traditions with but slight modifications. 
Cordonnier is a native of Lille, and was a pupil of 
Dumont at the Ecolc des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and gained 
the Prix de Rome in 1877. His most important works 
are Joan of Arc at the Stake, the marble group Spring, 
the marble group La Piti<5, or Sur le pav<, at the 
entrance to the Luxembourg museum, His Paris monu 
ments include the allegorical marble figure of Sculpture 
on the Grand Palais des Expositions, a bronze statue at 
the Hdtel de Ville, and an allegory in stone of History 
at the Sorbonne. At his native town there is the Monu 
ment of National Defence, 1870, and the Pasteur 
monument. At Roubaix, on the School of Art and 
Science, and on the Bourse there, are some of his 
carved bas-reliefs. At the Salon, his groups in bronze 
of the Funeral March, and the Eternal Victim were 
exhibited, and acquired by the State, and at the Salon 
of 1920 were two works, including the Return of the 
Poilu to his devastated Home. His Christ, in plaster, 
was exhibited at the Franco -British Exhibition of 1908, 
Cordonnier is an officer of the Legion of Honour. 

Pierre Roche is also one of the older sculptors, being 
born in 1855, He worked in the studios of Roll and 
Dalou. L'Effort was bought for the Luxembourg 
Gardens in 1900 by the State, and is a fine piece of 
out-door sculpture, the single male figure supporting, 
or raising, a mass of naturalistic rock, is now partly 
overgrown with ivy, and its real quality hidden. Avril 


is a monumental fountain purchased by the City of 
Paris, in the Square du Musee Galliera. An important 
work is the Fouquier tomb in the cemetery at Passy, 
and some architectural sculpture of his is on the door 
way of the church of Saint Jean at Montmartre. He has 
made busts of Saint Just, Huysmans, Dalou, Henry le 
Sidaner, and others, and a large number of medals, 
plaquettes, tokens and gypsographs of which a good 
many are due to the war, they being dated mostly from 
1914 onwards. In 1908, at the Franco-British Exhi 
bition, his granite bust, Bretonne de Goelo, and his 
marble statuette, Aphrodite d'Or, were exhibited. 

The direct successor to Rodin, in his sculpture, in 
his life, and in his splendid hospitality, is Antoine 
Bourdelle. In and out the two studios of " La .grande 
Chaumiere," in the quaint courtyard, shut off by gates 
from the quainter Impasse du Maine, on Sundays, and 
sometimes on other days, there is a constant stream of 
people. Many of them are distinguished already, some 
of them in the course of becoming distinguished, and 
some of them seeking Bourdelle 's aid to a future career 
of distinction. They come from America and Great 
Britain, from Sweden and Russia, from Belgium and 
Switzerland, collectors of works of art, and officials 
from the great capitals of the world. Artists are there 
from Spain and Germany, and young and aspiring 
painters and sculptors from Roumania, Czechoslovakia, 
Jugoslavia, and Poland. Many tongues are spoken, and 
most are understood, and the great artist, The Master, 
Bourdelle, is there to listen, to sympathise, to advise, 
to charm. There, too, are some of the master's works, 
done and half done : great works. 

49 E 

The cosmopolitanism of Bourdelle's receptions is 
only a reflection of the distribution of his work. Strangely 
enough, France has not been foremost in its appreci 
ation : France who does not believe that a prophet is 
not a prophet in his own country. France honours her 
great artists as does Belgium and Sweden and some 
other of the nations, by purchasing their masterpieces 
as soon as they are made, or by commissioning others. 
Countries there are England is one of them where 
this generosity does not exist. There is the fund in 
England called The Chantrey Bequest, which is admin 
istered by the Royal Academy ; there are voluntary 
bodies known as the National Art-Collections Fund, 
and the Contemporary Art Society, whose function is 
the acquisition of works of art for the national collec 
tions, but there is practically no State-purchase for 
contemporary art. Acquired by the State, acquired by 
the City, are legends which Belgian and French artists 
are proud to have attached to their works. There is no 
such justice in Great Britain, and because there is no 
State patronage there is not the incentive to put forth 
big work by the sculptor, for he knows there is only 
the possibility of it being purchased for a gallery in 
the Provinces, and that but a remote one. 

It is useless to complain that there is no great 
national school of sculpture in Great Britain, Artists 
live on commissions and purchases, as do architects 
and manufacturers, and they should not be able to, or 
be allowed to, Hve otherwise* I do not for a moment 
doubt that if there existed a system of acquisition by 
the State to-morrow, in ten years there would be such 
exhibitions of sculpture at the Royal Academy, the 


International and the Royal Society of British Sculp 
tors as would not only astonish the gapers, but silence 
the cavillers, too. 

In the economy of the great nations huge sums are 
spent every year in education of all sorts. No incon 
siderable part of this is spent on art education : scholar 
ships and medals abound for students while they are 
students, and France and Belgium sees that this money 
is not wasted. They are both frugal nations, and they 
do not intend that the results of this money spent on 
students shall be lost to the country which provided 
it. The contrary is the case in Great Britain. The State, 
the constituent parts of it, the counties and the cities, 
provide scholarships in plenty, and it is possible for a 
student of sculpture, as of other arts and sciences, to 
obtain a complete training at the nation 's expense. 
That training over, the nation takes no further notice 
of the man or woman it has fostered* If they have been 
reared in painting, they become fashion-plate artists, 
and their foster-father, the nation, is quite uncon 
cerned. If they have been reared as sculptors, they 
become stonemasons or plasterers, and the nation, 
their foster-father, does not care. England rears a 
great family of artists and leaves them to starve ; she 
casts them off as encumbrances and nuisances, and has 
no use for them when they are able to produce such 
work as the nation would be proud of, and such work 
as would repay to the nation the huge initial outlay. 
There are exceptions, of course, and a case in point is 
Ernest Cole, a scholarship-holder of the London 
County Council, whose talent has been so far recog 
nised that he was engaged to do all the sculpture on 


the large new Council buildings on the banks of the 
Thames, to which I have referred. 

France has not erred overmuch in this way, but, 
curiously enough, she has rather missed one of her 
greatest artists, Bourdelle, when distributing her 
favours much to France's loss. He has been over 
looked somewhat by the official world, but he is a 
societaire of the Nationale des Beaux-Arts, and not of 
the Artistes Fran<jais. 

Bourdelle J s work is well known in England, if not 
widely known, and from the year 1906, when as a 
member of the International Society of Sculptors, 
Painters and Gravers, he exhibited his remarkable 
Beethoven, and a Female Torso, it has had an effect 
upon certain British sculptors, as it has on the younger 
sculptors of the Continent so distinctly. The following 
year his Aphrodite, Volont6, La R6ve and Jeanne d'Arc 
were seen at the same society's show* in 1910, La 
Guerre, and other bronzes ; and in 191 1 , In Memoriam, 
in marble, Artemis, in bronze, and L'Hymne Int6r~ 
ieure, in plaster, and in 1912, Le Jeu du Voile, 

EmileAntoine Bourdelle was born in i86i,at Mont- 
auban, Tarn et Garonne, the country of Ingres, and 
of Ingres he has done a magnificent bust in bronze. 
He studied at Montauban, under Larroque at Toul 
ouse, and Falguiere on arriving in Paris, but learning 
more from frequenting the studios of Dalou and Rodin, 
learning not only the art of sculpture but the art of 
life also. Bourdelle is various : he has made furniture, 
wood-carvings, carvings in stone and marble, archi 
tectural, ideal, and real studies from life ; paintings 
and pastels, drawings in water-colour and black and 


white ; frescoes on the Th6atre des Champs-Elysees, and 
he is professor and designer at the State manufactory of 
the Gobelins tapestries. Added to all these activities, he 
has written a number of articles on art, and is in charge 
of the sculpture department of the new Revue de France, 

Besides the frescoes on the Champs-Elysees theatre, 
of which there are ten in the atrium, and other colour 
works in the passages to the boxes, there are twenty- 
one marble figures on the fagade, so that this is the 
most important piece of Bourdelle's work in Paris. It 
was accomplished during the years 1912 and 1913. In 
the Luxembourg are his bronze busts of Hercules and 
Beethoven, and in the museum at Rome, commanded 
by the Italian Government, is his Herakles, in bronze, 
of 1910, a nude archer drawing a rude bow, kneeling 
on the right knee, the left leg extended almost to full 
length, and the left foot pressed 'tensely against a ver 
tical piece of rock, the right arm drawn back and doubled 
in the strenuous extension of the bow-string. The face 
is full of intensity and resolve, but is not otherwise 
beautiful. This work was seen at the International 
Exhibition of Venice in 1914, in a large plaster model, 
and in the reduced bronze* 

At this exhibition thirty-two pieces of Bourdelle's 
sculpture were shewn, and a collection of his water- 
colours* He was the subject of a special individual show 
in the French pavilion, an honour he shared that year 
with Medardo Rosso in the Italian section, and Ivan 
Mestrovic in the Serbian. There were four bas-reliefs 
the Dance, Tragedy, Comedy, and Architecture and 
Sculpture, as well as busts of Carpeaux and Rodin in 
plaster, two marble busts and eighteen works in bronze. 



In the museum at Florence is one of Bourdelle's 
busts ; Prince Eugen of Sweden has a replica of 
H&rakles ; a large bronze, The Dying Centaur, is at 
Buenos Aires ; a bronze statue of a young girl is in the 
museum at Bucharest, and there are several examples of 
his work in the museums of Germany. His Laughter and 
Roses is a well-known work, and of heads of children, 
women and men he has made a number. His relief 
of Pegasus and the Muse is a symbolic work, in which 
his natural method has compromised with a Greek 
subject and produced an interesting result, and a com 
panion relief is Pallas. 

Bourdelle is responsible for several important pieces 
of monumental work. The Argentine Government 
commissioned the General Alvear Memorial, twenty 
metres in height, of which two figures were seen at the 
Salon of 1920 : Force and Victory. The base, fourteen 
metres high, is of polished granite, and on this is the 
equestrian statue, an impressive figure on a heavy 
horse, and at the four corners of the pedestal are four 
allegorical figures, the other two, in addition to those 
just mentioned, being Eloquence and Liberty* Another 
national monument is that to the resurrection of the 
Polish nation, a detail of which, the colossal head of 
Adam Mickiewiez, that great patriot and poet, was 
seen at the same Salon, This is supported on a tall 
column emblematic of the spirit of the combatants in 
the great epic of Poland* At the base of the column are 
six vigorous bas-reliefs of scenes taken from the poet's 
works, and others emblematic of the three united 
provinces of Poland* A third monument is that to the 
Miners killed in the War. It is in three stages, all in 



stone. Below, on the four faces, are attributes of mining 
and fighting ; above are four high reliefs representing 
the miners at work in the pit and in the war, and a 
miner's lamp surmounts the whole, which is eleven 
metres in height. This monument is for Montceau les 

Bourdelle's principle is that his architecture is for 
his sculpture and his sculpture for his architecture : 
the whole created and united by himself alone. In any 
system of education for the sculptor the science of 
architectonics is a most important part. In the Royal 
College of Art in London, architectural courses are 
compulsory, but are taken more from the aesthetic side 
than from the architectonic. It might be well if sculp 
tors, especially those who propose to engage in large 
monumental work, paid even more attention to this 
part of their work than they do. The sculptors who 
have been most successful in this direction have done 
so, and many monuments of those who have not, have 
suffered from this cause, for there is a distinct tendency 
on the part of architects to usurp this function. A 
sculptor is as much a designer as is an architect, with 
this difference, that a sculptor may design a whole 
with his combination of sculpture and architecture, 
while an architect only designs a part. Where there is 
an equal, or even an unequal, amount of work in either 
art, there should be collaboration. In a preponderat- 
ingly architectural design the architect should consult 
with the sculptor, instead of going to him after his 
design has been made. A hundred errors would then 
be avoided, errors that have ruined fine sculpture by 
reason of its situation, by reason of its character, and 



even period. Sculpture has suffered, and therefore 
sculptors have suffered, and that is why Bourdelle and 
Bouchard in France, Derwent Wood and John Tweed 
in England, Walter Allward in Canada, MacMonnies, 
French, and Stirling Calder in the United States of 
America, have claimed the right of the designer to the 
first place in any considerations regarding sculpture 
as applied in architecture. It should not be forgotten 
that the designing of monuments is one of the chief 
functions of the sculptor. 

In 1900, Bourdelle '$ monument to the Defenders 
of 1870 was erected at Montauban. It is eight metres 
in height, with figures in bronze on the pedestal, also 
made by the sculptor, of granite. To every public work 
that Bourdelle has accomplished, he has made at least 
a hundred pieces for private use in marble, stone, 
bronze, terra-cotta, and wood. His Head of Apollo, 
his busts of Rodin, Carpeaux, Ingres, Simu, Anatole 
France, Kueberl6, the great surgeon at Strasbourg, 
Le Chatelier at the College de France, Coquelin ain, 
Coquelin cadet, his War and Victory are well known, 
and altogether he has made about three hundred por 
traits in sculpture > pastel or paint. His astounding 
statue of the year 1914, of Rodin at work on the Porte 
de PEnfer, and the Dying Centaur are two of the 
sculp tor *s most characteristic works. Dynamic, yet 
spiritual, their appeal is immediate and cumulative. 
The Rodin represents a huddled, forceful figure 
struggling with a superhuman problem, and there 
seems to me to be a strange and mystic association 
between it and the Dying Centaur, The Gate of Hell 
was too great a task for any mortal to apprise, and even 



Rodin failed. The Centaur, in the modern world, is 
an anachronism too profound for us to resolve. Bour- 
delle, in his conception, has linked the two disturbing 
ideas, and their development and culmination are seen 
in the weird, clumsy death of a creature which has 
been dying for more than a thousand years. Le Cent- 
aure Mourant is a tragical realisation of the finite in 
man and in art. 

Bourdelle's love of Gothic is seen in his bronze of the 
Virgin and Child, while his Young Faun, also in bronze, 
is a jolly pagan group of much interest. Greatly appre 
ciated by the Czechoslovaks, he has made for them 
their Croix de Guerre, a handsomely designed decor 
ation representing a mounted standard-bearer, with 
an inscription surrounding. 

Among all the French sculptors of the modern school 
there are none more original nor less academic than 
Bourdelle and Maillol. Their work completely breaks 
away from the traditional system, and serves to illus 
trate the wisdom of such a method of procedure in 
producing a new vision. Not even Rodin was more 
original, although he was more dynamic. 

Aristide Maillol was born in the same year as Bour 
delle (1861), at Banyuls-sur-Mer, in Southern France. 
He set out to be a painter, and studied painting under 
Cabanel at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Living in Paris 
for several years, he came under the influence of Paul 
Gauguin and the band of Gauguin's satellites, and was 
thus, as he thinks, saved from banality. By day he was 
painting, and studying Gauguin's pictures, at night he 
was carving Gauguin may have interested him in 
modelling, too, for he practised it and making designs 



for textiles, including carpets and tapestries. He made 
experiments with coloured earths and plant products 
in an attempt to resuscitate the dyes which gave such 
beauty of colour to the old Gobelins tapestries, and he 
dyed his own wools* 

Sculpture, however, claimed him. His love for 
materials, as exemplified in his handling of carpets 
and tapestries, led him to believe that fine stuff and 
varied technique are the true principles of art, and 
these he applied to sculpture, using clay, terra-cotta, 
plaster, wood and metal, and less plentifully marble 
and stone. He shewed at the Salon in 1896 a case of 
twenty figurines and small reliefs as objets d'art, but 
it was not till 1903 that he first exhibited in the sculp 
ture section proper, and then he narrowly escaped 
rejection (Rodin giving the casting vote on the jury 
which secured his work for exhibition), and he was 
awarded a prominent place in the garden in the Champs- 
Elys6es for the Relief in Plaster (now in the Vollard 
collection in Paris) of a sitting woman with arms crossed 
over her body. A further work of Maillol in this collec 
tion is a statuette in wood of a thinly-draped girl, in 
dicating the modelling of the body beneath the draping 
in a very clever way. Another relief is a Sleeping 
Woman, and there are dozens of his works, which are 
studies of women in a variety of attitudes : a woman 
with legs crossed, women bathing, a woman awaking 
from sleep, a woman hiding her face, masks of women, 
seated women, women with raised arms, girls, all in 
terra-cotta ; crouching women and women wrestling, 
in stone, clay and plaster ; women standing and women 
draped, Flora, Pomona and young girls, all in bronze ; 



a bather and some few others in marble : a great 
collection of women studies. Maillol's work has been 
known in England since Sir Hugh Lane included some 
of it in his collection, the three bronze figures of women 
of that collection being also exhibited in Dublin. In 
1907, Maillol, being a member, exhibited at the In 
ternational Society in London his Jeune fille au Soleil ; 
in 1909, his Etude d'Adolescent ; in the following year 
Apres le Bain ; in 1912 a series of bronzes of dancing 
and wrestling women. 

In 1 91 9 an interesting show was held at the Leicester 
Galleries, where ten terra-cotta studies, two bronzes, 
a wood-carving and half-a-dozen drawings were on 
view in connection with the Henri -Matisse Exhibition. 
Maillol was chosen for the task of executing the C6zanne 
monument at the painter's native town of Aux-en- 
Provenge, and the terra-cotta sketch-design of a re 
clining symbolic figure holding a laurel wreath was 
included in this exhibition. Maillol's association 
which began with Gauguin with the most advanced 
schools is thus maintained. MailloFs project for the 
memorial to C&zanne in bronze was exhibited at the 
International at Venice in 1920, when the collection of 
Cezanne's paintings was the special feature of the 
French section. His latest work is the War Memorial 
at Banyuls-sur-Mer, the single figure of a seated 

While hundreds of drawings and paintings by 
Gauguin exist, very few examples of his sculpture are 
available. In the Fayet collection is a bas-relief Peace 
and War and the wood statue exhibited in 1880 of 
J. K. Huysmans, the symbolist author of Le Cathedrale. 



Unfortunately, no sculpture by Matisse was in 
cluded in the Leicester Galleries Exhibition, but 
Matisse's bronzes are quite well known. In subject 
they are very much after MailloPs heads, torsos and 
figures of women and girls, a few of boys and men 
and exhibit similar characteristics of uncompromising 
realism, sometimes passing the verge of beauty, but 
always managing to preserve some attraction and in 
terest. They are not marked by great technical skill, 
but exhibit certain qualities of drawing. The Slave is a 
bronze statuette dated 1904, more suggestive of Mother 
Earth than of the dissecting table. Its anatomy is doubt 
ful, for the arms are severed at the biceps, and the head 
is out of character with the torso, but is modelled more 
carefully. The pose is good, stupid and stolid, and the 
whole thing has a rugged strength. Two examples of 
this exist, one in the possession of the artist, and the 
other in that of the brothers Stern of San Francisco. 
Two examples also have been made of the torso of a 
young girl of 1906, but the TSte de Femme, and the 
Femme Accroupie of 1908 are unique, 

Bastien-Lepage, supreme in his way as a painter, 
was also a sculptor, and an example of his work was 
seen at the Royal Academy Special Autumn Exhibition 
in London in 1909* Celebrated all the world over for 
his work in the graphic arts, but yet a practitioner in 
the glyptic, Theodore Steinlen, the exponent of Parisian 
life (although a Swiss, born in Lausanne), has revealed 
in his sculpture the Life of the Cat. His little bronzes of 
cats are treasured wherever they are owned. There is one 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London* Gustave 
Dor6 was another painter-draughtsman-sculptor. 




facing p. 60 



facing p, 61 


A great contrast to MailloPs, coarse realism, is found 
in the work of Auguste Seysses, who is a native of 
Toulouse, and a student of the Beaux-Arts, Paris, 
where he worked in the atelier of Falguiere. In 1894 
he obtained a medal of the second class and the Desprey 
prize of the Institute, and a travelling scholarship. In 
1900 he was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. 
A silver medal was awarded him at the Universal Ex 
position, and a first-class medal of the Institute in 
1907. His marble work, Pro Libertate, is in the Per- 
rault Museum at Lous-le-Saulnier, Le Retour in the 
Jardin des Plantes at Toulouse, and La Pudeur is on 
the staircase of the Senate. The Centaur and the Lion 
is in the collection of the City of Paris, his marble 
fountain, the Evening of Life, at Toulouse. He has 
executed a number of busts and small pieces, and in 
the Salon of 1920, exhibited a statuette of Lord Haig, 
as well as busts in marble and bronze. In the work of 
Seysses we have an example of illustrative sculpture 
of which there are a good number of practitioners in 
Paris, sculpture, which, like a picture, tells a story and 
a story of a homely character, and he is a good repre 
sentative of this genre. 

Ernest Dubois, a native of Dieppe, is the sculptor 
of the fine realistic marble group, The Pardon, in the 
Luxembourg. Alternately this work is known as The 
Prodigal Son, and it is one of the most touching illus 
trations of the Biblical story. Both figures are in the 
nude, and are beautifully modelled, and the pose of 
each one is admirable. The son hiding his face in the 
arm, supported by the hand, of the father, who bends 
down with infinite tenderness to render the kiss of 



forgiveness. The different ages of the two figures is 
indicated in a most accomplished way, and this group 
furnishes a telling example of the charm of surface 
values. It is even more striking than the under-model 
ling in this case. The group, in plaster, was seen at the 
Franco-British Exhibition in London, as well as a 
marble bust of the artist's mother. In the Salon des 
Artistes Frangais, in 1920, Dubois exhibited two busts, 
a statue of Paul D6roul6de, and part of a group, Le 
Vengeur, intended for the Panth&m. 

Victor J. S^goffin is a member of the jury of the 
Soci6t6 des Artistes Fran<;ais* He is one of the many 
sculptors born at Toulouse, his birth-year being 1867* 
He was educated in sculpture at the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts, Paris, winning the first Grand Prix de Rome, and 
becoming a pensionnaire of the Villa Medici there from 
1897 to 1902. He is now chef cTAteKers at the Beaux- 
Arts, and is therefore one of the official sculptors, but 
he is, notwithstanding, one of the newer school as his 
fine statue in the Salon of 1920 The Captivein 
dicates, His Voltaire Monument was placed in the 
Panth&m in 1910 ; his tomb of the painter Ziem, in 
Pere Lachaise, and his Genius Triumphant over Time 
in the Square du Louvre. The marble group, The Man 
of Sorrows, was in the Salon of 1903, and the marble 
statue. The Sacred Dance, in 1905, receiving a medal 
of the first class* In the Luxembourg are his bronze 
busts of the painters Bonnat, and of Harpignies and 
Ziem, which were seen in London in 1908, and he has 
also made busts of Delca$s6 and Frd6ric Mistral, the 
Provencal poet. Among other works is his draped 
statue of Cassandra. His long sojourn in Rome accounts 



for the strong influence of the Italian Renaissance on 
his work, but he was not unconscious of the new things 
being produced around him, and much as his sculpture 
indicates his Rome studies, it is yet unmistakably 
French, and even unusually accomplished from the 
point of view of technique. 

Ernest Dubois and Victor S6goffin are both adher 
ents of the traditional style modified by the newer 
influences, but less exercised over Rodin than some of 
their contemporaries, although exposed to the influence 
during a longer period. They well illustrate the state 
ment I made earlier, that the old order will persist even 
in the face of the iconoclastic occurrences of the new. 
Unlike Bourdelie and Maillol, these two artists were 
content to take what was offered by both systems, for 
they were not possessed with the ache of original 
presentation and of new ideas, that troubles the icon 
oclasts, Rodin and Bourdelie and Maillol had this ache, 
and there were others, too, of their generation whom 
it possessed. There were still others who took what they 
could of the old and of the new as presented to them, 
and what they lacked thereafter, they invented for 


WHEN, in 1914, the proprietors of the 
monthly review, Les Arts, held an exhibition 
of the works of Joseph Bernard in the 
gallery of their hotel, they revealed to the world a 
fuller knowledge of a great sculptor. His works were 
known in the museum of the Luxembourg from 1904, 
when Harmony a large bronze figure of a young man 
an Orpheus of to-day was acquired. This was 
followed in 1906 by the marble St. John the Baptist, 
the monument to Beethoven, in marble, known as the 
Trilogie du Chant, and the characteristic studies, in 
cluding a great head of a man for the Fardeau de la 
Vie* In igiz this museum also acquired the bronze Girl 
with Pitcher, and in 1914 the wonderful piece in stone 
called Chanteuse. The Voix, in black granite, is in the 
Museum at Lyons, which also possesses the marble 
group, Tendresse* In the Hdtel de Villa, Paris, is the 
group, La Jeunesse, 

The Burden of Life and Peace are two great monu 
ments synthesizing all history, and these, with the 
Michel Servet monument in stone, marble, bronze, 
and terra-cotta, are the chief works in this class, the 
Michel Servet being regarded as Bernard's greatest 
effort, and, in some quarters, as the finest piece of 
French sculpture of its generation* 
Joseph Bernard was born at Vienna (Is&re) in 1866, 



His birthplace, romantically situated on the banks of 
the Rhone, with its sliding, tumultuous waters, its 
vine-covered hills and background of mountains, is a 
fitting entourage for an imaginative youth. He started, 
with his father's tools, to carve, in wood, naive heads 
and other objects, and when he was eleven he began 
on stone, and made two lions in his father's garden, 
and thus commenced his career of sculptor. With a 
scholarship from the municipal council of Vienne, he 
attended the School of Art at Lyons, and at nineteen 
he passed to the Ecole Nationale of the rue Bonaparte, 
and bent to its teaching, feeling that it was wrong. But 
the living model was there, and that was enough. He 
began to draw with a ferocious intensity ; he spent 
whole nights in drawing. It was good discipline for a 
sculptor. There is nothing like drawing, and Bernard 
suddenly realised that sculpture is drawing, pure and 
simple, drawing par excellence. At his exhibition at 
Les Arts there were two hundred drawings in water- 
colour, pastel, crayon, charcoal and pencil shewn. 
Expert in drawing to this extent, he has not in the 
ordinary sense of the word found modelling so neces 
sary. He attacks the material itself with the surety and 
felicity of the accomplished draughtsman. He likes to 
draw in stone and marble, not, I think, for any special 
reason regarding surface values, but for the very simple 
reason that he prefers to do it. With respect to these 
values, he may have attached some importance to the 
matter in such a bust as the delicate marble Salom6, but 
he could hardly have done so in the bust Serenity, carved 
direct in stone, or in another example on a larger scale 
of the same method, the high relief, the Festival of the 

65 F 


Vine. An extraordinary conception is this of the Festival 
of the Vine. The central nude female figure is the only 
one of the four engaged in dancing, the others receding 
into the back of the stone, one of them almost behind, 
and hidden by the central figure, but her face and a 
little of the left side of her body shewing. The legs of 
another bacchante are hidden to the knees in the stone 
which is carved in bunches of grapes and masses of 
vine leaves, stems and leaves forming the background 
of the picture. 

Another curious relief is that in marble for M. 
Nocard, of Paris, whose collection of Bernard's work is 
important. This piece looks like Neo-GreeL The 
drapery of the figures is more conventional, and the 
attitudes are strange, but there is a good deal of grace 
in the central couple dancing- For naturalism in treat 
ment, the best example is the marble Embrace, a fine 
group which is not excelled among this master's works 
in tenderness of subject, design and treatment. Very 
sweet, however, is the marble bust, Purity, placid and 
still, contrasting with the energy of Chanteuse, the fine 
work in Milan marble, acquired by the State. 

Grace and simplicity are the attributes of the Girl 
with the Pitcher, the Young Woman dancing with a 
Child, and the group of two Girls Dancing, There is 
something astonishingly natural about these works, 
and a feeling that you never come across in the work 
of any other sculptor, previous or contemporary. Ber 
nard owns no influences in his realistic work* There is, 
as I have indicated, some sort of Greek flavour about 
his decorative compositions, but with regard to his 
figures and busts, he is purely individual. Being so, he 



has created little conventions of his own, which appear 
here and there : a convention for the hair carried to 
the extreme in the Salom6 bust a work in several 
respects different from every other, seen in a milder 
forai in Chanteuse, and the Girl with the Pitcher, be 
coming more naturalistic in the statue of the Girl at 
her Toilet, and modified somewhat in the statue of the 
Girl with drapery, another work which the State has 
recently acquired. 

Statuettes, busts from life, heads, such as the Head 
of a Thinker, bought by the City of Paris, a Bacchante, 
a Dancing Faun, Espoir vaincu, Separation, Jeunesse, 
Charm6e par 1'Amour, Maternity, Chants immortels, 
are among the works with which Joseph Bernard has 
enriched the treasure-house of French Sculpture, and 
in recognition of which he has been made a Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honour, a public sign of a nation's 

Studies of his son, Jean Bernard, under various titles, 
portrait busts of his father, Mme. Gabriel Faure and 
Andr6 Rivoire are among the sculptor's recent works, 
and at the Salon d'Automne, Paris, 1920, he exhibited 
a Head of a Dwarf in Siena marble, and a Head of a 
Woman with Aigrette in basalt. 

The sensational assertion that the Pugilist in the 
Salon of 1920 was a portrait of Carpentier had nothing 
to do with the success of the work. As a study of the 
male nude, it says everything for itself and says it com 
pletely. Although, as it is in plaster, its creator Lan- 
dowski as is his wont, does not claim for it the criti 
cism which, as a finished work in marble or bronze, it 
would demand. Nevertheless, it is plain to see that the 


statue is wonderfully done. The pose is so simple, sb 
free from aggressiveness, so unostentatious, and yet it 
carries at the same time the complete conviction of 
potential energy. There is no accentuation of muscular 
development, no over-insistence on brute force, but 
an overwhelming sensation of effective activity once 
the beautiful human machine is set in motion. Failing 
sight of it in the clay, I would rather study it in the 
plaster than in bronze or marble. So direct is the model 
ling that it is possible to trace the sculptor's thought as 
you go over the different areas of the muscles and 
nerves. You can see the muscles waiting to slide over 
each other, you can feel the nerves awaiting the message 
from the brain. In the head and face you discern the 
force which is going to direct this perfect machine 
of nerve and muscle, trained to the utmost perfection of 
utility. Undoubtedly, Landowski's Pugilist is one of 
his greatest works. 

Paul Landowski has done many fine things during 
his short life, which began in Paris in 1875. n hk 
mother's side he is a grandson of the great violinist, 
Vieuxtemps, and he is a son of Dr. Landowski, who 
left Poland at the time of the revolution in 1863, an ^ 
became a naturalised Frenchman in the war of 1870. 
The boy was always interested in sculpture and art 
generally. His studies were made at the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts, in the atelier of Barrias for the most part, and 
supplemented by courses in anatomy at the Facult^ de 
Medicine. He gained the Prix de Rome at the age of 
twenty-five, with his Fighting David, a deHghtfd 
study of a youth wielding the sHng t the left arm 
upraised, the right foot forward, the left backward,, 


balancing the eager,leaning body. In this work, however, 
the current ideals in the practice of sculpture are more 
apparent than the qualities which were later to make 
Landowski's work so particular ; but still, there are 
indications of what was to come. 

The sculptor passed five years at the Villa Medici, 
in Rome, where he made his Fils de Cain, which was 
exhibited in Paris in 1907 ; awarded the first medal, 
and acquired by the State for the Cour du Carrousel, 
Square du Louvre, a replica of it being sent at a later 
date to Copenhagen for the Carl Jacobsen collection. 
In the Cour du Carrousel is also the extraordinary 
monument called Architecture, a symbolic work of the 
greatest simplicity and of compelling truth. It is an 
ordered mass of hewn rectangular blocks of stone, 
surmounted by a sitting stone figure of a man in the 
nude, his right arm extended against one of the blocks, 
his left hand pressing definitely, the fingers extended, 
upon another. The Hymn to the Dawn, in bronze, 
shewn in the gardens of the Petit Palais in the Champs- 
Elys^es, is Landowski's most startling achievement, 
and in which his principles of sculpture are defiantly 
projected. He discards decoration entirely, and in 
addition, he adopts an entirely arbitrary system of 
design, and one entirely his own. Even Rodin in the 
Burghers of Calais, and in Ugolino, was not more un 
compromising, and Landowski is even more natural 
istic. Yet, in spite of all, the design is there and is 
effective* The Hymn to the Dawn is a commentary on 
a sentence in the Vedic books. A woman, her arms 
extended downwards, her hands relaxed, her eyes 
closed ; a man by her side, his eyes closed too, his 


hands held up, the palms extended outwards in an 
attitude of wonder. Both are nude, both are beautiful, 
and they stand side by side and meditate on the ador 
able light of divine love which makes them strong, and 
at the same time purifies their hearts* 

There is a mystic touch in this work, and it is the 
strange, and yet natural, union of what is mystic in 
realism that gives it its great value, and proves Lan~ 
dowski to be a thinker. There are other works, however, 
which reveal his power of thought, and others which 
shew his delight in naturalistic truth. His monumental 
work is considerable. The Sea on the Institute of Ocean 
ography, Paris ; at St. Etienne, the statue to Jacquard, 
the inventor of the pattern machine for weaving ; in 
the Place Edouard VII, the equestrian statue of the 
King ; and at Geneva, in collaboration with Henri 
Bouchard, on the Promenade des Bastions, the monu 
ment to the Reformation* Landowski served through 
the war till the beginning of 1919, when he began his 
work on the gigantic Wilbur Wright memorial at le 
Mans, where the American aviator made his first 
attempt to fly in 1908, at the military camp there. It is 
forty feet high, and is erected in the rue des Jacobins* 
It is symbolic, and consists of a huge pyramid of rock, 
and on its summit the nude figure of a man with head 
turned upwards, and arms extended to the sky, yearn 
ing for a nearer place to the heavens. This monument 
was inaugurated in 1920, and Landowski at once pro 
ceeded with his work on the Monument to the Dead 
for the Ecole Normale. The great Memorial to the 
Fallen Heroes of France in the War, for the Pantheon, 
is in the form of a sarcophagus, with a splendid frieze 


of figures around it, and above, a recumbent figure of 
a Poilu : it is a satisfying and dignified masterpiece in 
its kind. 

At the Franco-British Exhibition of 1908, two of 
Landowski's works were seen in London : the Fighting 
David, and the bust Le Haleur, both in bronze. Le 
Haleur is in the Luxembourg, together with a bronze 
bust of M. N6not. Other busts shewn in the Salon des 
Artistes Fran^ais are of Marshal P6tain and Paul Adam, 
the latter a forcible statement of a forcible character, 
compact and weighty. A very tender piece of work in 
marble is a bust of a child, Mdlle. P. L., treated with 
literalness, and full of grace. Among the statuettes are 
the Serpent Charmer, the Water Carrier, and The 

Henri Bouchard was born in the same year as Lan- 
dowski, at Dijon, and studied at the art school there, 
also at Paris, and at Rome at the Villa Medici. His 
statue of Pierre de Montereau was erected in the Square 
du Carrousel, Paris, in 1909. His Clearing the Land is 
a bronze group of agricultural labourers, of 1912, 
destined for the Palace of Agriculture, and in the same 
year he made a monument to Aeronauts. His statue of 
Claus Sluter, with images of the Dukes of Bourgoyne, 
was set up at Dijon in 1913, and in this same year his 
group of Nicholas Rollin and his wife, the founders of 
the H6tel Dieu de Beaune. He executed, in conjunc 
tion with Landowski, the Reformation Monument at 
Geneva, in 1914, and he has made statues of Cromwell, 
and of Le Poilu, erected at Metz in 1919, to replace a 
statue of the Emperor William I. In the Luxembourg 
Museum are two bronze figurines and a bust of Henri 


Martin. At the Franco-British Exhibition at London, 
in 1908, he was represented by his bronze statue, The 
Reaper. Not quite so original as Landowski, Bouchard 
is doing a useful work in letting the man in the street 
see how simple and good and useful and necessary 
sculpture may be, Bouchard's artistic creed is based on 
a real study of nature to begin with, which is then to 
be translated into architecture by means of the language 
of sculpture. 

There are a number of women sculptors who belong 
to the modern school, and C6Hne Lepage shares Henri 
Bouchard's theory of sculpture, and is an even more 
uncompromising apostle of it. She believes in primitive 
ideas, and therefore assumes that a statue should be a 
pillar or a column, its function in the earlier Grecian 
architecture. She maintains that architecture is the 
beginning and the end of sculpture, and as a broad 
statement for her theory's sake, we may accept that* 
C61ine Lepage has another contention, which is that all 
sculpture must be decorative, and in her work she 
makes it so, as she makes her figures fit into her archi 
tectural theory. In her exhaustive study of the primi 
tive she has spent her life, which began in Wamw in 
1881, and was continued in its early stages in Odessa* 

C&ine Lepage went to no school to learn art, and in 
this sense she is, personally, a primitive herself* She 
has learned in solitude how to express what she has 
been taught by her fellow men and women, untouched 
by the sophistications of art and civilisation generally. 
She knows the life of the peasant in Russia, the Cau 
casus, Asia Minor, Turkestan, Spain, and Tunis, and 
from her pi#d&~terre in Morocco she has pursued her 


studies in decoration rigorously, according to her 
theory by relying on the native people for her motives, 
and the results have been seen in the Salons of the 
Soci6t6 des Beaux- Arts, and of the Artistes Decorateurs 
from 1913 to 1920 : the real attitudes of the people 
either slightly draped or undraped, as the case may be, 
allied with flowers, fruits, trees studies also from 
nature. In the Salon of 1920 she displayed an Arab 
servant, and a Projet de monument au com6dien- 

Her first exhibited work was a Sun-dial, which was 
illustrated under a pseudonym and exhibited in the 
Autumn Salon of 1911. In 1918, at the Galerie du 
Luxembourg, she shewed her Don Quixote and a Pieta 
Franfaise, which were purchased by the State, and in 
the following year, at the Salon, Sagesse et Fetes Gal- 
antes, and in the Autumn Salon, a Tomb for a Soldier, 
and Victory. Celine Lepage maintains that Roman Art 
in France is the desirable period, and she is trying to 
live up to her convictions and succeeding, and there is 
no doubt as to the sincerity and the peculiar beauty of 
her work. 

Among French women sculptors none is better 
known than Camille Claudel, sister of the distinguished 
writer, M. Paul Claudel, of whom she has made an 
< interesting series of busts, one at the age of sixteen, in 
the Museum at Toulouse, another as a young Roman 
at Avignon, another at the age of thirty-seven. 
Camille Claudel is represented by an exceptional piece 
of sculpture in the Luxembourg, Clotho, and other 
works are in the Museum at Lille and elsewhere. She 
has modelled very largely from life portraits, torsos, 



and groups. The Waltz, which dates as far back as 
1893, is perhaps her best-known work, a charming 
thing of perfect rhythm and abandon, Les Causeuses 
in white marble, The Wave, consisting of three bronze 
figurettes, are interesting from the use of green onyx 
in their essential composition. A Young Girl and Water- 
lilies, in marble, is good, and the youthful, almost 
feminine Perseus, is interesting from the point of view 
of having been modelled by a woman sculptor. A bronze 
head of a negress is a later work of this accomplished 
lady, who makes portraits in crayons, as well as she 
makes them in clay* 

Jeanne Poupelet is a distinguished sculptor of Paris, 
exhibiting at the new Salon, where, in 1920, she had a 
Bust of a Man, and a memorial plaque : she is on the 
jury of the Soci&6 Nationale des Beaux- Arts, as is also 
Yvonne Serruys, whose Young Woman, in Lorraine 
stone, was acquired by the State from the 1920 Salon, 
where the sculptor ako shewed a Bust of a Lady in 
plaster, Jeanne Bardey is a member of the sculpture 
section of the Salon d'Automne, and she is a painter. 
She exhibited in 1920 La Pens6e, and a Head, both in 

Max Blondat has indicated the possibilities of Child 
Sculpture, both at the English Royal Academy and the 
Salon- His Jeunesaes, at the Salon in 1907, a marble 
fountain group of three nude children, is so attractive 
a work that it has been used both at Dilsseldorf and 
Zurich. The same year he exhibited Amour, a marble 
statue, and other works of his are Jeanne d'Arc sur le 
Bucher, Le Jour de F6te, and a piece of appHed figure- 
decoration in a clock, L'Amour EndormL In 1910 he 


was awarded a prize at Brussels for his fountain, Rives 
et Fleurs. Blondat was born at Grain (Yonne), and 
since the war has been represented in the Salon by 
two war monuments, and a bust in terra-cotta. His 
Amour, in marble, is in the Luxembourg, and was lent 
to the Franco-British Exhibition in 1908, 

Daniel Bacqu6 was born at Vianne in 1874, received 
his training in Paris, and is a member of the Soci6te 
des Artistes Fran? ais, and exhibits at the Salon of that 
body. In 1920 he shewed a man's bust in terra-cotta, 
a statue in plaster, and a remarkable female Nude, 
which attracted a good deal of attention because of its 
fine naturalistic modelling, its pose, its astonishing 
hair, held up in such a way, by the raised hands, as to 
form a sheath for the smiling face. The figure is com 
pletely normal, possessing all the grace of the perfect 
woman, and it is only in the treatment of the head and 
hair that modern influences have been allowed. Bacqu6's 
Danseuse has been purchased for the museum of the 
City of Paris, he has done a theatre facade, a monument 
to Michelangelo, a bronze statue of Pax, and Romas. 

Ren Quillivic is a Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour, who started life as a fisherman, at sea off his 
native land of Finistere, where he was born in 1879. 
Not until he was eighteen did he break away from this 
arduous life to become a maker of Breton furniture 
until he was twenty-five, when he became a foundation 
scholar of the Department of Finistere, his talents 
having been recognised, and in Paris studied until he 
was twenty-nine. In 1908 he exhibited at the Societ6 
Nationale des Beaux-Arts, of which he is now a mem 
ber, his Brodeuse de Pont TAbb6, in bronze, and this 



work is now in the Museum at Quimper. From 1909 
onwards, except when mobilised for the war, he has 
exhibited at the Salon works in bronze, some of which 
are in the Hotel de Ville and the Petit Palais, Paris* 
His Femme du Cap Sizen, in granite, is in the Museum 
of Nantes ; his granite group of Women Weeping for 
the Sailors lost at Sea was shewn at the Salon in 1913, 
and from the Salon of the following year another granite 
Femme du Cap was purchased by the State. In 1919 
his granite memorial for Those who Died for their 
Country was set up at Saint Pol de Lon, Finistire, 
In 1920 he exhibited three works, one of which was a 
more-than-life-size statue in grey granite of a Breton 
woman, her hand on her breast, for the war memorial 
atCarhaix. Other works of this year are the war memorial 
for Roscoff, in granite and bronze, and a large Celto- 
Breton crucifix, the three shafts of which are sur 
mounted by figures of mourning Breton women. In 
Memory of those who Died in the War* 

From this record it is clear that Quillivic is greatly 
appreciated in the country in which he was born, and 
of which he is the artistic son, and on the other hand, 
all his work bears the direct impress of Brittany* He is 
proud of it, and uses it for his artistic ends, and it is 
proud of him and uses him for its pleasure and renown, 
a state of things on which both artist and country are 
to be congratulated, There is no doubt as to where 
Quillivic's heart is, and he has put it all into his work, 
which is strong and beautiful. At the Autumn Salon, 
Paris, 1920, he exhibited My Mother at Prayer, in 
bronze, and, in stone, The Sorrowing Mothers and 
Widows of Brittany, 1914-1918. 


It is not often that the history of art offers such 
examples as Quillivic. There are classic instances like 
Giotto, but they are rare. Now, in France there arise 
two within a few years of each other's birth Ren6 
Quillivic, the fisher lad, and Paul Dard6, the shepherd. 
Dard6's career is even more startling than that of Quil 
livic, and he is some ten years younger. He was born in 
1888 at Olenet, in H6rault, and all the schooling he 
had was from the years eight to ten, at Montpellier, 
and a few hours in the evening during his military 
service period from 1909 to 1912. The rest of the time 
he was minding sheep, and doing other work on the 
land, and this for twenty years, but possessed all the 
time with a passion for the beautiful. A drawing- 
master in the little town of Lodeve discovered one day 
the boy Paul making sketches, and was so convinced 
of their value that he sent them with a letter to M. 
Armand Dayot, the accomplished editor of UArt, who 
immediately interested himself and obtained for 
Dard a place in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Here he 
attended in the atelier of Injalbert, and laid the 
foundations of an art education soon to be interrupted 
by the war. He continued his self-education, how- 
fever, which was even more valuable, at the Trocadero, 
at the Louvre, and everywhere he could find the 
marvels of the past and the treasures of the 

When he was able to go to Italy he went into 
ecstasies over the revelations that art made to him there. 
His studies while a shepherd had not prepared him for 
Paris and Rome. The drawing master of Lodeve had 
described Dard as possessed by the demon of art, and 



so he is, but he is possessed by the demon of literature 
and the demon of life as well, and that from the age of 
eight or nine. He read the Bible and loved the stories 
of the Evangelists, and at the same time he read Dante, 
and these two books influenced him more than any 
others. He was born a Catholic, and loved religion, but 
he read Lamarck " le grand Lamarck I n and loved 
Nature and the God of Nature with all his heart. The 
passion of his life was the Middle Ages, the Gothic, 
the beginning of the Renaissance. He admired Socrates, 
knew Shakespeare, and the tragedies of Sophocles, and 
read Alfred de Musset, Verlaine, and Baudelaire. A 
fair equipment for a young shepherd ! 

The war came, and all this enthusiasm and love of 
life was met by the tragedy of death, more awful than 
any tragedy in Greek or any other literature, Dard6 
had already, in the solitude of the C&vennes which he 
loved, produced a wonderful tragedy* Inspired by 
Dante, his Eternelle Douleur, carved in gypsum, the 
woman devoured by serpents, is one of the most ex 
traordinary pieces of work from the hands of a modem 
sculptor, and one of the most extraordinary plastic 
illustrations from any literature, The piece is just the 
woman's head, the face turned upwards, and in and 
about her hair the coils of the snakes which are her 
punishment, Eternelle Douleur was exhibited at the 
Salon of 1920, and is a vivid proof of the Hterary im 
pression to which its author is susceptible. No illus 
tration of Dante has ever reached to the verisimilitude 
of Dard6 in this work* 

The war over and the sculptor released from its call, 
he immediately set about a work which was to illustrate 


his passion of life, and incidentally his passionate 
artistry. The Faun was carved direct in Neuville stone 
in the studio in the rue de PUniversit6, occupied by 
Rodin when he was engaged on the Gate of Hell, 
and provided for Dard6 by the good offices of 
M. Laferre, who had purchased for the State the 
Eternelle Douleur. It had to be a large atelier for the 
block of stone out of which The Faun is hewn, weighed 
10,000 kilogrammes. It is a cyclopean image and sym 
bolises, not only its author's love of the deep springs 
of life, but also his religion of nature ; his belief in the 
great god Pan. It was placed amid some few shrubs in 
the Salon, a fitting environment only possible in the 
wide space of the Grand Palais, and was an instant 
success. All Paris, and half the world, hurried to see 
The Faun seated there, an enigmatic smile on his 
grave, triangular face, one hand supporting his chin, 
the other twined along the limbs and clasping the 
ankle of the leg bent from the knee. Kindly observant, 
conversant with all the good and evil in human nature, 
the god-like figure seemed to sum up all the philosophy 
of life into one complete simplification. 

The Faun and Eternelle Douleur were the success 
of the 1920 Salon. Artists marvelled at them, the public 
were pleased but puzzled, and the State awarded Dard6 
the Prix National de Salon, and Dard6 was only 
thirty-two years old ! In the quiet and calm of the 
hours following the war, during 1918 and 1919, he had 
produced The Faun and, in addition, a book of designs, 
cartoons, engravings and water-colour drawings, as 
well as his Joan of Arc for Montpellier, his funeral 
monuments for Lodeve and Soub6s, and a head of 



Christ. Rodin's old studio is awake again to the sound 
of the chisel, and the modelling of clay once more pre 
vails there, animated by the dynamic spirit of Earth's 
elemental material, working through one of her own 
veritable sons. 

Among other French sculptors, who work direct, is 
Andr6 Abbal, born at Montech (Tarn et Garonne), 
who exhibited at the Autumn Salon two heads in stone, 
to which colour has been added, the artist reverting to 
the custom of the mediaeval sculptors. 

An interesting figure is that of the very young French 
sculptor, Pierre Francois Fernand Delannoy, who was 
born in Paris as recently as 1897, and received his art 
education at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts in 
the rue Bonaparte, His aim in life is the search after 
beauty, and for this he sacrifices the rewards that might 
be gained by flattering the tastes of the public* Art for 
art's sake is the old principle to which Delannoy has 
devoted himself, and the joy of a life so devoted is seen 
in his work, healthy, strong and natural, full to over 
flowing with physical energy. It is epitomised in his 
joyous statue called La Folie de Printemps in the Salon 
des Artistes Franks of 1920* A jolly figure, finely 
modelled, of a nude dancer beautifully poised on the 
toes of the right foot and touching the left with the 
flowers which she holds in her right hand* Her laughing 
face completes a vision of the joie de vivre. A com 
panion work was the bust of M* Potier, and the sculptor 
has also done busts for the ComMe Fran5aise s one of 
an old Alsatian woman in the Salon, 1919, and in the 
Autumn Salon, the same year, his Tambourine Dancer 
was seen. 



The after-war conditions of nationality in Alsace 
have resulted in considerable activity among the artists 
of that province, and at the Autumn Salon of 1920 
there was a special section devoted to their works. The. 
Strasbourg sculptors included Anna Bass, who shewed 
bronze sketches of Danaide, and Mourning, and one 
in terra-cotta of a child for a fountain-statue for garden; 
Alfred Klein, with a bronze statuette of a Beggar ; 
Edouard Preiser, who displayed a group of Alsatian 
soldiers, in plaster, and a head of a baby, and Albert 
Schultz, with Birds-Nesters, and a medal of Liberation. 
Henri Ebel, of Fegersheim, exhibited a bust of his 
Mother, and a study of a Goat ; Marthe Kessler, of 
Wilfisheim, a terra-cotta bust ; Alfred Marzolff, of 
Runzenheim, a study in terra-cotta of a monument 
La Marseillaise, and Marguerite Petry two busts, and 
Sorrow in terra-cotta. 

There is little to record of French colonial sculp 
ture, but Emile Gaudissart, of Algiers, is represented 
in the Luxembourg by a marble Spring, and a bronze 
figurine of a Moorish woman. 

France is happy and has always been, in the posses 
sion of many fine sculptors, men who are admirably 
equipped for the work they have to do. Fortunately 
their country loves sculpture and provides commissions 
for them. The great annual exhibitions are full of work 
of all degrees of accomplishment, and only a full his 
tory of French sculpture of to-day could do justice to 
the excellence of the works which come year by year 
from the ateliers of Paris. There are hundreds of good 
sculptors in France ; hundreds even in Paris, many of 
them significant. 

81 G 


No less than thirty-three sculptors, soci&aires and 
other exhibitors of the Artistes Fran^ais died for France 
in the War, and to them must be added those who ex 
hibited at the other salons of Paris, a loss to French 
sculpture of great dimensions. Triumphant in the arts 
as ever, France shews to-day a magnificent array of 
artists in sculpture. In the Soci6t6 Nationale des Beaux- 
Arts there is the President of the Sculpture Section, 
Despiau ; Alfred Jean Halou, who in 1920 exhibited a 
bronze portrait bust of fine character, a marble bather 
and a garden fountain with a statue in terra-cotta ; 
Alphonse Marcel-Jacques, with two busts ; Paul Paulin 
with three bronze portrait busts of men ; Raoul Lam- 
ourdedieu, with his statue in stone, Vaines Aspirations ; 
Gaston Toussaint, with his Faun, an old Breton and a 
bust, in plaster and terra-cotta, and many others. In 
the department of sculpture of the Salon d'Automne, 
Fernand David, the president, exhibited in 1920, five 
busts, and a statue in plaster ; Francois Emile Popineau, 
a marble bust of Isidora Duncan ; Henri Bouchard, 
a group of women and children ; Camille Charles 
Pantot, a sketch in stone* 

There are so many distinguished sculptors in France, 
Gaston Schnegg among them, painter as well as sculp 
tor, and exhibitor at the International Society of Sculp* 
tors, Painters and Gravers in London, and Member of 
the Jury of the Soci6t6 Nationale des Beaux-Arts, 
Where there are so many sculptors, there must be good 
sculpture, and France is happy in her appreciation of 
the gift which has been vouchsafed to her* She is care 
ful to reward her artists while they are alive, and when 
they are dead she honours them in a memorial 



exhibition, as for example that of Antonin Carles, born 
in 1851, died in 1919, honoured by the display of fifty 
of his works at the Salon of 1920, and that also of Raoul 
Larche (1860-1912), more conventional than Carles, 
not great, but still an artist, and therefore, in the eyes 
of his country, worthy of commemoration. 

Further, and in conclusion, it is impossible to render 
justice to the splendid teachers of sculpture in Paris, 
who have been devoting their lives and energies to 
bringing to fruition the talents of those who seek 
them out the students who are becoming the younger 
sculptors of to-day ; those who will become the sculptors 
of the future. Homage of all nations to Allar, Coutan, 
Injalbert, Marqueste, Merci<, Puech and Verlet ! 


SEEKING to do honour to the art of Switzer 
land, the organisers of the twelfth International 
Exhibition of the Fine Arts at Venice in 1920, 
chose to get together a representative collection of the 
paintings of Ferdinand Hodler, who died in 1918* 
There were forty examples, and no other Swiss pictures 
were shewn. Associated with this special individual 
exhibition was a smaller show of sculpture by August 
de Rodo Niederhausen, the sculptor who died in 1913* 
In this way Swiss art of the last fifty years was epitom 
ised, although not generally represented, for both in 
painting and sculpture during that period the Republic 
has produced a number of fine artists, in addition to 
Rodo de Niederhausen and Hodler* 

Rodo de Niederhausen, born in 1863, was looked 
upon as the best of the Swiss sculptors, and his early 
death was a loss to the school* He has left several 
fine* things, including a marble bust of a woman, and a 
bronze bust of Carpeaux, and heads of Verlaine,' in 
clay and plaster, and the bust which surmounts the 
memorial to Verlaine, the rest of the monument being 
hardly equal to the excellence of the bust. His Jeremiah* 
in bronze, is in the Museum of Art and History at 
Geneva, and this and his Bathers* L/Operaia The 
Vine, and the bust of Ferdinand Hodler, all in bronze, 
were seen at Venice. There also was shewn the only 



facing p. 84 



facing p, 85 


piece of sculpture ever modelled by Hodler, the bust 
in bronze, known as Donna Malata. In the 1909 Salon, 
Niederhausen had a plaster bas-relief, The End of the 
Dream, and most of his works were seen first in Paris, 
where he was greatly esteemed. 

Luigi Vassalli was born in 1867 at Lugano, where he 
is now a professor in the Cantonal Art School. He 
studied in Milan, at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, 
where he was a pupil of Ambrozio Borghi and Lorenzo 
Vela. He is a realist with classical tendencies due to his 
training and environment. His first work of import 
ance was one of the early realistic sepulchral monu 
ments, Affliction, executed in 1890, and exhibited at 
Geneva in 1896. It consists of a straight shaft, bearing 
a portrait medallion, but the chief detail is the sitting 
figure of a woman with a shawl around her head. An 
even more realistic work, which is also highly pictorial, 
is the bas-relief on the monument of Independence, 
celebrating the Centenary, and inaugurated in 1898. 
It represents a street battle, soldiers, populace and 
architecture all being represented in a highly natural 
istic fashion. Another bas-relief is the decorative arch 
on the Federal Palace at Berne, which, although it 
contains small naturalistic details, is more classical, but 
in treatment realistic, and the same treatment is ob 
served in the further relief, The Supplication of the 
Angels, which however is more or less in the con 
vention of the usual religious monuments. The work 
obtained a bronze medal at the Universal Exposition 
of Paris in 1900. At this exhibition was also shewn 
Vassalli's most realistic piece, the group of Pestalozzi, 
with a boy, which contains no sort of interference with 



the realism either of subject or treatment. The work 
was premiated at Zurich in 1897, and has also been 
exhibited at Budapest. A further work with a religious 
subject is the panel in high relief on the Somazzi tomb 
at Lugano, exhibited at Lausanne in 1904. To this year 
belongs the fine monument to General Herzog in 
Aaran, which obtained the first prize in competition : 
a shaft bears a bust of the General, and radiating from 
the lower portion of the shaft are two abutments which 
include high reliefs of wounded soldiers. From this 
period Vassalli, except in his portrait-busts, adopted 
a more classical style, which is illustrated in the Con 
tinuity of Life, a female figure, lightly draped, forming 
part of a memorial in the cemetery at Lugano, where 
there is also a monument to the poet and novelist, 
Siongio Tommaso Cimino, made in 1913, A monument 
in quite a different fashion that of using flowers 
naturalistically as decorationa fashion which is not 
good, is the high relief of a girlish figure representing 
the Angel of Destiny, the figure is well done, and there 
is a good decorative female head. At Lugano, too, in 
the Art Museum is the striking head of Christ Dead, 
carved from the marble, the matrix being left as a 
background, against which the long hair clings ; the 
brow bears two tears symbolic of the agony. Pain, a 
head in plaster, was seen at Berne in 1919, as also 
the fine statue of Mercury in Sorrow, quite in the 
classical manner, the figure seated, the right leg drawn 
up and the head resting upon the knee and the right 
hand ; the ankles shew the small wings of the god. The 
statue is in the cemetery at langenthal The busts 
include the portrait of a lady done in 1912, Vela the 



sculptor, Lampugnani, the lawyer at Trieste, and 
Carlo Battaglini for the monument to be erected in 

James Vibert was born at Geneva in 1872, and was 
educated at the Industrial Art School there, and after 
wards received instruction from Rodin. He is a Chev 
alier of the Legion of Honour, and one of the found 
ation members of the Autumn Salon, Paris, from which, 
in 1902, his Human Endeavour was acquired by the 
State. In 1900 he was awarded a silver medal in the 
Universal Exposition. In 1903 his Life in Death was 
seen at the Champ de Mars, Visions in 1904, Swiss 
Wrestlers in 1905, a marble female bust in 1906, and 
in the following year a head of John the Baptist. Other 
works are two bronze vases, The Lake and The Moun 
tain, a large group in marble, Le Serment des Trois 
Suisses, which decorates the Hall of the Federal Palace 
at Berne. Other works in the Palace are statues in 
marble of Liberty, and Peace. His marble busts of the 
writer, Robert de Traz, and the Procurator, Navazza, 
were seen at Venice in 1920, and the latter now belongs 
to the Museum of Art and History at Geneva. 

Albert Carl-Angst was born at Geneva in 1875, and, 
after studying at the Industrial Art School there, he 
went to Paris and worked in the studio ,of Jean Dampt 
from 1896 to 1904. He was awarded a gold medal at 
Munich, and is a soci6taire of the Nationale des Beaux- 
Arts at Paris. An important work is his Maternity, a 
group of mother and child, which in marble was ex 
posed in Zurich in 1910, and at Rome and Paris in 191 1 . 
In 1920 the same subject was exhibited at the Paris 
Salon des Beaux- Arts in Poullinay sandstone. It is a 



massive work, with heavy draperies with but few folds, 
from beneath which the feet are partly seen. The child 
Kes in the woman's lap, and the mother's hands caress 
its feet and body, while she bends down to kiss its face. 
There is a good deal of dignity in the simple design of 
the group. In 1911 he exhibited at Rome two bronzes, 
Maternity and Early Joys. His marble Spring Song 
was acquired by the Art Museum of Geneva, after 
having been exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1909. He 
made a monument to Edouard Rod in 1915, and in 
1920 one to Adrien LachenaL In 1920, at the Venice 
International, his marble Birth of Man was exhibited* 
Most of the Swiss sculptors have received a cos 
mopolitan education in their art, and Arnold Hiiner- 
wadel, who was born in 1877, at Lenzburg, commenced 
at Zurich, under Richard Kisling, one of the finest 
Swiss artists, who died in 1919. From Zurich, Hiiner- 
wadel went on to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, at Paris, 
and then to Munich, Florence, and Berlin. He settled 
in Zurich in 1916, having already exhibited his Flower 
Maiden, a study of a kneeling girl in coloured terra 
cotta, at Florence (1907), and The Fountain, now in 
the cemetery at Zurich (1913). These two works are 
quite different in style, the terra-cotta modelled suit 
ably for the medium with little attempt at fine work or 
anatomical insistence, and the figure clothed in a Hght 
garment. In The Fountain, the figure is that of a 
reclining woman, her right hand over her left breast, 
her left elbow supporting the pose* The legs are lightly 
crossed. The work is in stone, and the carving indicates 
more concern for anatomy, but not to a very large 
extent. This comes later in the Weeping Woman of 



facing p. 88 



fariiif* p, H ( ) 


1916, in which the upper part of the figure is carefully 
modelled. The sculptor goes back to coloured terra 
cotta in his Fortuna of 1918, a standing figure, well- 
posed, the left hand holding the sphere, the eyes lightly 
bandaged, the hands treated quite frankly in the 
medium, without detail. A Fountain Group, made also 
in this year, and now in a private garden in Zurich, 
consists of two standing female figures, supporting on 
their heads and hands a large shell. One is draped and 
the other nude. They are very graceful and well modelled. 
A tomb figure of 1919 is somewhat original in design. 
A draped female stands between two cylindrical 
columns on which her arms are supported. The pose is 
pensive and not too sorrowful, the draperies are simply 
modelled, the head is treated more simply still. The 
work commemorates the Reinhart-Sulzer family of 
Zurich. The latest work of Hiinerwadel is a bronze 
statuette called The Cloud. It is a kneeling woman, 
with arms held above her head, and into it its author 
has put all the knowledge and skill he possesses. It is 
beautifully expressed. In treatment it somewhat re 
sembles the terra-cotta work, but is more accomplished 
than anything Hiinerwadel had done previously. 

Herman Haller was born at Berne in 1880, and 
received his art education at Stuttgart, Rome and 
Paris, He now lives and works in Zurich, and has ex 
hibited at the Autumn Salon at Paris, the Berlin and 
Munich Secessions, Vienna, and in his own country 
at Basle, Berne, Geneva, and Zurich. His work is whole 
heartedly of the modern school, with perhaps reminis 
cences of the primitives. A typical example is a head 
in terra-cotta of Marie Laurencin, the French painter, 


in the KisHng collection at Zurich. It is designedly 
coarse in its surface treatment, and the hair is frankly 
indicated by small blobs of clay pressed on with finger 
and thumb, no attempt being made towards con 
ventional treatment. The head is not beautiful, but it is 
expressive. In 1909 his Girl Walking was noticeable, 
and a Garden Figure (now at Wiesbaden) of a girl 
standing with drapery falling below her knees and held 
by her hands, was exhibited the following year. In 1912 
his Young Man, in bronze, was shewn, and in 1920, 
at Venice, he had three portraits in terra-cotta at the 
International Exhibition. 

A quite young sculptor of talent is Auguste Heng, 
who was born in 1891* He works in limestone, among 
other materials, and has modelled some charming little 
subjects, such as dancers, in a semi-cubistic fashion, 
which is rather attractive, and in a similar way he has 
made portrait busts, which are quite characteristic. He 
studied at Chaux de Fonds, at the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts, in Paris, and largely in the museums. He had a 
one-man show in Paris, where he lives, in 1918, and 
the following year his work was seen at the Swiss 
Federal Exhibition, 

Louis Gallet is another young sculptor who was 
born in Chaux de Fonds, and who does subjects in 
bronze and plaster of working people* 

Among the Swiss sculptors who were represented 
at Venice in 1920 were Giuseppe FogHa, Herman 
Hiebacher, Ernest Kisling, with portraits in bronze and 
marble ; Maurice Sarkissoff, with two bronsse female 
masks ; Edouard Zimmerman, with a bronze girl ; 
and Apoltonio Pessina, with a marble head of an old 



facing p. 90 



facing p. 91 


man. Luciano Jaggi had two marble torsos of a boy, 
and a girl, delightful works, realistically treated, in 
which there are reminders of the male torso by Mes- 
trovic, in the South Kensington Museum. 

The Basle sculptors include Edouard Marcel Sandoz, 
Carl Burckhardt, Henri Valette, who works in stone, 
bronze and silver, Richard Adolf Zutt, born in 1887, 
and exhibiting at Carlsruhe and Munich, and Hans 
Frei, the medallist. The most important Zurich sculp 
tors are Walter Mettler, Adolf Meyer, Paul Osswald, 
and Herman Hubacher. Jules Twembley was born in 
Geneva, as was also Auguste Biaggi, and other sculp 
tors of note are Fritz Huf, born at Lucerne, Auguste 
Heer, Edouard Zimmerman, and Natalie Albisetti, while 
4 Theodore Steinlen was born at Lausanne, but is claimed 
by Paris. 

At the Autumn Salon, in Paris in 1920, Gaston 
Beguin, born at Le Locle, shewed a plaster bas-relief 
of women's heads, and a statuette of a young girl ; 
Alfred Biberstein, of Soleme, a marble head of a child, 
and a plaster bas-relief entitled Geneva : City of 
Refuge. At the Salon of the Soci6t6 Nationale, in 1909, 
Edwin Bucher, of Lucerne, exhibited a plaster portrait 
bust of merit ; Hans Frei, several medals and plaques, 
and Louis Gallet, a Young Workman, in bronze. 
Francois Black, who lives at Lausanne, is often regarded 
as a member of the Swiss School of Sculptors, but as 
he was born near Warsaw, I have referred to him in 
connection with the sculpture of Poland. 

9 1 


^"TP^HE Belgian renaissance began with the work of 
I Guillaume Geefs (1805-1883), who made some 

JL small, but useful, departures from the accepted 
classical tradition. From 1830 to 1850 the movement 
continued, and was accelerated by the more pronounced 
seeking after a naturalistic formula by Fraikin and 
Simonis. Both these men exercised a good influence 
on the taste of the time, and Fraikin affected the 
younger sculptors for good, but Simonis was the better 
sculptor, and carried naturalism a step further, By 
1870, naturalism had obtained a stronghold at the ex* 
pense of the decorative qualities of the earlier work, 
but there was still much to seek* Fassin, Cattier, and 
Bour6 are represented in the Brussels Museum, but a 
study of them there promises but little of the wonder 
ful future that was about to dawn* This dawn was to 
herald the advent of democracy into art : democracy 
which was naturalism without alloy, and the prophet 
of the movement was Gmstantin Meunier ; the Fran- 
501$ Millet and the Emile Zola of sculpture, 

Constantin Meunier was above aU things, and before 
all other men, the artist of the working classes, for their 
blood was his blood* He was the last of a family of six, 
and his mother became a widow when the boy was but 
two years old, and she brought up her children by the 
work of her hands in the Brussels suburb of Etterbeck, 



Meunier was born in 1831, and, entering the Academy 
at Brussels as a youth, he succumbed to the influences 
of Greek art. Although he entered Fraikin's studio 
and there learnt the beginnings of the practice of the 
sculptor's craft, his first attempt at expression was in 
painting, and his picture of 1857, called La Salle St. 
Roch, in which a Sister of Charity washes the feet of a 
beggar woman, recently dead, at once indicated a 
breaking away from the tradition of the antique. 

He visited the industrial centres of Belgium, always 
with the object of piercing the apparently unpleasing 
exterior of the workers, and getting at the emotions 
existing beneath, and, in doing so, he made even the 
outer seeming beautiful. This was in 1880, and for 
some years his art was that of the painter. During this 
time he learned that after all there was the splendid 
force of the Greeks, if not the coincident form, in the 
semi-naked bodies of coal-miners and furnace-men. 
He turned again to sculpture his small needs being 
met by his earnings as teacher of drawing at Louvain 
University and in 1886 his important statue, The 
Hammerman, was erected. 

There is no more significant date in modern art his 
tory, for it marks the period in which fine sculptors, 
such as Jef Lambeaux and Thomas Vin9Otte, were 
coming to maturity. Meunier was fifty-five years old 
at the time, Paul de Vigne and Van der Stappen were 
forty-three. It was a brilliant constellation, and it was 
to be succeeded by one no less brilliant and still con 
temporary with Meunier. 

Meunier 's art was new and strange, and therefore it 
was some time before Europe awakened to the fact 'that 



a great master was at work on a great new truth in 
Belgium : the newer art was not so rapidly disseminated 
in the eighteen eighties as it was a quarter of a century 
later. In 1896, however, Meunier being sixty-five years 
old, but flourishing, a collection of his bronzes and 
drawings was exhibited by Bing at Paris, and in the 
following years was seen in Dresden, Berlin, Vienna, 
and other cities of the Continent. They were labelled 
L/Art Nouveau, and correctly, if regarded in a literal 
sense, but incorrectly if regarded from the point of 
view of the later movement which became notorious 
under the same label, a label which speedily became an 

Meunier seized on London at the Grafton Galleries 
in 1899, forty-six of his bronzes and a dozen of his 
drawings being shewn* The bronzes included the re 
liefs of The Puddlers, The Return of the Miners, 
Harvest and Industry ; the figures of The Hammer 
man, The Glassblower, The Miner Stooping, The 
Forefather, and The Resting Puddler ; and the busts 
known as The Miner, The Puddler, and A Woman of 
the People* This was a new art indeed for England's 
comprehension : it had its effect, but even now, its 
full effect has not been achieved* It made practicable 
a certain movement that had been but tentative before, 
for others besides Meunier had discovered the beauty 
of common things and its applicability to the plastic 
arts, but no one had carried it to the same degree of 
accomplishment. A bronze statuette of The Hammer 
man was purchased for the Bradford Art Gallery in 

Other sculptures of Meunier of note are The Old 



Pit Horse, a pathetic and very expressive object, The 
Lost Son, or Pardon, a touching group, The Load 
Carrier, a fine figure, and by many regarded as his 
most beautiful work, The Fisherman, and the group, 
Fire-Damp. Of The Valkyrie it is impossible to speak 
in the same way as of the realistic work of Meunier : 
it is vigorous and striking, but it does not convey the 
sense of truth that is so characteristic of the more 
human subjects, but if we had not had these others, 
then the Valkyrie would have ranked high in place in 
the newer and freer movement of Belgian sculpture. 

M. Georges Lecomte claims for Meunier 's work that 
it has pictorial as well as plastic merit ; he says that he 
combines the various parts of his work, so that a fine 
sense of values is given. " The proportions and lights 
of his groups, for instance, are rigorously in accord." 
All the parts are congruous, and by this means the unity 
of the work is secured. This is true, and it is true also 
of all good modern sculpture. It is true, too, that these 
principles were lost sight of for many years, but with 
the new birth of the art, has come a new understand 
ing of it, that reveals its new beauty, and for this Meunier 
is to be thanked in the same terms as Rodin and Rosso. 
Sculpture of the realistic and impressionist schools 
has qualities which that of the decorative and classical 
schools does not possess, while it lacks those which the 
purely decorative school has in a rich degree. We may 
like the one and we may like the other, each for its own 
qualities. Painter and sculptor also, as was Meunier, 
Alfred Stevens, in England, combined the two as no 
other sculptor has succeeded in doing. Falguiere, 
painter and sculptor, too, as are many others, was 



realistic at times, but more in method than in spirit, and 
the same may be said of Injalbert, witty, boisterous and 
full of the sense of riotous beauty. In Alfred Gilbert 
there is a serener sense of plastic beauty : each small 
piece of clay in Gilbert's fingers turns into something 
beautiful. He, too, as was the case with these others, 
knows all about human anatomy and the movements 
of the body ; he, too, is a master draughtsman, he has 
a vision of beauty which no mere realist has ever sur 
passed, he can associate forms and see them in their 
entirety, but it is a different entity he evolves* 

Meunier maintains that the source of all beauty is 
found in Nature, and that Nature and Life should be 
consulted without stint, and it was because of this that 
his work acquired its grandeur. But Falguiere and In 
jalbert added something that Meunier lacked I would 
go further and say that Meunier did not need and 
Alfred Gilbert added an imaginative decorative fancy, 
that none of these artists possessed in so definite a 
degree. Meunier, as reported by M, Georges Lecomte, 
maintains that " neither love of technique nor pre 
tensions to ideality " can take the place of the teach 
ings of life and nature, nor can they, but the greatest 
artist is he who can bring perfection of technique and 
the new visions of idealism to co-operate with his love 
of nature and of life. Patient study is required equally 
for all, and it matters little that study being honest 
if the result leans one way to idealism, or the other to 
realism ; a new and great work of art has been pro 
duced, and there should be joy in the land over its 

There are, however, certain qualities about Meunier's 



work which M. Lecomte insists on, its simplicity, its 
severity and its power, and he further maintains its 
dramatic quality, which surely is there, but which 
almost goes without saying, except that M. Lecomte 
regards the dramatic quality as being responsible for 
the absence of romanticism. These are terms which 
seem to be used a little dangerously in the criticism of 
sculpture. Drama is movement while sculpture is static, 
and it has been the crux of criticism for hundreds of 
years as to how far a sculptor may go in the direction 
of action. Romanticism is no bad thing in itself, even 
in sculpture, but a story is no less real or valuable 
or interesting because it is less dramatic or more 
romantic than another, and neither are wholly incon 
sistent with truth or life. 

Meunier's work was adversely criticised, of course, 
it was so great an advance on almost everything that 
had been seen in sculpture up to its advent, but Jules 
Destr^e and Emile Verhaeren, among others, under 
took its exposition and defence, and gradually the 
public, as well as the connoisseurs, were won. This 
was the case with regard to his painting, but even more 
to his sculpture, to which, however, his painting had 
pointed the way. It was Verhaeren who insisted on the 
fact that Meunier's art was concerned with character 
rather than with beauty, but this is not expressing the 
thing quite properly. It was the greatness of Meunier 
that he succeeded in expressing the beauty of char 
acter. It must be a beautiful thought that can produce 
an object of beauty and who can deny beauty of thought 
to Meunier's conceptions ? Who can deny, therefore, 
the quality of beauty to the objects which resulted ? 

97 H 


In the Luxembourg are five bronze works of 
Meunier: Industry, The Land, and The Puddlers, high 
reliefs, and The Hammerman and The Wharf Porters of 
Antwerp, figurines, but he is better represented in Bel 
gium. The Royal Museum at Brussels has sixteen works 
of the sculptor, all in bronze, as well as paintings and 
drawings in water-colour. None of the bronzes are 
large, the biggest, something over a yard in height, is 
the Fire-Damp group, the next the statue of The 
Puddler. The others consist of the well-known statu 
ettes, busts, groups, and reliefs, and all are signed. In 
1906 a collection of twenty works by the master was 
seen at the International Society in London, and in 
1920, at the Autumn Salon in Paris, there was a special 
exhibition of Meunier's works, including thirty of the 
most important. Of great interest was the presence of 
the Emile Zola monument, upon which Meunier was 
engaged at the time of his death, and the completion 
of which was made by Alexandre Charpentier, who had 
collaborated with Meunier in the work. I have no doubt 
this collection shewn in Paris will result in a new 
impetus there in the direction of naturalism in 

So far as the exhibition of Meunier's sculpture is 
concerned, his influence was contemporaneous with 
the succeeding generation, but it has to be remembered 
that he had commenced as painter, and that therefore 
he began to affect art generally so far as subject-matter 
was concerned, some years before his actual naturalistic 
sculptural works appeared- The men who were affected 
were Paul de Vigne, Charles Van der Stappen and 
Count Jacques de Lalaing : they were all naturalists 


in a smaller way with, however, a tender leaning to 
wards the old style. But Meunier at work with them, 
a real advance soon became apparent, although his own 
progress in the naturalistic method was out of all com 
parison with theirs. They lagged behind him in this. 
He was the innovator, and they were willing to become 
more real in their outlook on nature and more true in 
rendering it, but not too suddenly. 

The work of Paul de Vigne (born at Ghent in 1843, 
and dying at Brussels in 1901) was more in the direc 
tion of the styles of the Italian Renaissance and modern 
French, than in the new feeling of greater truth. His 
works are graceful and full of charm, and twelve of 
them are in the Royal Museum at Brussels, and his 
group of Breydel and de Coninck in the square at 
Bruges. His silvered bronze bust, Immortality, is in 
the Luxembourg Museum, given with other Belgian 
sculpture by M. H. J. Laroche. A bronze, Immortality, 
and another, Victory, were seen at Brighton in 1915. 
Charles van der Stappen was born in the same year as 
de Vigne, at Brussels, and died there nine years after 
4e Vigne 's death. His exhibited works extend in a long 
line from the year 1869, and three of them were seen 
at Brighton, and a statue, the Man with the Sword, 
and the Sphinx, a bust in marble, are in the Royal 
Museum at Brussels, as well as the sketch in plaster 
for the decoration of the facade of the Palace of the 
Fine Arts. His Death of Ompdrailles is in the Avenue 
Louise. In spite of the tendency of the times and his 
obvious adherence to greater truth to nature, there re 
mains a strong classical flavour in all Van der Stappen 's 
work, and this, combined with the long course of 



teaching as Professor of Sculpture at the Academy, during 
which many of the contemporary Belgian sculptors 
passed through his classes, explains why a more whole 
hearted adherence to Meunier's principles was still 
lacking. Jacques de Lalaing was the youngest of the 
group, and is best known as the author of the statue on 
the monument at Evere to the English who fell at 
Waterloo, and another war memorial by him is in the 
Avenue Louise, a further public work being the statue 
of Robert-Cavelier de la Salle, the explorer of the Mis- 
sissipi, in the Park at Chicago. 

Although this group was powerful in shaping the 
future of Belgian sculpture, there is another which, 
while it retained certain characteristics derived from 
it, went still nearer to Meunier in its truth to nature* 
The members of it were more nearly concerned with 
the craftsmanship of their art and less with the class 
icism and culture of it* All were carvers in their early 
years, and never disdained their characteristics, re 
maining simple in their lives as well as in their art. 
They were in the true line of the tradition, not only of 
the Flemish sculptors of the golden age, but in that 
also of the Italian Renaissance which, during residence 
in Italy, all of them had studied. They were Julien 
Dillens, Georges Geefs, Jef Lambeaux, and Thomas 
Vingotte. All these men were born in the first five years 
of the second half of the nineteenth century, and Vin~ 
fotte is still happily with us. Geefs and Vin^otte were 
friends, and enthusiastically pursued their studies to 
gether in their native city of Antwerp, where all four 
members of the group were born. 

The work of Dillens is of a somewhat decorative 



character as the reliefs for the Solway Institute, and 
the Godefroy gift at Brussels indicate, as well as his 
group of Justice on the Palais de Justice, his chief piece 
of work. Born in 1849, he exhibited his first Bust of a 
Child there when he was twenty-one, and many of his 
works were executed for his native city, but in addition 
to those at Antwerp and Brussels, important pieces 
may be seen at Ghent, Nivelles and Epernay. His busts 
of Roger Van der Weyden, and Rubens, in bronze, are 
in the Brussels Museum, as well as a marble tomb- 
figure, and his bust of the Belgian poet Goffin is in the 
Luxembourg. He died in 1904. 

Jef Lambeaux, who died in 1908, was younger, 
having been born in 1852. He is represented in the 
Royal Museum by his bust of Jordaens, Legendary 
Heroes, and The Wrestlers, all in bronze, but his 
masterpiece is the great Fountain at Antwerp. Jef 
Lambeaux was a very human being, and his compel 
ling sense of humour is seen in The Merry Song, with 
its laughing nymph and satyr, while in Robbing the 
Eagle's Nest, of 1890, there is the finished expression 
of pain and vigorous strength and movement. This 
work belongs to Brussels, and to the same place and 
year, Intoxication. The extraordinary bas-relief, the 
Passions of Humanity, dates five years later, and is one 
oftKeTa^ of works which began in 1871 

with the group in plaster called War. Lambeaux was 
an honorary member of the International Society of 
Sculptors, Painters and Engravers, and exhibited in 

The Belgian School of Sculpture provides two ex 
amples of the persistence of an art in members of one 



family Jean-Fran?ois Van Geel, born in Malines in 
1736, and dying in Antwerp in 1830, and his son, Jean- 
Louis, dying at Brussels in 1852, have a whole century 
of sculpture to their credit. A further period of almost 
identical lengths belongs to the family of Geefs. Three 
brothers, Guillaume, born in 1805, Joseph, born in 
1808, and Jean, born in 1825, all of Antwerp, were 
succeeded by Georges, son of Joseph, born in 1850, 
whose work belongs to the contemporary period, his 
statue in bronze of Sculpture being one of the four on 
the entablature of the entrance to the Palais des Beaux- 
Arts at Brussels, and his bronze bust of Quentin Metsys 
in the Museum, the catalogue of which contains alto 
gether some sixty examples of the art of this family. 
The other three figures of the entablature are by Guil 
laume de Groot ? Louis Samain, and Egide M61ot 

The decoration of the Palace is in itself a monument 
to later Belgian sculpture. Charles Van der Stappen 
has three bronze figures in a group, the Teaching of 
Art, and opposite is Paul de Vigne's group, the Crown 
ing of Art. On the fa$ade are marble bas-reliefs by 
Charles Brunin and Thomas Vin^otte, the latter being 
responsible also for the medallion of the architect of 
the palace on the staircase, which is dated 1902. The 
facade further includes ten bronze statues, represent 
ing the arts of the Nations. Other busts and statues, 
which decorate the entrance-hall and interior, are by 
Van Rasbourg, Jean Cuypers, and Antoine -Felix Bour6* 
The Museum building is an epitome of the sculpture 
of the period to which it belongs, although not a com 
plete epitome. 

The veteran of Belgian Sculpture, Thomas Jules 



Vingotte, was born at Borgerhout, Antwerp, in Jan 
uary, 1850, and, after being educated at the Athenaeum, 
passed to the Academic des Beaux-Arts of his native 
city. His grand-uncle, Louis Alvin, chief librarian of 
the Royal Library, was President also of the Royal 
Belgian Academy, and regarded in the Vingotte family 
as an oracle on art. The nephew received his uncle's 
imprimatur, and at once took up modelling. This was 
in 1868. Later he spent a year and a half in study and 
work in Paris, visiting the Belgian painter, Alfred 
Stevens, and Puvis de Chavannes, but the visit which 
made most impression on him was to Carpeaux. He 
found a comrade in Jules Desbois, and worked on his 
Giotto which, in 1875, was exhibited in marble at 
Brussels, and found a place in the Royal Museum. 
Thus his career as an exhibiting sculptor of importance 
began when he was but twenty-five years old. In 1877, 
Vingotte left for Italy, realising a dream and finding 
the reality better than the dream. He lived in Florence 
for eighteen months, and, in 1879, produced his 
monument in the Brussels Park to the sculptor Gilles- 
Lambert Godecliarlei (1750-1835), of whose work the 
Royal Museum possesses no less than eighty examples. 
Vin?otte's busy life had now commenced in earnest. 
He made busts of Leopold II and Queen Marie-Hen- 
riette, which are in the Brussels Museum, and began 
his work for the principal fagade of the Palais des 
Beaux-Arts, Music. Busts and medallions, in bronze 
and marble, of Princes and countesses, architects, 
generals and professors followed each other rapidly. 
The marble statues, d'Agneessens, at Brussels, de 
Palfyn, in bronze, at Courtrai, Medusa, the Albert 



Solway Monument, the Jean Stas Monument at Brussels, 
St. Cecile, a bronze statuette, and portraits in ivory, 
bring the list of works down to the beginning of the 
present century. 

Then there are further busts and medallions; the 
monument to Louis de Naeyer at Willebroeek, that to 
Zenobe Gramme at Li6ge, the Quadriga of the Cin- 
quantenaire Arcade (in collaboration with Jules Lagae), 
the statue of Thonissen, the pediment of the Royal 
Palace at Brussels, a portrait of King Albert, in ivory, 
two decorative figures in pierre bleue on the new central 
railway station at Antwerp, and lastly, the monument 
to the dead Belgians on the Congo of 1920, 

There are in all over a hundred first-class works, 
and of minor pieces there are many more. Vin^otte's 
early training has stood him well throughout life ; he 
has always been a great worker. He has the faculty of 
industry, and his imagination works quickly , iand his 
technique is rapid, and, what is more, he brings his 
works to a speedy and satisfactory conclusion. Unlike 
Meunier, Vin?otte has not dealt in* his sculpture with 
the life of the worker, nor like Charlier, has he depicted 
the life of the peasant, but strong, manly energy is to 
be seen in his torso exhibited at the International 
Exhibition of 1910. Even when dealing with mines and 
other industries common to his native country, he has 
done so largely in the traditional manner, as in hia 
decorations on the Royal Palace. There are no miners, 
but semi-nude female figures and children ; in the 
panel representing the Harvest, the nude figure of a 
man is added ; in the panel, Agriculture, all the fruits 
of the earth are used as decorative adjuncts to the 


facing p. 104 



facing p 10%*! 


figures of women and boys, and in the central panel 
representing Belgium, is a draped female supported 
by groups composed on the lines of the panels. 

The nearest approach to realism is seen in the Louis 
de Naeyer monument, where a woman and a girl are 
clothed in the dresses of the lower middle class, and 
this example serves to indicate what Vin^otte might 
have done in this direction if he had had time. Neither 
is his Horse Breaker in the Avenue Emile Dernot, 
Brussels, which might so easily have been treated real 
istically, other than in his modified classical manner. 
The group of the nude man with two horses affords, 
however, proof of the sculptor's fine modelling, which 
is again seen in the decorations of the fountain basin 
at the Royal Chateau in the Ardennes, the horses modi 
fied into swimming animals by expansions of their 
hoofs, the men and women altered into mermen and 
mermaids, A touch of realism is, however, imparted 
into this work in the splendid torso of a Triton which 
forms a not inconsiderable part of its excellence. The 
nearest approach to a sense of humour in Vincotte's 
work is in the charming Goat sculpture in the Antwerp 
Museum ; a kid and boy in the act of play. All other 
works are on the serious side, unless we except the 
bust of Monsieur Emile de Mot, Burgomaster of 
Brussels, which has a most engaging and whimsical 

In the long series of portrait busts, that of the archi 
tect, Monsieur E. Acker, is notable on account* of its 
somewhat unusual treatment of the marble fore 
shadowed, however, in the clay model, and that of 
Professor Chandelon, which is a most accomplished 


and dignified work. Only in one instance has Vin<potte 
definitely adopted the method used by Rosso and 
Rodin, his great contemporaries, and that is in his 
Saint Cecile, in which the exquisite head is left in the 
slightly shaped marble, which, however, gives a clever 
and pleasing definition of hair, the neck again receding y 
into the matrix, only the face being fully carved. This 
example of influence, apart from that to which I have 
referred, is of the greatest interest. 

The latest work of this fine sculptor is his Congo 
Memorial Le Memorial des Beiges Morts & la con- 
quete pacifique de Congo in five subjects, four of 
them in relief, the fifth a surmounting group in the 
round, the whole being cut in stone, and forming a 
big and imposing composition. In one of the reliefs, 
Captain the Baron d'Harris is seen, the relief being 
very high and indeed part of the figure being cut in 
the round ; in another, the loyal and brave Sergeant 
De Bruyne, rifle in hand, refuses to abandon his chief. 
The subject of the surmounting group is Belgium 
welcoming the Black Races* It is a fine conception, 
finely rendered, and the figure of the black woman 
offering her children, and the accepting figure, are full 
of grace. 

Vin$otte's work is not so widely known outside 
Belgium as it ought to be, for he has not exhibited much 
away from his own country. While at the International 
Exhibition at Venice, in 1914, his countrymen, CharEer, 
d'Haveloose, Minne, Rombaux, Rousseau, and Wou- 
ters, all exhibited their sculpture, there was no ex^ 
ample by Vin?otte, but in Belgium he is acknowledged 
on all hands, and his influence is, and has always been, 



peculiarly intimate. As Professor at the Institute of 
Fine Arts at Antwerp, a phalanx of distinguished stu 
dents gathered around him : Josue Dupon ; Edouard 
Deckers, who won the Godecharle prize in 1897, and 
has a small work in the Brussels Museum, The 
Charmer ; Charles Co lard, who won the prize ten 
years later ; Alfred Courtens, who won it in 1914 ; 
Arthur Dupon, who won the Prix de Rome in 1912 ; 
Pierre Theunis ; the medallist, Jules Baetes, and Franz 
Huygelen. All have benefited by Vingotte's teaching. 

The four contemporaries of Meunier most largely 
responsible for carrying on the Belgian tradition of their 
period were Julien Dillens, Georges Geefs, Jef Lam- 
beaux and Thomas Vin?otte, and although they do not 
exhibit any marked likenesses of style with Meunier's 
work, they exhibit his desire for truth in the repre 
sentation of nature, and this was a great advance. An 
even closer association of style with Meunier, however, 
is found in the work of Guillaume Charlier, who was 
born more than twenty years after Meunier in 1854 
at Ixelles, Brussels but his career as a sculptor coin 
cides with Meunier 's, for it was not until the early 
eighteen-eighties that Meunier turned definitely to 
sculpture, and it was in the year 1880 that Guillaume 
Charlier, then twenty-six years old, and having re 
ceived his education in art at the Acad&nie Royale at 
Brussels, and the Ecole des Beaux- Arts, at Paris, ex 
hibited his plaster statuette of a female coal-worker, 
in trousers and with miner's lamp. He can hardly have 
been influenced by Meunier's sculpture, but Meunier's 
spirit as exhibited in his paintings may have helped 
to form the sympathies of the younger man. These 



sympathies developed, and many of Charlier's works are 
of an industrial character, as The Mother and Child, 
the Poor Woman and Infant and The Grandmother 
done during this decade. The Prayer, in marble, in 
the Royal Museum at Brussels, belongs to the same 
period, but is not quite in the same manner. Some 
years were then devoted to subjects of sentiment, such 
as Misery, Anxiety, and Maternal Sorrow, and to busts, 
among which is the simple but impressive Veuve 
bavaroise, in marble, in the Luxembourg. The bronze, 
Le Chene, in the Botanical Gardens at Brussels, of 
this period, continues the series of monumental works 
begun as early as 1889 with The Fishers, Later works, 
including statues, groups and reliefs, are to be seen in 
the park at Tournai (the bronze statue of the painter 
Gallait, and the monument to Jules Bara in bronze, 
with the surmounting statue of Justice in granite) ; in 
the park at Antwerp (statue and relief in Sprimont 
granite of the painter, Th6odore Verstraete), and at 
Blankenberghe (the bronze relief of the Renunciation 
of Sergeant de Bruyne in white stone). These work$ 
date to the period of the war, and In 1920 were added 
to by the bronze memorial to Our Soldiers dead for 
the Fatherland. Charlier has done a series of drawiri^s t 
studies from life not sculptors* drawing for working 
purposes, however which are of considerable interest: 
Of all the sculptors of Belgium, CharHer is th$ 
nearest in spirit to Meunier, and his work makes a dis 
tinct place for itself in the sculpture of the period. Iffoe 
Coup de Collier, a group in Sprimont granite, is 
typical later example, and the bronze group, :H|0 
Blind, belonging to Tournai and the year 1906, 



displays all Charlier's sympathies with the lives of the 
humble. Further work of this character is his Sea Wolf, 
in marble, dated 1908, and the head of an old sailor' 
shewing no falling away from the spirit of the earlier 
fisherman-busts. To the following year belong two 
busts in bronze, and one in marble. In the hundred 
and thirty works catalogued as by Guillaume Charlier, 
a high level of merit has been maintained throughout. 
Four works in marble and three in bronze were ex 
hibited in Venice at the International in 1914. 

In leaving the more properly Flemish sculptors for 
a consideration of their Walloon brothers, it is interest 
ing to note that Meunier's style becomes not more but 
less accepted, and, in point of fact, however wholesome 
the character of his work has been in Belgium, it has 
acted more powerfully still outside. Belgium is mightily 
proud of this great artist, one of her chief glories, and 
it cannot lessen this pride to know that Meunier's in 
fluence is world-wide, as is that of Rodin. It seems as 
though all styles of sculpture, as all styles in all the 
arts, must be perpetuated, once they are introduced, 
but in the cases of most of the accepted styles, perfec 
tion has been reached and subsequent work must neces 
sarily mean imitation. I have not found that Meunier 
has been surpassed, but it is interesting to note that 
those sculptors who have tried to excel him, have been 
animated by the same sincerity and the same desire 
for truth that animated the master. 

The art of the portrait bust is understood in Belgium 
and France. In America and Great Britain a bust is a 
rare thing in a house. Painted portraits are common 
enough, but busts are regarded as objects for public 



buildings and museums. The Belgian family likes to 
have portrait busts, and it cherishes them, and they are 
very much a part of the household, and the art of the 
bust-portrait has therefore reached a high level One 
of its best exponents is Franz Huygelen, who was born 
at Antwerp in 1878, and who was a pupil of Vin<;otte 
at the Institute Sup6rieur de r Academic Royale of his 
native city, later to become a professor of sculpture 
there himself. He secured the first Grand Prix de 
Rome, in 1900, and has made a rapid and distinguished 
career for himself. He expresses a great regard for 
English sculpture and sculptors, claiming that the 
English and Belgian schools are nearly allied. He 
admires the London museums and the treasures of 
sculpture they possess, and so far as a wide knowledge 
of the sculpture of past ages is concerned, the British 
Museum is, as he says, invaluable. Works by Huygelen 
are to be found in the museums of Brussels, Bruges, 
Tervueren, Malines, Ixelles, Ghent, and Cardiff, They 
reveal the work of a man of culture and taste, and they 
are full of charm. The most intriguing of his ideal 
works was his Siren, a partly-draped figure playing a 
stringed instrument and embraced by a finely modelled 
figure of a man extended at full length. This work was 
destroyed in the bombardment of Antwerp in 1914* 
Another work is Adam and Eve finding the body of 
Abel, which the sculptor produced after a long visit to 
Italy, on his return to Brussels. One of his earliest busts 
known as Taxandre was exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in London, and is now in the Museum at Cardiff; 
another is M. le Baron de Laveleye in jhe gallery 
of portraits in the Academy at Brussels ; another, 



Monseigneur the Count of Flanders, and the latest is 
M. Van der Dussen de Kestergat, the founder of work 
men's dwellings, this being exhibited at the Brussels 
Spring Salon, 1920, where his Madame J. Istaz was 
also seen, a really distinguished piece of work in marble. 

Three beautiful ideal busts are Paix, Consolatrix, and 
Excelsior, works with a strong classical tendency, 
and Esperanza, a more naturalistic study," a portrait 
from life, I should think, of a very handsome woman 
who desires to remain unknown by name, but who will 
certainly be well-known and remembered wherever 
this beautiful work is seen. Honour and Right, Victory, 
and Modesty (at Malines), are some of the remaining 
works of Franz Huygelen. 

One of the youngest of the Belgian sculptors who 
has recently arrived is Pierre Theunis, born in 1883 at 
Antwerp. He is a pupil of the Brussels Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts and of Thomas VinQotte, and is now professor of 
sculpture at the Ecole Industrielle at Schaerbeck, near 
Brussels. In 1903 his Meditation was exhibited at the 
Brussels triennial Salon ; in 1906 he was awarded a 
silver medal of the first class at Rome, and he was 
represented by two marble busts at the Brussels In 
ternational Exhibition in 1910. His bust of an Italian 
Girl, in marble, is a delicate piece of work, and his 
marble study of an Old Woman is excellent in its real 
istic modelling. His marble bust of Monseigneur the 
Count of Flanders, a very fine work, is placed in the 
Belgian Senate House. At the Spring Salon des Beaux- 
Arts at Brussels in 1920, Theunis exhibited a marble 
bust of Mme. de C., and another of M. Bockstael, the 
late Burgomaster of Laeken. 




THE Walloon group of Belgian sculptors is diffi 
cult of definition, and its composition is as much 
a matter of sentiment and feeling as of geo 
graphy. Its members have a peculiar spirit and fancy ; 
a fine imaginative power, a desire for esprit, and a 
quality of decoration which are not quite the same as 
the similar qualities in the Flemings. There is a greater 
leaning towards elegance, and while there is no disdain 
or disregard of truth, there is less insistence on it as such, 
and a greater inclination to take it always for granted. 

Pierre Braecke was born at Nieuport in 1859, an ^ 
educated at the neighbouring town of Bruges and then 
at Louvain. His first important work, The Widow, 
was seen at Brussels in 1887, and in 1893 his group, 
in marble, The Pardon, was exhibited and afterwards, 
in 1897, purchased for the Royal Museum. His Monu 
ment Remy for Louvain was exhibited in Paris in 1900, 
and his Jeunesse, in Venice in 1910, and he was awarded 
a prize there. He has shewn a number of decorative 
works at Milan, Brussels, Paris, Munich, and Dresden, 
where he has won gold medals for them. In 1920, at 
the International at Venice, he exhibited a bust of the 
writer, Camille Le Monnier, in stone, and his Fisher 
Wives, in stone, was exhibited at Brighton in 1915* At 


Nieuport is, or was, his extraordinary statue, The 
Guardian of the Crown, which reminds you of Rodin's 
Balzac. The head, which he calls the Head of a Faun, 
is very modern in style, especially for an artist of his 
period, and is full of life to a very unusual degree. His 
group of two full-bodied women, called Summer and 
Autumn, is decorative and naturalistic. Braecke is an 
officer of the Order of Leopold. 

Like many of his compatriots, Dupon and Du Bois 
among them, Godefroid Devreese is a medallist, and 
has achieved renown in this metier. After working a 
quarter of a century at this art, in 1910 he had a great 
success at New York, where, against a hundred and 
forty-six competitors, he won the prize of three thousand 
dollars. He has made medallic portraits of King 
Albert and Queen Elizabeth of Belgium, the effigy 
of Leopold II, the Ambassador Brand Whittock, 
Monsieur Pierre de Margerie, Ambassador of France, 
his Excellency the Marquis Villalobar, the Spanish 
Ambassador, and Monsieur Van Vallenhoven, the 
Netherlands Minister. Medals also, of Monsieur 
Clemenceau, President Wilson, the Queen of Rou- 
mania and others have been struck from his modelling, 
including several war medals, the principal of which 
is the Stoic Mothers. 

Devreese is a native of Courtrai, where he was born 
in 1 86 1, and he received his early training there, and 
afterwards at Brussels. His Monument Anspach was 
inaugurated in Brussels in 1897 ; the Monument of 
the Golden Spurs at Courtrai in 1906, and his 
Monument of Benefactors at Schaerbeck the year 
afterwards. A Fisherman, in hard wood, by Devreese, 

113 i 


was seen at Brighton in the Belgian Art Exhibition, 
and a marble vase, Bacchanale, at the Spring Salon 
at Brussels of 1920, as well as a case of medals and 

Sculpture by no means depends upon its size for its 
excellence, and some of the most exquisite carving in 
the world is that done in miniature. The Chinese, 
Japanese, and Indian artists have given us work of this 
kind, and in some cases the ingenuity has been greater 
than the art. Nevertheless, there is a great attraction 
exercised by the bibelot, and sculpture in little has the 
advantage of taking up but little space. Statues and 
larger statuettes find places only in the big houses of 
the wealthy as a rule, but the bibelot finds a place any 
where, and is often regarded more affectionately. There 
are not many sculptors who choose to work on the quite 
small scale, but when they do, they produce, generally 
speaking, very fine things, 

Josu6 Dupon is one who has so chosen, and his work 
is very definitely fine in character, and it is various in 
subject, ranging from medals to statuettes and studies 
of animals, as well as small ideal subjects* This has 
been his general rule, but he has not by any means 
neglected work of larger size as the Camel monument, 
the groups at the entrance to the Zoological Gardens 
at Antwerp, and the Lions in the square in front of the 
National Bank, bear witness. 

Dupon was born in 1864, and was educated at the 
1 School of Design at Roulers, and the Academic Royale 
des Beaux- Arts at Antwerp, where he has been pro 
fessor of sculpture since 1905. He was also a pupil of 
Thomas Vin90tte, He is a member of the Academic 



Body and of the Commission of Fine Arts at Antwerp, 
a Chevalier of the Order of Leopold II, and an officer 
of Public Instruction of France. 

In marble he has made a life-like bust of the Senator 
Van de Brest, and a striking relief of Monsieur and 
Madame R. His Primitive Hunter, and Samson and 
the Lion (exhibited at Brighton in 1915), in bronze, 
shew that he is able to portray strength as well as a 
frailer character of beauty, and this is seen in his 
Hippopotamus, while his Basset Hound is a good piece 
of animal characterisation. Flandria exhibits daintiness, 
strength and bigness. It is Dupon's War Memorial, 
and was exhibited at the Salon des Beaux-Arts at 
Antwerp in 1920. A great Flanders stallion bears a 
dainty Flanders girl holding a basket, from which a 
cascade of flowers descends over his shoulder. The 
character of Dupon's style is seen in the decorative 
way in which the mane has been treated. The attitude 
of the animal is naturalistic, however, and there is 
some fine modelling in his structure. In the small 
Europa there is again good animal character, and the 
slight girlish figure of the goddess is delightfully naive, 
and there is a similar treatment of flowers as in the 
larger work. In the St. George we have a variation, the 
horse in this case is of lighter build, and the decoration 
is obtained, not from a floral motive, but from details 
of trappings and armour. In the Dromedary, of the 
Zoological Gardens, standing fifteen feet in height and 
mounted by a slight native figure, we have one of 
Dupon's finest works, and in his Diana, in ivory, 
standing erect upon the skeleton head of adorned 
beast, with drawn bow, one of his most exquisite, and 


moreover, one which gives the best evidence of its 
author's knowledge of the human figure, 

Jules Lagae is a painter of portraits as well as a maker 
of portrait busts in bronze and marble. He was born at 
Roulers in 1865, and is more realistic in his art than his 
three exact contemporaries, Minne, Rousseau, and 
Rombaux. His marble Mother and Child is in the 
Brussels Museum, and also busts of M. Leon Lequime, 
in bronze, of the poet-priest, Hugo Verriest, and Julien 
Dillens ; other earlier works were Abel, and Silenus 
of 1886. His Mother and Child, of 1891, expresses a 
serene and quiet talent, as indeed does the bust called 
The Kiss, but a more rugged and disturbing subject 
is that of The Expiation, recalling the work of some of 
the sculptors of the time of the cathedral builders. 
This is a bronze group in the Ghent Museum, which 
may owe something to the practice of Meunier at the 
time, as Meunier's Hammerman and Puddler belong 
to a year or two previous to its production- 

Achille Chainaye, born at Liege in 1862, gave much 
promise in his work exhibited in 1884 an d afterwards, 
but he was discouraged by the rejection of some of his 
pieces by the Brussels Salon, and by the* reception that 
others obtained elsewhere. 

Jean-Marie Caspar, born at Arlon in 1864, was more 
successful, but less characteristic of this group. His 
excursions in his art were various, but never uninter 
esting. Caspar's personality, full of vigour and im 
agination, led him when only twenty-five years old, 
and while still in Lambeaux's studio, to accomplish a 
colossal group, The Abduction, which, when exhibited 
at the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1890, won a medaL 




facing p. 116 



facing p. 117 


The success suddenly achieved was not followed up 
for private reasons. In 1893 his Indian on Horseback 
was exhibited at Scheveningen, and it was seen that 
his hands had not lost their cunning, nor his brain its 
vivacity, and when, at Ghent, the same year, the beau 
tiful and tender Adolescents was seen, it was quite 
clear that Caspar was among the fine sculptors of his 
time. Later he modelled animals and his Young 
Elephant is in the Brussels Museum, and his Wounded 
Wild Boar was seen at Brighton in 1915. 

Within a year 1865 no less than four of the best 
sculptors of Belgium were born Egide Rombaux, 
Victor Rousseau, Georges Minne, and Jules Lagae. 
All these artists are now in their prime, and producing 
their finest work, and all were students of the Academie 
des Beaux- Arts at Brussels, and Rousseau is now the 
Director of that Academy. Rousseau and Rombaux 
are well-known in London, the former being the 
author of the Monument of Gratitude of the Belgian 
Nation to England, for hospitality during the war, 
inaugurated in 1920, while the latter 's Premier Matin 
was seen in the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1915, 
and is now in the Tate Gallery, it having been exhibited 
also in Brussels, and Venice in 1914. 

Rombaux was adversely criticised, and very much 
extolled, for his Premier Matin, for England was not 
habituated to seeing so much rough-hewn marble. It 
was said that if the sculptor could do the figure so well 
up to that point he ought to have brought it to com 
pletion. The suggestion, of course, covers a miscon 
ception. Rombaux had no desire to complete the carving 
of the figure, beautiful as it is, the rough marble was 



part of the sculptor's design, and the figure grows out 
of it, and the design is a most striking one, admirably 
symbolising the idea which underlies it. It is the First 
Morning of the world so far as the woman here is con 
cerned, and the attitude of pensive thought the head 
slightly inclined, a finger pressed to the lips ; the legs 
bent, the left hand slightly supporting the trunk is 
completely expressed, for this is also the First Woman 
of the world, and the sculptor has conveyed the wonder 
ment of the whole idea. 

Another intellectual work by Rombaux is his Daugh 
ters of Satan, also in marble, also emerging from the 
matrix, the three splendid figures incompletely carved 
but completely expressed. The grouping is such as to 
afford a fine display of the sculptor's technique and 
knowledge. It was carved in 1904 and exhibited in 
Brussels, Paris, Amsterdam, Budapest, Munich, Milan, 
and Barcelona. Amongst other work in marble is an 
exquisite bust of a Young Girl Smiling, the hair 
running into the marble in a treatment similar to that 
of the hair of the Premier Matin. An earlier work in 
bronze is the jolly figure of The Bogey, made in 1890, 
and exhibited in Brussels and Paris, and his group, in 
bronze, called Venusberg, belongs to 1895, and was 
exhibited in the same cities. 

Rombaux obtained the Prix de Rome at the age of 
twenty-five ; is a member of the Royal Academy of 
Brussels, and his works have been acquired for the 
museums of Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent, Stuttgart, Buda 
pest, Barcelona, as well as the Tate Gallery in London. 

Victor Rousseau was in Van der Stappen's class at 
the Academy, and was naturally influenced by his 



master's style. He is a little more inclined to the 
classical tradition than Rombaux, and his beautiful 
work in marble, Adolescence of 1906, is less naturalistic 
than his confrere's work. It is, however, a fine thing 
full of very tender sentiment. Two young girls and a 
youth form the group, which is in the nude, and the 
attitude of the boy is altogether delightfully fresh and 
innocent : the girls are utterly and exquisitely un 
conscious, and the whole work breathes the fresh pure 
air of an early morning in spring. 

Another group occupies a corner space in the Royal 
Museum at Brussels : it is called The Sisters of 
Illusion, and is one of its author's most ambitious ideal 
works. It is on a large scale, and was made in 1904. It 
contains three life-size nude female figures, one of 
which reclines on a sculptured base, while at her feet, 
on a lower level, another is sitting, and at the back, the 
third figure bends over, completing the fine broken 
line of the design. Another marble to be found here is 
Demeter, signed and dated 1898, a half-figure, of full 
development, the right arm bent and supported on the 
head of a horse. The lower part of the figure is merged 
into the marble base, which, as in other works of this 
artist, is only a little worked on. The plaster study was 
exhibited in Brussels in 1900, and the marble ordered 
by the Government as it now appears. Other works 
exhibited here are La Glebe, a study of a horse, a statu 
ette called Souvenirs, in bronze, a bust of Princess 
Marie of 1911, a marble bust of Constantin Meunier, 
and Vers la Vie, a bronze group of a young man hold 
ing the hands of two boys on either side of him, the 
three in the act of walking, one of the boys talking to 



the man, who listens intently, while the other boy 
gazes upwards in a rapture. 

In the apartments of Queen Elizabeth is Rousseau's 
Drame-Humain of 1901 ; in 1905 he made sixteen 
bronze figures for the decoration of the Pont de Liege, 
and in the same year his King Lear, and the bronze 
Dionysos the year after. The marble group, Maternity, 
belongs to 1914. He has modelled busts of great beauty. 
In the International Exhibition at Brussels, in 1910, 
L'Automne compelled attention. Recently he has 
shewn a statuette known as Danseuse Persane, and 
one of Victory, with flowing draperies, wings and out 
stretched hands holding wreaths for the conquerors. 
The original statue of Victory, in gilt bronze, is in the 
Pare du Cinquantenaire, Brussels. Rousseau was repre 
sented at the Venice Exhibition of 1914 by four busts 
in plaster, and six works in bronze, and his Offering, a 
fine bronze group of two youths holding a garland of 
flowers and fruit, was seen at Brighton. A similar 
treatment, but on a larger scale, is used by the sculptor 
in the Belgian Memorial to England on the Thames 
Embankment, opposite Cleopatra's Needle. It consists 
of a group in bronze, life-size, of a central draped female 
figure pointing onwards, and there is a forward move 
ment in the nude figures of a youth and girl, partly 
shrouded by great garlands of flowers. The group 
stands on a stone pedestal, with a dignified setting of 
stone designed by the English architect, Sir Reginald 
Blomfield. This setting includes two figures in relief 
of Justice and Honour on either side of the group, and 
makes a good background for it, the sky-line being 
formed by the hotels of the Strand, behind. 

1 20 


In 1920, at the seventh Salon de Printemps at 
Brussels, Rousseau appeared with the younger men, 
some of them his pupils, with two works, one Summer 
and Autumn, a group in plaster, and Imploration, in 
bronze. At the Venice International of this year, he 
shewed a Bacchante, and Remembrance, in bronze, 
his fine bust of Ysaye, and a bust of Lady Diana 
Manners (Cooper) was produced during his stay in 
London in 1916. 

Georges Minne is a native of Ghent, where he still 
lives. His art education he obtained at the Academy 
there, and at the Academy at Brussels, under Van der 
Stappen, and he also studied in Paris. He is a maker of 
drawings, as well as a sculptor, and has illustrated 
Verhaeren and Maeterlinck. Some of his early works 
were the Man with a Dog, Mother and Children, and 
Petit Blesse. As early as 1888 he produced a Fountain 
with five kneeling figures. He exhibited constantly at 
the Salons Des XX, and Libre ^Esthetique. In the 
Secession Exhibition at Vienna, in 1903, a fountain 
with niche figures was adequately displayed, as also in 
Berlin, and in 1908 his figure of a Young Man was 
seen at Venice ; in 1913 he exhibited a bust at the 
Ghent Exhibition, and a male torso at Brussels, the 
following year. He has also been represented at Petro- 
grad, Amsterdam, Turin, Rome, and Barcelona, and 
in 1919 he exhibited a bust at the Royal Academy in 
London, as he was at that time living in Wales. It has 
been said of his work that it is that of a mediaeval Rodin. 
Examining a collection of photographs of Minne 's 
sculpture, Rodin wondered how so young a man could 
have done so many large works. In point of fact, they 



were none of them large, but looked large in the photo 
graphic prints. A bust of a woman carved in limestone, 
by Minne, is in the Folkwang Museum of Hagen, 
Westphalia. Two works in plaster, and a bust in bronze, 
were in the Venice International Exhibition of 1914, 
and a bronze study called The Lighterman, at Brighton 
in 1915. Other works are The Mason (a workman), 
The Nun, and Mother and Dying Child, and his 
figurine in bronze, The Water Carrier, is in the Luxem 

Hippolyte le Roy was born in 1857, at Li6ge, and 
was educated in art at the academy of art;s of Ghent 
(where he lives), at Paris at the Ecole des Beaux- Arts, 
and at Rome at the Belgian Academy. He was a pupil 
of Barrias and Falguiere. He is very versatile and paints 
as well as writes, and has produced many works in 
marble, bronze, and plaster : busts, reliefs and decor 
ation, as well as a number of medals. 

Among the Brussels sculptors is Paul Du Bois, who 
was born in 1859, an< ^ received his art education at the 
Acad&nie Royale des Beaux- Arts, and was a free pupil 
of Charles Van der Stappen. He gained the Godecharle 
prize with his statue Hippomene, when exhibited at 
the Brussels Salon in 1884. He is the author of a good 
number of monuments in Brussels. The list includes 
that of Merode, that of Dupont at the Th6itre de la 
Monnaie, and that of the architect Beyaert. The Last 
Hours of Charles Quint by Du Bois, was presented to 
the city by Louis Cavens. In the Senate is his portrait 
of Prince Leopold. He exhibited a charming bust of 
Madame Willens at the Brussels International Ex 
hibition, 1910, which was acquired for the Royal 



Museum. His latest work for Brussels is in memory of 
Edith Cavell and Marie Depage, At Trameries is the 
Tuisseaux monument, and at Mons the bronze Clesse 

Du Bois has exhibited in most of the important 
cities of the world, and has gained medals at Paris, 
Amsterdam, Dresden, Munich, Milan, Turin, Bar 
celona, and St. Louis. His works have been acquired 
by the galleries of Antwerp, Brussels, Liege, Prague, 
Budapest, and Barcelona. He was the founder of the 
well-known artistic society, " The Twenty," and of 
the " Free /Esthetic," at Brussels. Du Bois is also a 
maker of medals , and has executed one of His 
Excellency, the Marquis of Villalobar, the Spanish 
Ambassador, for the Liege Exhibition of 1905, and 
that of Brussels in 1910, the medal offered by the 
National Committee during the War, and the Victory 
Medal, given to all Belgian combatants. 

At an exhibition of his works, at the Bonte Galleries 
in Brussels, Du Bois shewed The Last Kiss, in marble, 
a beautiful group with almost impressionist tendencies, 
if not as whole-hearted as Rosso, at any rate as severe 
as anything Rodin attempted. The head of the man 
emerges from the marble block, and the figure is only 
indicated, the figure of the woman above is, however, 
carved almost completely in the round. It is an 
important and exceptional work. The marble bust, 
L'Automne, was also seen at this exhibition. Du Bois 
is the professor of sculpture at the Brussels Academie 
des Beaux- Arts, and exhibited with some of his pupils 
at the 1920 Spring Salon, the Charles Quint subject, 
and Melancholy, 



Charles Samuel was born at Brussels in 1862, and 
studied at the Royal Academy there in the classes of 
Simonis, Jacquet and Van der Stappen, afterwards 
spending some time in France and Italy. He made his 
debut at the Triennial Salon at Brussels, in 1886, with 
his statue, Au Soir, a workman standing at the door 
of his cottage, induced, no doubt, by the work of 
Meunier, an influence, however, which was not to be 
come very marked, for Samuel belongs to the new 
classical school in Belgium. In 1892, he received gold 
medals, both at Brussels and Dresden, and in 1894 at 
Antwerp. In this year his monument to Charles de 
Coster, the author of the national legend, Thyl Ulen- 
spiegel, was erected in the Place St. Croix, Ixelles. 
Another Brussels monument is in the Boulevard de la 
Toison D'or to the victims of the shipwreck of the De 
Smee of Nayer : still others are to the Minister of 
State, Orban, erected in 1900, and that to Van Hum- 
beck. A Lion is in the Botanical Gardens ; three 
statues on the building known as The Swan, in the 
Grand Place, and Pax is a group on the Royal Palace. 
In the Royal Museum is a bust in marble of the Queen 
of the Belgians, and a statue in marble, called Hommage, 
which was first exhibited at Ghent in 1902, 

In 1900 he was awarded a gold medal at Paris, and 
the following year at Munich ; at St. Louis in 1904, 
and at Barcelona in 1907, and his work, therefore, 
becoming so well known in the chief art-centres of the 
world, commissions from outside Belgium reached the 
sculptor. His decorations appear over the door of the 
Hospital at Monaco, and at Cologne are his funeral 
monuments to Franz Wullner and Wilhelm Huger. 



He exhibited, in 1910, at Brussels, a monumental group, 
and a statuette, Antique Dance, of a partly draped 
figure playing the pipes and poised on one foot, and 
also a memorial plaquette to Baron Gavaert. His latest 
work (1920) is at Enghein, where a Patriotic Monu 
ment has just been erected. At the Spring Salon, 1920, 
at Brussels, he exhibited a portrait of a lady, and at 
Brighton, in the Belgian Exhibition of 1915, a marble 
bust, Nele, was seen ; at the Luxembourg is his bronze 
bust of Charles Hayem ; at Dresden, Albertinum, 
a bust of the artist's mother, and in the numismatic 
collections at New York, Ghent, and the Hague are 
examples of his medals. Samuel is a Chevalier of the 
Order of Leopold, and an officer of the Order of the 
Crown. Madame Juliette Samuel is also a sculptor, 
and exhibited, in 1920, two portrait busts in marble. 

The oldest of the younger sculptors of Belgium is 
Leandre Grandmoulin, who was born in 1873, and 
educated in art at the Academie Royale des Beaux- 
Arts, Brussels. In 1904, his statue, Ceres, was placed 
as part of the decoration of the fa9ade of the Hotel 
Communal of St. Gilles ; the following year, at the 
Liege Exhibition, his Apprehension was seen, and in 
that year the town of Soignes commissioned his statue, 
The Quarry Man, in bronze. Ceres is a fine conception, 
well carried out. The figure is almost entirely draped, 
and is laden with the fruits of the earth. The pose ex 
presses the idea of abundance. Apprehension is a group 
of Mother and Child. The baby lies unconscious in its 
mother's lap, and the subject of the group is denoted 
without any exaggeration, and mainly by the gesture 
of the right hand, partly hidden by a fold of drapery. 



Grandmoulin has done some good busts. A female 
one is that of 1917, shewn in the exhibition organised 
by the Union of Belgian Women Patriots, and a sub 
ject-bust named Serenity, was seen in the Triennial 
Salon of Brussels in 1914. Among the busts of men is 
the one known as the Head of a Man in bronze, ex 
ecuted in 1909, and acquired by the State ; it is full of 
vigorous modelling. Another very characteristic portrait 
is that of Pierre Braecke, Grandmoulin 's fellow sculptor, 
done in 1916; to 1918 belongs another finely char 
acteristic portrait, of Monsieur Lamberty, and a very 
rugged and striking bust is that of the engraver, Auguste 
Danse, which was exhibited at the Spring Salon at 
Brussels, in 1920. The largest of Grandmoulin 's works 
is the monument to Baron Lambermont, erected at 
Antwerp in 1912. He exhibited at Venice, in 1920, a 
head of his father, and another study. 

Jacques Marin is a professor of sculpture at the 
Academic des Beaux- Arts at Brussels, where he was 
born in 1877, an d ^ n 3C 9 12 ^ e was made also Director 
of the Academy of Tirlemont in Brabant. He was suc 
cessful in gaining most of the prizes offered by the 
Academy, including the Godecharle prize when he was 
twenty, and six years later the second Prix de Rome in 
sculpture. Most of his work has been commissioned 
by public bodies, or has been acquired by the State, 
commencing with a bust, in marble, of the Dutch type, 
and another, of an old man, is in the cabinet of the 
director of Public Instruction. He gained a gold medal 
at Liege, and silver ones at St. Louis and Charleroi. 
He has a group in bronze, the Danaides, in the Antwerp 
Museum. A statue by Marin of Jean Baptiste Hanmert, 



is on the faade of the Hotel de Ville at Brussels, and 
he has made statues of St. Michael in bronze-gilt and 
of St. Gudule in stone. He decorated the entrance to 
the Pavilion of the Brussels Exhibition of 1910, and 
the angles of Acker's arcades of the buildings. For the 
Arcade Cinquantenaire, he was commissioned in 1914 
to do two decorations in granite, and for the Hotel de 
Ville of the Commune of St. Gilles, a work entitled 
Tramways. His latest consists of two statues for 
churches, and one for a public hall in Brussels, Marines 
work being for the most part for architectural purposes. 
He exhibited a terra-cotta bust of the engraver Danse, 
and a plaster Flowers of Spring, at the Brussels Salon 
of 1920. 

At the 1914 International Exhibition, at Venice, 
Belgian sculpture was well represented. There were 
about thirty examples of medals by Armand Bonnetain ; 
Marnix d'Haveloose shewed five bronzes, including a 
Salome, and other dancers, and a bust in plaster (also 
seen at the International Society in London in 1915), 
and there were ten examples of the work of Rik Wouters, 
Charlier, Minne, Rombaux, and Rousseau. 

Rik Wouters was one of the most promising of the 
younger men, with a bold and vigorous style, and he 
also was a painter influenced by French neo-impres- 
sionism. He made, among others, a bust of Ensor, the 
painter, which is a striking and original piece of work. 
In 1915, at the International Society in London, he 
exhibited a bronze statue, Vierge Falle, and a number of 
his etchings. His early death is greatly to be deplored. 

Belgian sculptors represented at the Venice Inter 
national, in 1920, were Joseph Baudrenghien, with a 



bronze, and two pieces in plaster, Armand Bonnetain, 
Gustave Fontain, Dolf Ledel, Cesar Scronnens, who 
shewed a bust of Emil Verhaeren, and a head of a 
woman in bronze, and Ernest Wynants. 

Other sculptors of importance are Louis Raphael 
Diligent, born at Flize, in the Ardennes, Charles F. L. 
Piot, the sculptor of wild animals, Emil Vloors of 
Antwerp, Eugene Jean Bremacher, and Alfred Courtens. 
Auguste Puttermans was represented at this exhibition 
by bronzes called Brothers by Choice, and Nocturne. 
He is one of the younger sculptors, and has a series of 
figures on the Hague Peace Palace, and a monument to 
Ferrer in one of the Brussels squares. George Vervanck 
of Ghent exhibited in the Salon of 1920, three works 
in ivory and wood. 

The solidarity of the schools is 'to be sought and 
fostered, and a remarkable instance is the sculpture 
department of the Brussels Royal Museum. Herein are 
nearly six hundred pieces of sculpture by more than a 
hundred and twenty sculptors, dating from the six 
teenth century to the present time. But only twenty of 
these pieces by as many artists one by Pajou, Rude, 
Rodin, Bartholom6, and Canova are foreign, all the 
others are of the Belgian School. I think this is carrying 
the principle somewhat too far. Every considerable 
nation should have a collection of foreign art. I do not 
say that Brussels should have fewer examples of the 
sculpture of her own artists, but that she should have 
more of others. From many points of view, however, 
the cohesion of the Belgian painters and sculptors is 
to be applauded. The Belgian artists very largely edu 
cate themselves in Belgium, while they widen their 




1 facing p. 128 



facing p. 129 


vision by study of other schools and by travel, but more 
than in any other case they preserve a solidarity, a 
distinction and an individuality which are impregnable 
to the coarser influences which are permeating European 
art and rendering it less national. 

129 K 


IN the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries 
there was a strong Italian influence on the sculp 
ture of the Netherlands, but to-day it is much more 
under an influence derived from the later Germaq 
school. The national love of beauty has t leavened the 
mass, for it was not by education but by mere imitation 
that this influence was admitted. For the most part, the 
Dutch sculptors have been trained at home or in the 
neighbouring academies of Belgium, but they have 
visited Berlin, Vienna, Paris, Rome, and London and 
learned what is being done there. There is a good deal 
of ideal work and portraiture of quality to be found, 
but the greater number of the sculptors of Holland 
are working for decorative and architectural purposes, 
including the quite young men who are concerned 
with the modern movements, and those not so young 
who are more interested in the reappearances of the 

Abraham Hesselink is of the older school, and his 
Struggle of the Titans, for which a gold medal was 
awarded in Brussels, is in the Ryks Museum at Amster 
dam as an indication of the best features of the group 
to which its author belongs. Its principles are sound, 
and, for the most part, traditional, as is the case in all 
Hesselink's work. The sculptor's portrait-bust of 
Prince Hendrik was lent to the Brighton Exhibition in 



1920, and gave it distinction, and his Toureg was also 
on exhibition there, both these works being seen in 
1921 at the Whitechapel Exhibition in London. 

Hesselink was born in 1862, at Peterswold, near 
Groningen, and studied at the Academy at Amster 
dam under Shack6, and later in Brussels, under Van 
der Stappen. The Municipal Museum, as well as the 
Ryks Museum, in Amsterdam, afford examples of his 
statuary, which is also to be seen at the Peace Palace 
at the Hague, where there are figures of Commerce, 
and Industry. At the St. Louis Exhibition, in 1904, he 
was awarded a bronze medal for his Arab Women, and, 
in 1920, at the International Exhibition at Venice, his 
Felicity, in bronze, was shewn. 

Toon Dupuis, whose work more nearly resembles 
that of the Belgian sculptors, and who is, indeed, a 
Belgian by birth, as he was born in 1877 in Antwerp, 
and studied at the Institute Superieur there before 
going to the Academy at Brussels, nevertheless belongs 
to the Dutch school, for his home is in Amsterdam, 
and most of his important work is found in Holland. 
He has exhibited at the International Society of Sculp 
tors, Painters and Gravers in London, and shewed, in 
1904, a bronze Meditation. His statues are well known, 
the chief being Rembrandt, at Leiden, Reyger at 
Utrecht, an equestrian statue of Prince William III at 
Stadnouder, a monument of Gebroiders de Witt, at 
Dordrecht, and one to Professor Donders at Utrecht. 
He has also made many portraits in bronze and marble, 
one of a woman with closed eyes, which is a very deli 
cate piece of work, and an official portrait bust in 
plaster of a man wearing the insignia of the Royal Order 


which is a very good head. Dupuis has been awarded 
different gold, silver, and bronze medals at Amster 
dam, Rotterdam, Utrecht, Brussels, and Antwerp. His 
fine portrait of a Dutch Actor was seen at Brighton 
and at Whitechapel, and there were two bronzes at the 
Venice International Exhibition in 1914, while at Rome 
in 1911, he was represented by two portraits. No purely 
Dutch sculptor's work exhibits the suavity and grace 
of that by Dupuis. 

These qualities are not sought after by the sculptors 
of the Netherlands as a rule, but they are present more 
pertinently in the work of Smout than of his confreres. 
C. A. Smout was born at Berg-op-Zoom in 1876, and 
lives in Amsterdam, where he was educated in art at 
the Ryks Academy. He obtained the second Prix de 
Rome with Silver Medal in 1902, and, three years 
later, the first with Gold Medal, and he also studied at 
the Academic Colarossi, Paris. His chief works are 
Sorrow (1902), Jason (1905), Cain (1906), April (1907), 
Envy (1908), The Sisters of Illusion (1909), all of 
which were exhibited at the Academy at Amsterdam, 
and Envy, in marble, has also been seen at Brussels. 
His sculpture on the Peek House at Amsterdam was 
done in 1915, The Voice, in 1917, Arti et Amicitise, 
and St. Lucas the same year. A study in bronze of the 
head of Ugolino of 1918 was shewn at Amsterdam in 
1919, at Brighton the year after, and at Whitechapel in 
1921. It is a horrible head, well realised, but displaying 
more fear than ferocity, weak madness rather than 
brutishness. The Sisters of Illusion, one nude and one 
draped, is a marble relief, which well indicates Smout's 
knowledge of the female figure. 



As in Germany so also in Holland, sculptors are in 
terested in and largely concerned with other materials 
than marble, bronze and plaster, and that to no in 
considerable degree. Between the years 1903 and 1919, 
Tjipke Visser, who was born at Workum in 1876, and 
educated at the Amsterdam Academy, has made no 
fewer than a hundred statuettes in bronze and wood, 
the latter class including work in oak, teak and ebony. 
These have been seen at various exhibitions in Holland 
and at Paris, Munich, Dresden, Rome, London, Bar 
celona, and Venice, and some of them have been 
acquired by the Suasso Museum at Amsterdam, and 
the Boymans Museum at Rotterdam. Visser has a 
taste for the grotesque, and he exhibited a Marabou, 
a Penguin, and another queer bird at Brighton in 1920, 
which were also seen at Venice the same year and at 
Whitechapel the year following. The grotesquery of 
his animal studies pales, however, before that of his 
grosser inventions ; a most horrible Demon with 
hands on abdomen and legs crossed, squats on a base 
of skulls ; a giant Faun standing erect listens to the 
words of a little woman who has climbed to his shoulder 
while two others are making the attempt, are examples 
of these original and not unamusing conceptions. In 
Rome in 1911 he shewed a Zeeland country-woman 
in bronze. 

The younger Dutch sculptors are largely engaged 
in carving their own works in wood and stone. A. 
Remiens has made his self-portrait in sandstone and 
produced a fine bust with a good deal of character, both 
from subject and treatment. It is really a mask, for the 
sandstone as a mass is left fringing the face, and shewing 



the marks of the chisel, the hair of the forehead 
being treated in the new convention. A piece of wood- 
carving by the same artist is an attempt to exploit the 
methods of the primitives. It is in the form of a short 
column, at the base some artichoke sheaths, above, a 
hand caressing the neck of a deer, whose head is turned 
upwards to touch the face of a woman. 

Another carver in wood is M. Vreugde, who has a 
fine sense of form and material, as is seen in his Woman 
and Child, the latter held above the head of the former, 
and in a head of a man in which the artist has concerned 
himself with the carving of the planes as seen in a high 
light ; the skull, as well as the face, is shaved and the 
effect depends solely on the knowledge and skill of the 
sculptor ; it is not a pleasing object, but it is a skilfully 
wrought one. 

S. Jacobs van den Hof carves mostly in wood and 
stone, and two examples of his work appeared at Venice 
at the International Exhibition of 1914. A mask in 
hard stone, in rounded modelling, and the hair treated 
in t:he modern style, has quality, and the anatomy of 
his Cat, in ebony, is indicated in a few lines and curves, 
quite unnaturalistic, but quite amusing* 

In the Nederland Kring van Beeldhouwers, Holland, 
has a sculpture society which is trying to raise the art 
of modelling and carving and to form a distinctively 
Dutch School. The society includes about half the 
sculptors of the Netherlands, but there is no effort 
made to induce an adherence to any one style, the 
members freely working out their own individuality. 
At one end of the scale the extreme end is the work 
of J. Mendes da Costa, at the other the conventional 



facing p. 134 


W N 




style of Dirk Wolbers. Several members of the society 
are engaged in architectural sculpture, like H. A. Van 
der Eijnde, and J. van Lunteren. The secretary is Theo. 
van Reijn, of Haarlem, who is a native of Breda, having 
been born there in 1884. He was trained in his art at 
the Academie des Beaux-Arts at Amsterdam, taking 
the Prix de Rome in 1911. His Head of a Woman in 
granite, is an intriguing work which has reminders of 
Mestrovic and traces of impressionism. Its author has 
got every ounce out of his block of granite, and there 
are few works in that intractable material which appear 
so inevitable. In spite of, or rather, because of its 
peculiarities, it is convincing and is a fine piece of 
decorative sculpture. His relief Love, in mahogany, is 
reminiscent a combination of Assyrian and Serbian, 
and is decoratively effective. 

In van Reijn's work there is a strain of realism which 
is best seen in his group, in Poullinay stone, of a Mother 
and Child, an attractive work in which the realistic 
elements have been curiously blended with certain 
modern sculptural fashions in the hair and drapery. 
Still another phase of modernity is the impressive stone 
head for a. library, called Meditation, in which cubist 
notions have been utilised, but not by any means to 
an extent that disqualifies the work as a study from 
life. In some pillars made for a shop, van Reijn has 
shewn an original treatment in using figures symbolical 
of Cold, The Storm, St. Martin, and the Mendicant. 
They are essentially decorative and non-naturalistic, 
but in their manner of treatment they are to be classed 
with the work of Celine Lepage, and to some extent 
they follow the precept of Henri Bouchard. 


It is a curious feature prevalent in Dutch sculpture, 
that there is an obvious decorative aim, based on natural 
ism, especially of the figure, yet devoid of realistic 
treatment, the treatment partaking of the quality of the 
work of the cubists, but without being cubistic. It 
seems as though the dominant note of modern Dutch 
sculpture is the assimilation of the essentials of the rest 
of the modern schools, resulting in the product having 
all the qualities of actuality in a new and strange emer 
gence, coupled with a valuable decorative quality. 

Diverging widely from the accepted view of orna 
ment, and also from the usual treatment of the figure 
in decoration, J. Mendes da Costa's work is a distinct 
challenge. Instead of floral or other of nature's forms 
as motives, he has boldly taken those used in science 
and invention, t both as adjuncts, and as principal 
features of his work. His figure-studies are in a modified 
form of cubism ; his anatomy in detail is indicated by 
curves, he produces images, not life -studies, which 
have a distinct decorative effect. Strange as his view of 
decoration is, it is no stranger than his view of the 
emotions, and in his group called Love, in bronze, he 
has produced a bold piece of work, which has attractive 
as well as repellent elements, although the former pre 
dominate. Applying these principles in practice, in his 
bronze figure kneeling with hands pressed together as 
in prayer, the head centred in a large geometrical figure 
of a wheel as in a halo, he has produced an effective 
decorative piece for the Utrecht Life Assurance build 
ing at Amsterdam. Two bronze pieces of his were 
exhibited at Venice in 1920, and among other works 
he has produced some stoneware figures. At the same 




facing p. 136 



facing p. 137 


exhibition some animal studies in terra-cotta, made in 
Delft, were shewn by H. Vaillant, and works in stone, 
by L. E. Buyerman and W. RoelrinL 

Dirk Wolbers is another member of the Sculptors' 
Society whose work is applied to architecture, a corner 
statue in a toga of stone, and a tomb with figures of a 
man and a youth kneeling on either side of a plaque 
with lettering and medallion, are examples of this class 
of his work, which is honest and well fitted for its pur 
pose. Of a similar character is that on the Post Office 
of Rotterdam, a relief shewing a strong German in 
fluence, by J. van Lunteren, who was born in 1882. 

In graveyard monuments the Dutch sculptors are 
turning to naturalistic studies rather than to decor 
ation. Louis J. Vreugde, in his memorial on the grave 
of Mrs. Brandts Bays-Hesselink, has made a portrait 
group of four young children in the ordinary costumes 
of the day, at the feet of their mother, who is the sub 
ject of the memorial. A relief of a phoenix on its nest 
surmounts the group, which is well done and does not 
appear commonplace. Another of his memorials is that 
for the grave of van Hasselt, in which kneeling and 
upright nude male figures are used, together with 
certain emblematic accessories, the whole set against 
a shaft of granite bearing an inscription in gold letter 
ing. He shewed a piece carved in wood called As in 
their Youth, at Brighton and at Whitechapel. 

H. A. van den Eijnde, of Haarlem, is another of the 
younger sculptors, who came into notice in 1902 with 
his ideal relief in marble called Springtime, but his 
sympathies are more with sculpture applied to building. 
He seized the opportunity offered by the architect, 


J. M. Van der Mey, of contributing to the sculptural 
decoration of the exterior of the Scheepvaarthuis, or 
Navigation House at Amsterdam, mostly on the entrance 
to the building. There are eleven details, which were 
designed and modelled in clay and plaster by van den 
Eijnde, and nine of them executed in green Bavarian 
granite in 1915 and 1916. They are mostly symbolic 
of Governing Strength, The Oceans, and Evolution, 
and there are two effigies in palm wood, Andante, and 
Allegro. The whole work forms a representation of 
modern sculpture as understood in Holland, and as 
derived from various sources according to the require 
ments of the subject, with traces of influence from 
Assyrian, Egyptian, and Scandinavian art, with a curious 
admixture of the primitive and modern life. Van den 
Eijnde 's marble Afscheid, of 1918,13 a striking work. 

On the offices of the Netherlands Insurance Com 
pany at the Hague, erected by the architect, H. P. 
Berlage, is a piece representing Death, by Lambertus 
Zijl. It is a draped skeleton figure, and seems rather to 
indicate a tendency in Holland towards the gruesome, 
seen somewhat in the decoration by van den Eijnde, 
and the grotesques of Tijpke Visser. Gruesomeness, 
combined with grotequery, is a distinct note, and in 
ZijPs work it is pronounced, though not so unequiv 
ocally as in Visser's. It is seen in the impudent relief 
of Bacchus and in studies of monkeys and other 
animals. This is not to say that all Zijl's work is like 
this. Far from it, indeed, as is proved by his grave- 
monument of Grief, and the bronze relief of De 
Grotius* Zijl is strongly attracted by nature, and in 
troduces an individual note in Netherlandish sculpture 




facing p. 138 








facing p. 139 


in his bronze reliefs of Victoria Regina, the giant lily, 
and The Sea, and he has done some bronze figurines of 
children which are expressively natural without being 
very beautiful, however. A good deal of ZijTs work has 
been architectural, and he has made reliefs for build 
ings both in the Dutch style, and in a more classical 
manner, and he has also done a corner statue of Gij- 
brecht van Amstel, and a balcony in stone and iron 
work, for a private house rather in Tart nouveau style. 
The art of metal- work is not at present in the ascendant 
in the Netherlands. 

Other sculptors of Holland exhibiting at Venice and 
elsewhere outside their own country, are Bart van 
Hove, Professor of Sculpture at the Academy, Amster 
dam, Tom le Clerq, who has done a bronze of Joseph 
Israels, and who began his career as sculptor late in 
life, and resided for some time in Berlin, Charles Vos, 
and J. C. Altorf, modern of moderns, living at the 
Hague, and doing very interesting work. He exhibited 
some of his characteristic bronzes at Venice, including 
his Ourang-Outang. 

A statuette in plaster of a Girl Praying, is more in the 
method of ordinary life-study, and a roughly modelled 
clay group, resembling some of ZijTs work, indicate 
the powers of J. de Graaff of Laren. H. L. Krop is an 
artist, in style resembling Gaudier-Brzeska, and his 
work is in granite and freestone. Three examples 
appeared at Brighton and at Whitechapel ; To-day and 
To-morrow, an extraordinary dual bust of a man and 
woman, in which surface treatment has been used in 
stead of modelling, the latter being reduced to almost 
the simplest, or, as it is maintained, almost to the 



abstraction that is desired by some of the younger men 
as the method of the expression of their thoughts. The 
other works were a Woman, and The Dance. Still other 
Dutch sculptors are Ch. van Wyk,who worked in bronze, 
A. W. M. Ode, who works in terra-cotta, and these 
exhibited at Venice in 1914, van Wyk having been 
represented at the International at Rome, in 1911, by 
four works. Ch. van Wyk, Pier Pander, and Bart van 
Hove are recently dead, and their works may be seen 
in the Suasso Museum. 

Among the Dutch sculptors there are some dozen 
women, of whom Georgine Schwartze, who was born 
in 1854 at Amsterdam, is the senior. She received her 
art education at the Academie des Beaux-Arts of her 
native city, which later awarded her its gold medal, 
and she has also received awards at Paris and St. 
Louis. In Amsterdam her Young Slave is in the Ryks 
Museum, and Sleeping Infants in the Suasso, as well 
as Enfant lisant. Her half -figure of a chorister, Kyrie 
Eleison, is at Munich. She has done a number of his 
torical and other portrait busts, including Luther, 
Mahler, Boerhaave, and David, exhibited in Brighton 
in 1920, all in marble, and in the University Buildings 
at Utrecht are busts of the Doctors Donders, Helmholz, 
Wiehmann, and Graefe. A marble work, entitled 
Francesca, was shewn at the Venice International 
Exhibition, 1914, and in 1921 at the Whitechapel Art 
Gallery, a very tender bust in marble of a youth, with 
closed eyes. 

Rachel Marguerite van Dantzig was born at Rotter 
dam in 1878, studying first in the Academy of Design, 
and afterwards at the Brussels Academy, under Van 




facing p. t40 












facing p, 141 

der Stappen, and at Paris at Colarossi's atelier. Eight 
years ago she settled in Belgium, for she considers that 
Holland is not sufficiently grateful for the accomplish 
ments of her native sculptors, and that there is very 
little artistic life in that country. She is certainly of the 
Belgian, rather than of the Dutch, school, as her busts 
of the Old Fisherman and an Old Man indicate. These 
busts are excellent in themselves, and reminiscent of 
the earlier work of Guillaume Charlier. However, she 
received a gold medal at Amsterdam in 1913, and a 
silver for her Volupte, at Rotterdam, in 1915. She has 
done a number of portraits and studies from the nude, 
and exhibited two bronzes at Venice in 1914. At Rome, 
in 1911, she shewed two works in plaster. 

Willy Roelrink, who was born as late as 1891, is 
probably the youngest of the women sculptors of 
Holland, but in her Head of a Woman, in marble, and 
the Head of a Man, clean-shaven and hair following 
the new style practised in Paris, that is, without any 
indication that it is hair or anything more than a 
quaintly-shaped, tight-fitting rubber cap. This head, 
with its queer smile, is carved in stone, and these two 
works indicate certain definite powers of this young 
sculptor, who, aided by her master, Tjipke Visser, is 
trying to infuse new ideas into her country's art, already 
seething with the new ideas of an earlier period, partly 
by the agency of the Sculpture Society of the Nether 

Henriette Vaillant, also a member of the Sculpture 
Society, who studied at the Hague, works in terra 
cotta, and her relief of the Head in quaint head-dress, 
of a dancing woman shews considerable decorative 



invention, while her modelling of a rabbit translated 
into porcelain (exhibited at Brighton) is quite good. 

Therese van Hall, another member of the Nether 
lands Society, has done some good work in wood, in 
cluding heads and statuettes of children. Her work also 
exhibits the new conventional treatment of hair, and 
other details, and in her wood-carving there is a good 
deal of square cutting instead of modelling. But that 
she can model naturalistically, we have her full-length 
figure of a nude Sitting Boy and a fine Head of a Girl, 
her face held in her hands, both in plaster, to prove. 
At the Rome International in 1911, she shewed a case 
of statuettes. Other women sculptors of the Nether 
lands are J. W. G. Rueb who exhibited a Faun and a 
Fisherwoman and Fr. Carbaisus, whose Kid and a 
Javanese Dancer were seen at the Dutch Exhibition 
at Brighton in 1920, and at Whitechapel. 

In Holland it is considered a courageous thing to 
become a sculptor, and any young man or woman who 
sets out on this path is pitied and praised, as one who 
is seeking a lost cause. Young men and women in 
Holland, however, are like those of other nations : 
they do not set out ostensibly to make a living by art, 
but to make a life by the study of art : the former 
function making itself felt as the latter is proceeded 
with. It is a fact, however, that sculpture, and even 
painting, are less prosperous professions in the country 
of Rubens and Rembrandt than they ought to be, but 
Holland has never had a great school of sculpture, and 
it is therefore all the more satisfactory to know that 
there are young Hollanders ready to undergo discom 
fort for the sake of their art ; young Hollanders of both 


sexes, and I do not know of a country in which the 
proportion of women sculptors is as great as it is in 
Holland. Even in America it is no greater. 

Mevrow Jo Schreve-Yserman is one of the most 
distinguished Dutch sculptors : she was represented 
at Venice, in 1914, by her Giovinezza, in bronze, at 
Brighton and Whitechapel in 1920, by her Young 
Roman, and she has exhibited not only in Holland, but 
Brussels and Ghent, Munich, Rome, Venice, Barcelona 
and San Francisco. She has received medals at Brussels 
and Amsterdam, and in 1912 the Queen of Holland's 
gold medal was bestowed upon her by the League of 
Art and Friendship for her group, And all the To 
morrows shall be as To-day. This is her best, and 
best-known work, and indeed it has become a national 
possession. It was first seen at Amsterdam in 1912, 
and then at Munich in 1913, and found its home in 
the Stedelijk Museum at Amsterdam in 1914. It is an 
expressive piece of work, homely with the true Dutch 
spirit, and full of humanity. A young woman in the 
abandonment of grief has thrown herself into the lap 
of an old one, and desperate grief is conveyed by the 
posture, the face being hidden. In the face of the old 
woman sitting, however, and in the very expressive 
modelling of the right hand, there is conveyed, with 
absolute conviction, the wisdom of the years, and the 
sympathy and tolerance that time only can supply. 
Pity, too, is expressed for suffering, but merged in the 
look of pity is the assurance that later will come an 
assuagement of grief. It is a subject that might have 
been sentimentally treated, but it has escaped that. 
The Day was turned into Night is another work which 



has thought and feeling in it. A young woman has cast 
herself down in a torment of agony, and this more 
vigorous emotion is equally well conveyed. It was 
exhibited first in 1909, and was seen later in Rome. 
Triumph, a male torso, is earlier still, but was shewn 
at Ghent, Arnheim and Tilburg (1913) ; Life's 
Mystery belongs to 1910, and was exhibited in Bar 
celona in 1911, and as late as 1919 in other places. A 
later work is Belief and Unbelief, which was first seen 
in Amsterdam in 1915. 

Jo Schreve-Yserman was born in 1867 at Numans- 
dorp and she studied under Bart van Hove at the 
Academy of Amsterdam. She is the wife of Dr. C. F. 
Schreve, of Amsterdam, of whom she has made a bust, 
and who is the general secretary of the Dutch Medical 
Association, which accounts for the fact of the sculp 
tor producing so many portraits of medical men. One 
of these is Dr. C. J. Vaillant, the Nestor of the Dutch 
medical profession, made for the anniversary of his 
entering the profession, seventy years afterwards, in 
1912. This is now in the Crematorium at Westerveld. 
Another bust is that of Dr. G. E. Daniels, the founder 
of the Medical Museum in Amsterdam, 1909, now in 
the Stedelijk Museum, another of Dr, J. H. H. Hiils- 
mann (1908), of the Industrial School, in marble, and 
on his grave in bronze. Other busts are of the artist's 
parents, Mrs. Theodora Hauer and J. W. Yserman, at 
the Hague ; and further works are the Girl from the 
Orphanage, in costume, the Girls Wolff, Andromeda, 
Ernst, Fight with a Serpent (1917), and the Young 
Roman, a fine thing. 


facing p. 144 












facing p. 145 


BEFORE the classical revival at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, sculpture in Ger 
many had sunk to a very low level. Gottfried 
Schadow and Christian Rauch did their best to rescue 
it, and by the middle of the century, Ernst Rietschel 
had given it a much better standing. It was Reginald 
Begas, who was born in 1831, however, who broke 
away from the classical manner, common not only to 
Germany but to the rest of Europe, and began the 
formation of the modern school. Experiments were 
made : Klinger, who was also a painter, tried to revive 
polychrome statuary, and his celebrated Beethoven, 
now in the Leipzig museum, aroused much controversy. 
Great mistakes were made, and no one was more 
puzzled and troubled over the matter than the father, 
I would even say the grandfather, of modern German 
sculpture, Adolf von Hildebrand of Munich. 

Von Hildebrand was not only a sculptor of origin 
ality, but was a professor of the art, and he wrote a 
book of importance in aesthetics. His influence has 
therefore been very great in Germany, , and has been 
exercised over a long period, for he was born as early 
as 1847, at Marburg. He studied at the Munich 
Academy until he was twenty, and then went to Rome. 
In 1869 he was at Berlin, and until he journeyed to 
Florence in 1873. Ten years later he was in Berlin 

145 L 


again, and in 1891 he went to Munich and began to 
write his well-known " Das Problem der Form/' 

His monument to the Prince Regent Leopold of 
Bavaria is an indication of his principles in art. Heavy 
figure, folds of a cloak that could never be lifted by 
the wind, the horse weightily planted on three legs, the 
fourth raised and curved inwards, the monument says 
everything possible for itself, and this and other of his 
important works are in Munich. In Strasbourg is his 
Rembrandt fountain, in the Park at Meissingen his 
Brahms, and Otto Ludwig memorials, at Hamburg 
his Hans von Biilow, and his Bismarck is at Bremen. 
He has made busts of Dollinger, Siemens, Bocklin, 
Helmholtz, Bode and others, and a marble bust of 
Duke Karl Theodor von Bayern, a beautiful relief 
portrait of Clothilde Brewster, a terra-cotta of Frau 
Fiedler, and in stone, Cain and Abel, and Dionysos. A 
marble statue of a nude man is in the Berlin National 
Gallery, and another marble statue is a boy playing at 
bowls. He designed the Bismarck medal ; has made 
sculpture and sculptural history in Europe for more 
than half a century, and was the most considerable 
figure in the German School until his death at the 
beginning of the year 1921. Von Hildebrand's work is 
fully dealt with, as is most of the work of modern Ger 
man sculptors, up to the year 1910, in " Moderne 
Plastik," by William Radenburg, published at Diissel- 
dorf and Leipzig, by Karl Robert Langewiesche. 

Four years younger than von Hildebrand, Arthur 
Volkman was born in 1851 at Leipzig, educated in his 
art at the Dresden Academy from 1870 to 1873, and 
during the following three years at Berlin, with Albert 



Wolff, and at Rome. Notable work is his Man sitting, 
in marble, of 1905, and his Youth with a Bull, 1910. 

Max Klinger was also born at Leipzig, in 1857, and 
spent many years in his art education in Karlsruhe, at 
the Berlin Academy, in Brussels, Munich, Paris, and 
Rome, wandering here and there in search of knowledge 
and inspiration. The result of all this was most interest 
ing, for not only was Klinger a sculptor, but he was 
also a painter, an etcher and draughtsman, a musician 
and a student of literature. His well-known works are a 
Leda, a Standing Girl Bathing, Combatants in the 
Leipzig Museum, A Crouching Woman, Cassandra, 
Salome, and busts of Beethoven, Lizst, an,d Nietzsche. 
He revived and has produced polychrome sculpture 
with considerable success. His death occurred in 1920. 

Paul Oesten, born in Berlin, won the gold medal of 
the Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung in 1906 with his 
Danaid Fountain, and in 1910 exhibited his Young 
Man in a Sweater, and a Chauffeur at Munich. These 
two works are quite different in feeling from the 
Fountain, for they are compact of modern realism, 
while the Fountain, more like its author's Diana and 
the Panthers, has a distinct classical tendency derived 
from his studies at Rome, while holding a prize there. 
He was a pupil of Reginald Begas and Menzel, and he 
works in wood as well as marble and bronze, and has 
made a fine bust in the latter material called Beatrice. 
He shewed a bronze Diana in the Venice International 
Exhibition of 1914, in which but few of the well-known 
German sculptors were represented. 

Belonging to the same generation is Ernest Moritz 
Geyger, etcher, engraver and sculptor (1861), who 


was educated in art at the Berlin Academy, and became 
professor of sculpture at the Dresden Art Academy 
in 1893. His best known works are The Archer, 
in bronze, and a very elaborate marble candelabra 
intertwined with male and female marble figures sup 
porting a vase. 

Louis Tuaillon was one of the older men who joined 
in the Berlin Secession. He was born in the capital in 
1862, and studied in the Academy from 1878 to 1881. 
He also studied in Rome, and in 1883 became the 
master-pupil of R. Begas. He settled in Berlin in 1902, 
and died in 1917. His chief works are the Amazon, 
outside the Berlin National Gallery, the Chariot Driver, 
and the Frederick the Great at Bremen ; the latter a 
bronze equestrian statue, remarkable for the modelling 
of the realistic horse, while Frederick is in Grecian 
costume. These characteristics are common to Tuaillon's 
work. The Amazon, also in bronze, is seated easily 
astride a beautiful horse from life. Her figure is modelled 
from life, but has a Greek head. Slight drapery falls 
from her left shoulder over her left breast and thigh, 
her left hand rests on the body of the horse, and in her 
right she holds a small hatchet. It is a graceful piece 
of sculpture. Tuaillon was a great animalier, and his 
bronze Andalusian Bull is a fine example of this side 
of his art. His busts include a fine portrait of his mother. 

Franz Stuck was born at Tettenweis, in Nieder- 
bayern, in 1863, and studied at the Munich Academy. 
He drew for Fliegende Blatter. His two best bronzes 
are an Amazon in a Grecian helmet on a horse, throw 
ing a spear, and a Girl Dancer, in clinging drapery. 

Paul Peterich was born the following year in 


Schwartau, near Liibeck, and was educated at Hamburg, 
the Berlin Academy, and in Italy by a study of Italian 
art there. His Mother and Child is an example of poly 
chrome sculpture in terra-cotta. The mother is seated 
in a chair, her hands clasped in joy at holding the babe. 
Her gown is gray-green, the hair dark, and the decor 
ation bright brown. The Victor, a boy with spear and 
wreath, is in bronze, A Boy Resting is in marble, and a 
beautiful marble study is of a woman holding her hair 
lightly in her hands. 

August Hudler died after a long illness, in 1905, 
leaving some fine work in sculpture. He was born in 
1868, at Odelshausen, and at fifteen began his art train 
ing at the Munich Art School, going on in 1891 to the 
Academy. His works include a bronze David, tall, 
handsome and slight, and an Ecce Homo, the real man 
of sorrows, seated in a loin-cloth, wearing a crown of 
thorns, the head lowered, despondent, hands and arms 
extended along the thighs. Richard Engleman was 
born in the same year at Bayreuth, and his course of 
study was a long one, commencing at the Munich 
Academy in 1892, then in Florence, under a strong 
Bocklin influence, then in Paris under Dampt, Mercie 
and Dubois, for three years. His Slumberer of 1910, 
in limestone, and his Sleeping Woman fountain figure 
at Osnabriick, are his finest pieces : the single figure 
in centre of the basin is peaceful and dignified. In 1911 
he made another fountain, in which the Three Graces 
form a fine group. This was in marble. To 1912 be 
longs The Bride, and to 1913 The Mourner, both in 
limestone. Still another sculptor belongs to this 
year: Herman Hahn, born at Kloster Veilsdorf, in 



Saxemeiningen, and studied at the Munich Art School, 
and later at the Academy. He made the Goethe Memorial 
for Chicago, a big pseudo-classic conception with a 
piece of stage-rock forming a rest for the right foot, 
with a hawk on the right knee, and he also made the 
Lizst statue, in marble, at Weimar. The Rider, and a 
Dancer, in bronze, and the Head of a Woman, in marble, 
with long hair are all good works. 

August Gaul was born in 1869 at Grossanheim, near 
Frankfort, and educated at the Academy at Meyer- 
heim, also studying in Rome in 1897 and 1898. He has 
done a portrait of William I, but is chiefly known for 
his animal studies, a bronze Deer, a Panther, and a 
Donkey and Rider are all interesting. In Rome he com 
pleted the bronze Lioness which made him suddenly 
famous. Gaul has kept to the reproduction of animals 
of all sorts in large and small bronzes, medals, etchings, 
and lithographs, and his animal fountains are very 
popular. Truth to nature, a studied simplicity, and 
careful workmanship are characteristics of Gaul's 
work. He began as a stonemason, and was employed 
by Begas. Gaul exhibited Bears at Play, and Pelicans 
at the International Society in London in 1904. 

In the same year was born Hans Luetkins at Livland, 
of a German father and Russian mother. He was trained 
at Riga, Munich, Cassel, Paris, and Berlin, and makes 
charming statuettes in wood of boys. Another im 
portant sculptor of this class is Ernst Barlach, who 
was born in 1870 at Wedel, in Holstein, and now lives 
in Gustrow, in Mecklenburg. Barlach uses chiefly 
wood for his work, and usually shews strongly char 
acterised Russian peasants and beggars. He is also 


known for his wood-cuts and lithographs, the most 
important of which were published as illustrations to 
the dramas he has written. His work has character and 
force, if at times he adopts uncouth types as may be 
seen in his Grieving Woman, 70 c.m. in height, carved 
in 1911, and his Man with a Dog, and The Preacher, 
and The Drunkard. Earlier works are The Astronomer, 
a metre high, and Berserker, a little smaller. Barlach 
was an exhibitor at the Berlin Secession in 1910 and 
other years. 

The period of the ten years from 1871 to 1880 is of 
vital importance in the history of modern German 
sculpture. There was an upheaval in the artistic life of 
the Empire on the conclusion of the Franco-German 
War. The activities that had been devoted to military 
ends were released for other purposes, and the artistic 
life went step by step with the industrial. There were 
no high developments, but there were many interesting 
ones. For the most part, however, the German tradition 
held good : weight and force were confused. It was 
assumed that what was violent was strong ; that what 
was heavy was powerful. During this period many of 
the important German sculptors of to-day were born, 
and at the close of it, they were beginning to be edu 
cated. By this time the new principles were becoming 
established, the whole theory of von Hildebrand and 
his contemporaries accepted, and the young men who 
grew up during the following decade never questioned 
it. The later secessions of Berlin and Munich were only 
a further and extravagant development of the idea ; 
the men who seceded merely left their seniors behind 
because they were too timid in their application of the 


new law. Grace and ideal beauty were in many cases 
entirely lost sight of, and ugliness accepted as the real 

Culture is the art of concealing knowledge, and the 
German artists did not understand this. They were so 
keen on their discovery of knowledge that they forgot 
the purpose for which it exists : the creation of more 
and more beautiful things in the world. Knowledge 
they regarded as a great thing in itself ; as a prodig 
ious aim and end. They were never tired of admiring 
it for itself. The cultured man takes knowledge for 
granted, and assumes that everyone else does. He is 
not eternally discussing mere knowledge : his concern 
is only with the result. The man who persistently 
examines the roots can never rear and enjoy the flower. 
The man is a mere bore and boor, who insists on futile 
discussion of what knowledge is instead of what it can 
do. You cannot get imaginative inspiration, nor a fine 
outlook on life and art by arguing about the details of 
first principles, for they must always be taken for 

Many of the German artists made the mistake of 
insisting too much on the externals of their theory, 
and of applying them without imagination, or with 
but little. The result is a high development of technique 
with its consequent mechanical results. One good 
thing the sculptors did undoubtedly which was to 
bring the whole world within the domain of art. I 
quite agree that there are no subjects beyond the reach 
of art ; none unfit to be treated by the artist, either in 
painting, sculpture, literature or music, and the Ger 
man artists proved it even more thoroughly than Goya, 




facing p. 152 


Balzac, or Rodin had done before them. The work of 
the German sculptors is of the utmost importance, for 
it is a standing menace to the pretty school. You have 
only to put a piece of French frippery or English 
inanity beside a piece of the ugly German sculpture, to 
know at once which is the more intriguing. You may 
not like ugly things, but you certainly will not like the 
pretty ones in this juxtaposition. 

Foremost among the men whose births occurred 
during the iSyo's is Franz Metzner, the sculptor of 
the huge Valkerschlacht memorial at Leipzig. Colossal 
figures, six times the size of life, surround the heavy 
dome, and figures, twice life-size, in the crypt stand 
against the giant faces in the supporting structure. His 
tombs exhibit heavy supernatural figures at their 
entrances, on panels and in niches ; sombre and sunken 
some of them, and heavy trees forming part of the- 
design add to the effect* His Crematorium at Bremen 
is an example of his treatment of the Death motive. 
He seems to have absorbed all the melancholy of 
Mestrovic into his designs, and aggravated it into 
something monstrous, and his influence has been 
considerable, and is nowhere more easily traceable 
than in the architectural sculpture of Holland. He was 
Professor of Sculpture at Vienna, and the result of his 
teaching, therefore, is widespread over the Continent. 
His Wagner monument in Berlin, his Kaiserin Eliza 
beth at Vienna, his Rhinegold stone reliefs at Berlin, 
his marble Earth (a crouching male figure with clenched 
hands), and his Mother, at Dresden (1912), with 
mighty limbs, mannered hair, heavy falling drapery 
adhering to the flesh, are well known. Two bronze 



busts from life are characteristic : a severe, highly 
modelled, hairless bust of a soldier, and a striking head 
of a professor with wonderful face-planes, are among 
the simpler works of Metzner. As the protagonist of 
the sketch-study after the fashion of Rodin's more 
uncouth and degenerate style, Metzner is seen in the 
heavy, violent torso known as Pain, and his sketches 
more or less after nature of Siegfried, women and men 
clothed and unclothed, in odd, and sometimes grotesque, 
attitudes. Metzner died in 1919. 

Somewhat in the manner of Metzner's Mother, is a 
work of Karl Wilfert, The Sentimentalist, which is, 
however, a little more naturalistic, but has over-elon 
gated, queer hair, which is a feature of Metzner's style. 

Hugo Lederer was born in 1871, in the small town 
of Znaim, and spent twenty years in the studio of 
Johannes Schillings, at Dresden. His statue of Bis 
marck, at Bingen, has all the worst features of the 
dominating spirit of the time, drapery like armour, 
clenched fist, great sword. His Bismarck, at Hamburg, 
is not quite so bad, for it is a touch more naturalistic 
and more human, but the heavy standing figure is still 
symbolical. Lederer 's fountain figures, some of which 
have been exhibited at the Salon, are better, and his 
Wrestler, seen at Dresden in 1912, is a good work, the 
pose is fine, and the whole thing has a somewhat class 
ical air which is not unwelcome. His bust of Richard 
Strauss is in the Austrian National Gallery at Vienna, 
it is somewhat in the style of Rodin's Wyndham, and 
Gustav Mahler, replicas of which are in the same 
museum. Lederer is now professor in the Art School 
at Berlin. 

Rudolf Bosselt was born at Perleberg in the same 
year as Lederer, and from 1885 to I ^9 I was at work in 
a bronze factory. From that time he became a student 
in the Art School and Institute of Frankfort, and then 
spent three years at Julian's in Paris, afterwards be 
coming a member of the Art Colony at Darmstadt. 
He produced a bronze panel of Patriz Huber, and 
several medals, and then became a teacher of the art 
school of Diisseldorf, and later the director at Magde 
burg. He has made a group in limestone of Mother 
and Child, a torso of a woman in marble in 1909, an 
oblong plaquette of Barbara Krupp, and is well known 
as a medallist. 

Ludwig Habich was born at Darmstadt in 1872, 
educated at the Academy of Karlsruhe, and in Munich. 
He is an architectural sculptor who has done good work 
in stone. Johannes Bossard was born in 1874, a * ^ug, 
and trained at Munich and at Berlin, under Arthur 
Kampf. His Force, and a bronze Amazon, seen at 
Hamburg in 1907, are excellent. Bernard Hoetger 
was born the same year at Horde, and was for twenty 
years a carver of church furniture, and was for three 
years a student at Diisseldorf. His bronze Youth, walk 
ing with finger tips touching above his head, and his 
bronze fountain figure of Justice, in Elberfeld, with 
hands outspread, palms upwards, are well known. 
From 1900 he spent three years in Paris, and was 
directly influenced by Rodin and Maillol, and in 1911 
he went to Darmstadt. His terra-cotta bust of a girl, 
his marble portrait of a girl, and his torso of a young 
woman, are works in the neo-classical style. At Darm 
stadt Hoetger has done majolica figures, in which 


various influences are plainly seen : Dresden china, 
Japanese grotesques, Tanagra figurines, Greek statues, 
and Italian primitives, have all given him notes, and 
he has made most excellent use of them, displaying a 
great sense of humour, and in these things he has cer 
tainly discovered his metier. His small bronze torso of 
a young girl is one of the few German sculptures in the 
Luxembourg Museum. 

Georg Kolbe is one of the Berlin Secessionists. He 
was born in Waldheim in 1877, and studied as a painter 
in Rome and Munich. He is one of the younger artists 
who went to Paris when the influence of Rodin was 
strong, and that of Maillol beginning to be felt. He 
turned to sculpture at the age of twenty-four, and in 
1905 settled in Berlin and developed a graceful style, 
more in the manner of the French masters than that 
of his brother sculptors in Germany, but an original 
style of his own. A bronze Amazon, standing with 
crossed legs, and a nude Dancing Woman, with arms 
extended, of 1911, in the National Gallery at Berlin 
are typical examples of his manner, and a bronze bust, 
Chinese, has distinct charm. His beautiful Heine 
memorial of 1913 at Frankfort-on-Maine, consists of 
two nude bronze figures, a woman seated, leaning on 
her left hand, her head averted and a young man, lightly 
poised on the toes of both feet and his arms lightly ex 
tended, the head expressive of lyric fervour, the eyes 
gazing into the beyond ; the hair close-cropped. The 
group is placed on a square base of worked stones, with 
an upper moulding, and on one face of it bears a 
medallion portrait of the poet. Kolbe's latest work, 
dated 1920, is a nude bronze figure of a woman standing 


with crossed legs and hands clasped lightly over 
her breasts, her eyes closed, which, with the works I 
have mentioned, indicate the strong and yet delicate 
modelling by which this artist gives to his pieces their 
peculiar charm. These and others may be seen in the 
museums of Berlin, Dresden, Frankfort, Hamburg, 
and Breslau. Kolbe is now a professor of sculpture. 

Benno Elkan was born at Dortmund in the same year, 
and studied art at Karlsruhe, going in 1905 to Paris, 
where he fell in love with the work of Rodin, but also 
with that of Bartholome. He then went to Rome, and 
returned to Germany in 1911, having produced his 
Persephone, in Carrara marble, in 1908. This is a very 
important piece of composite sculpture, comparable 
with La Nature sa devoilant, by Ernest Barrias, in the 
Luxembourg, or with Frarnpton's St. George. The 
marble of Persephone is associated with gold and 
bronze, onyx and alabaster, the colours are violet, green 
and yellow, the leaves and flowers are of malachite, 
chrysoprase, jasper and agate. It is a startling piece of 
virtuosity and I know of nothing more elaborate of its 
kind. The figure is draped from the waist, the arms 
are crossed, and the hands are holding roses towards 
which the head is bent to inhale their perfume. Another 
important work consists of the three bronze panels of 
the Sermon on the Mount, with Christ, a gaunt robed 
figure with a full head of hair and an awkward, eager 
pose. The listeners are in all sorts of costumes or none, 
they proclaim their adherence to the teachings, or 
implore forgiveness, or express their sorrow for their 
sins, A bronze Flute Player, a bronze head, and var 
ious plaques and medals go to make up the body of 


Elkan's work. Another sculptor whose statuettes are 
composite, polished ivory and gold, and other materials, 
is Emil Geiger. 

Richard Langer, professor in the Academy of Diissel- 
dorf, was born in 1879, at Nordhausen. He is a direct 
carver in stone and wood, and his Young Woman 
sitting, half turned, in limestone, with very little model 
ling, and under-carved is an example of a good deal of 
work that has followed, due to his teaching and to the 
exhibition of his sculpture. His Sack Carrier, and his 
Madonna of 1911, in pearwood, shew the same pecu 
liarities of treatment. The latter work is a quite new 
conception, with eyes closed, lips pushed forward, a 
look of mystery on the face, and of wonder. There is 
no indication of national characteristics, the hair is 
sharply cut, and a simple roll of drapery completes an 
impressive bust. His relief in stone, The Bathers, is an 
uncompromisingly realistic picture from the life of a 
man and four women ; the modelling is heavy and 
rough, and the work is by no means graceful, but on 
the other hand, a full-length nude study in bronze of a 
tall woman is full of grace. 

Josef Hoeffler is another carver in wood, born in the 
same year as Langer, at Kaiserlautern, and educated 
at Munich under Riiman, and at Hamburg. He came 
into notice at the Munich Secession in 1907. His work 
is sometimes quite small, a Little Boy, and a Lion, in 
mahogany, being only 25 c.m. high. A good piece is 
the bust of a young man in limewood, and he has made 
relief studies of soldiers and native Africans in ebony. 
Franz Earwig's work in wood is done mostly with the 
knife, good examples being a group of five men, women 


and child, and a group of Fauns. A wood equestrian 
statuette of Rudolf von Hapsburg, in chain-mail and 
over-garment, displays Earwig's mastery of treatment, 
which is well seen in a study of a Turkeycock. He has 
done also a number of decorative reliefs, and a bronze 
Steinbok, and other horned beasts. Wilhelm Gerstel's 
nude sitting woman from the life is a good wood study, 
and so is^Franz Scheiber's Madonna and Children. 

Wilhelm Lehmbruck was born in 1 88 1, in a suburb 
of Duisburg, on the Rhine. He was the son of a miner, 
and from 1895 studied at the school of art at Diissel- 
dorf for six years, in 1901 joining the Academy in the 
same town. He also visited Italy, Holland and England, 
and in 1910 he went to Paris, having already exhibited 
two busts in the Salon of 1909. The main influence on 
his work seems to have been that of Maillol, but his 
personal characteristics are so marked as to give it dis 
tinct originality. His figures are elongated, even more 
than those of Bourdelle, and in addition are attenuated, 
in the case of the Climbing Youth, of 1913, and the 
earlier Kneeling Woman, in the Mannheim Museum 
and in the National Gallery of Berlin, to quite a re 
markable degree. There is another distinctive Female 
Figure of 1910 in the Duisburg Museum, and a female 
torso shewn at the Free Exhibition at Cologne, a statue 
of a Young Woman with drapery folded and secured 
around her thighs and falling to her feet, and a Portrait 
of a Gentleman, are notable things. Less mannered 
than the others, is the life-size figure of a young woman, 
known as Meditation, long-legged, broad-shouldered, 
long-necked, and with a small head ; the right arm 
hanging downwards, the left hand extended behind 


the back and holding the right arm. The work was 
done in 1913, and indicates the transition of Lehm- 
bruck's style as learned in the schools, to the later 
things so marked by his strong individuality. During 
the war the sculptor lived in Berlin and Zurich, and 
he died in 1919. Other sculptors of distinct modern 
tendency are E. Seger, Ernest Schlosser, and A. Hoff 

Among the makers of medals and other small sculp 
tural works are Hans Schwegerle, born in Liibeck in 
1882, and trained under von Hildebrand and Lehrer, 
at Munich; Theodor von Gosen, born in 1873 at 
Augsberg, educated also at Munich, studying in Italy, 
France and Belgium, and becoming a teacher in the 
Breslau Academy ; Hoernlein, Roty and the older 
Maximilian Dasio, born at Munich in 1865. 

The various secessionist movements number 
among their supporters Karl Albiker, the Professor of 
Sculpture at the Academy at Dresden, an accomplished 
but mannered sculptor inspired by the work of 
Aristide Maillol ; and Tina Hain. The younger men, 
exhibiting mostly at the Paris Salons, are Otto Richter, 
of Berlin, Max Lange, of Leipzig, Josef Hinterscher 
and Johanny Buchs, of Dresden, and Oscar Bromberg, 
of Hamburg. Professor Klimsch, of Charlottenberg, is 
another sculptor whose influence is felt by the modern 

A good feature of German sculpture is its applica 
tion to fountain work, in which it resembles the applied 
sculpture of America. Carl Wallek has produced a fine 
example in the Mozart fountain at Vienna, Walter 
Schmarje a bronze figure fountain in Berlin, as well as 



simple memorials with good lettering with reliefs ; 
Alexander Hofer ; and Heinrich Missfeldt, a memorial 
fountain to the poet Klause-Groth at Kiel, consisting 
of a single figure with six panel reliefs. Walter Schott 
has made a circular fountain with three dancing women 
and a frieze of masks for outlets. Among recent memor 
ials are those by Karl Menser, " 1918," at Bonn, con 
taining half -figures with heads bowed to hands ; a 
mourning group of three figures in relaxed and despair 
ing attitudes ; Burial, a compact group of two figures 
holding a corpse, all of these being full of deep serious 
feeling. Menser has also carved in oak a Pieta, and made 
a bust of Beethoven. 

In Germany sculpture as an art is accepted as on an 
equality with painting much more generally than in 
most other countries, and is more an affair of the daily 
life of the people. Fountains and memorials and statues 
abound in most places, and it is largely used in domestic 
architecture. Designs for sumptuous new houses pro 
vide for the display of pieces of statuary, as well as 
other forms of carving, while the large business build 
ings and public institutions are coming to demand 
more and more of the art, and in Berlin, as in Paris, 
the sculptor's name is found by the side of the archi 
tect's on many buildings. 

At the International Exhibition at Venice, in 1914, 
some of the youngest German sculptors were exhibitors : 
Werd von Bartels, who shewed a work called Airone ; 
Constantin Starck, Omaggio ; Otto Plaezek, Good 
Company ; Joachim Herm Pagels, William of Prussia ; 
Arthur Lewin-Funck, a Child, and Franz Bernauer, 
Legenda Tedesca, all in bronze. In marble, Ludwig 

161 M 


Manzel exhibited a bust of Dr. Dohrn ; and Carl 
Seffner, a portrait bust also, and Hans Adolf Buhler, 
a group in terra-cotta, Pieta. Evith Schmidt-Kestner, 
of Berlin, also works in terra-cotta, and in faience, and 
has exhibited at the Salon of the Societe Nationale des 
Beaux- Arts statuettes and groups. There are quite a 
number of talented sculptors in Germany occupied in 
making figures and other objects in faience, porcelain 
and other pottery, at Dresden and elsewhere, like 
Theodore Eichler. At the Paris Salon, from time to 
time, are cases of figurines in these materials by Max 
Valentin, Rudolf Marcuse, of Berlin, and Ernest 
Segers, whose work is popular in the country of its 
production and valued there. 

Other German sculptors of note are J. Hinterscher, 
whose group, The Kiss, has become well known ; Hugo 
Kaufman, the Berlin professor, and Professor Klein, 
with his classic Girl with a Pitcher, and classic in feel 
ing, too, is Erdmann Encke's Good-bye. Among the 
latest works of German sculpture is Professor Wand- 
Schneider's monument to the fallen of the first Regi 
ment of Uhlans of the Guard, one of the earlier war 
memorials inaugurated in 1920 at Potsdam. It has the 
appearance of an altar with a sculptured panel in front, 
and above, a seated nude male figure in a shrapnel 
helmet, supported by the left arm, the right laid dis 
consolately over the right leg bent upwards, the head 
is bowed in sorrow. 

Before the war there was an increasing tendency on 
the part of the young German sculptors to secure the 
advantages of Paris. Among them were Oscar Bromberg 
who has shewn, among other things, a figure of Italy' 



in stone, and a mask in bronze, The Eternal Question, 
and a bronze portrait of a Boy ; Johanny Buchs exhibited 
a marble Eve, and a portrait of a lady; and Max Lange 
shewed a bronze bust of Lucifer. 

German sculpture in the Luxembourg includes a 
small bronze portrait of Mommsen by Walter Lobach, 
of Berlin, and Destiny, a marble bust, by Arnold Rech- 
berg, of Hersfeld. 

The beginnings of Austrian sculpture are associated 
with the name of Tirolese Franz Zanner, who died in 
1822, after striving to make his work representative of 
his country, and this laudable desire was carried on 
after him by Joseph Daniel Boehm, who not only gave 
to Austria a fine legacy of work in the medals he made, 
but gave to England his son, Edgar Boehm, who was 
to carry on the work of the Irishman Foley in guarding 
the credit of English sculpture, through a very difficult 
and dull period. It was, however, the work of Emanuel 
von Max that raised Austrian sculpture to a place of 
importance in Europe by his Radetzky monument at 
Prague (in which he was helped by his brother Joseph), 
and other works. A strong influence in the person of 
Franz Bauer of the Vienna Academy accounts for the 
contemporary style, and it was while he wielded power 
as professor of sculpture that the new movement in 
Vienna began, with its secessions, absorptions, and 
reconstructions, culminating in Tart nouveau, but 
doing much too that was more useful and less egregious. 

The Vienna sculptors exhibiting at the Salon of the 
Societ6 Nationale, in 1909, were Victor Frisch, who 
shewed two works in marble, Berceuse, and Deluge ; 
Maria de Giessendorif, who exhibited a marble La 



Source, and the First Communion ; and Robert Leon, 
who makes portraits. Karl Stemolak is a sculptor who 
is very sincere, and a Mother and Child of his exhibited 
in Dresden in 1912, shews him as having well studied 
Rosso, or Rosso through Rodin : in this piece the head 
and shoulders of the woman are fully modelled, but 
only one arm, the neck and the head of the child and 
one arm of the mother holding it, emerge from the 
marble matrix. In a gravestone relief, Stemolak seems 
to have got his idea from Mestrovic, but there is fine 
modelling of the naturalistic head, which gives it char 
acter. A good deal of influence has been exercised on 
Vienna sculpture by Professor Josef Breitner. This is 
in the direction of the heavy dynamic style, and is seen 
in the Salome of Hubert Kowarik, a Salome with a 
Greek head, and with John at her feet, a stout figure 
of a woman with smooth draperies. Another work of 
the same school, a heavy and also coarse woman with 
a child on either hand, but relieved somewhat by a 
jolly smile, is the group called Fruitfulness, by Karl 
Krikawa. This tendency is carried furthest in the 
powerful work of Anton Hanak in his Giant ; a strange 
convincing symbolic study. The figure is heavy, un 
wieldy, useless, not having any true function, devoid 
of a real purpose beyond mere dynamism. Hanak, 
however, can shew other work which is naturalistic 
and less crudely symbolic. A Girl from the life is 
even a sweet study ; Parting is characteristic as well 
as naturalistic. Die Ewigkeit is seated sphinx-like, and 
in the convention, while Die Ehrenburg, and a Cary 
atid are fashioned somwhat in the style of Maillol, 
with a later-Rodinesque effect. Hanak's work reveals 



as well as realistic vision and fine modelling, the 
possession of ideas and imagination. Victor Seidan 
is a modeller in terra-cotta, and Willy Borman and 
Ferdinand Ooblinger work in faience. 

At the International Exhibition at Venice, in 1901, 
a special feature was the modern art of Hungary, and 
Professor Bela Lazar, of Budapest, contributed an 
account of it to the catalogue. Forty-one pictures were 
shewn, but only five pieces of sculpture by five different 
artists. The eldest of these is Janos Fadrusz, who was 
born in 1858 at Pozsony, and received his art training 
in Vienna. He lives at Budapest, and his principal works 
are the Christ of 1894, the monument to Maria Teresa 
at Pozsony, and King Matyas, at Kolozsvar. He was 
awarded a grand prix at the Paris International Ex 
hibition. Ede Kallos was born in 1866 at Hodrnezovas- 
arhely, and studied at the school of decorative art in 
Budapest, and afterwards in Paris, under Chapu. He 
has made a number of monuments and portrait busts, 
and exhibited one of the architect, Ybl, at Venice. 
Miklos Ligeti was born at Budapest in 1871, where he 
received his art education. He has exhibited an Adarn 
and Eve, Crab Fisher, and the Tree of Life, and his 
exhibit at Venice was an Unknown Chronicler. Ede 
Teles and 6. Fiilop Beck were born in 1872, the former 
at Baja, and the latter at Veszprem, and both live at 
Budapest. Teles studied at Vienna, under Zambusch, 
and began to exhibit in 1894 ^th his Non Sono 
bevitori ! Golia and Innamorati followed, and in 1900 
his King Karoly III. He has been awarded a gold medal 
at Antwerp, and a silver at Paris. Beck is a medallist, 
and exhibited a frame of medals and plaques. Other 


Hungarian sculptors of importance are Eugenio Bory, 
Giuseppe Damko, Giovanni Istok, Bela Markup, Geza 
Rubletzky, and Jeno Kormendi-Frim, who exhibited 
at the Salon of 1909 a head of a man and a portrait of a 




MODERN sculpture for a time was dominated 
by Antonio Canova, who, living from 1757 
to 1822, mastered not only Italy, but the 
whole of Europe. His influence remained unassailed 
for many years after his death, and it is only on the 
coming of age of the contemporary school that it suffered 
an eclipse. Of its kind, the neo-classical work of Canova 
neo-classical on the less robust and softer side 
cannot be beaten, nor is it at all desirable that any 
attempt should be made in that direction. Only a virile 
resurrection of the art in Italy saved it, and fortunately, 
a new impetus in a new direction furnished the neces 
sary stimulation in the work of Rosso. 

Medardo Rosso was a Piedmontese, born at Turin 
in 1858. He studied painting, but after his period of 
military service, he dedicated his life to the sister art, 
He loved sculpture from boyhood, and from that time 
his thought was concentrated on those aspects of it 
which are concerned with light and colour ; the method 
of perspective and environment that would give the 
effects of light and shade and colour. His first works 
were shewn at Milan in 1882, and attracted the atten 
tion of artists. Among others was Prince Troubetzkoy, 
with whom he discussed his new method- He exhibited 
at Paris at the same time as Toulouse-Lautrec, at the 


Georges Petit Gallery, and at the Salons. His sculpture 
was first seen in London in 1884, and at Venice in 1886. 
In 1889 he executed, for Milan, monuments to Filippo 
Filippi, the musical critic, and to Brusco Omnis, the 
companion of Mazzini. At the Theatre d'Application, 
in 1893, works, old and new, were exhibited, and among 
the latter, La Femme a la Voilette. After shewing again 
in London in 1896, his works were refused at the In 
ternational Exhibition of 1900, but were eagerly seized 
on by Holland and exhibited at Rotterdam, Utrecht, 
the Hague, and Amsterdam, with works by the moderns, 
Sisley, Monet, Pissarro, and Renoir. At the Autumn 
Salon of 1904, Rosso was offered the share of one of 
the rooms with Rodin and Prince Troubetskoy, this 
action indicating his position in the world of art. About 
the same time he exhibited at Leipzig, Dresden, Kre- 
feld and Berlin, and, in 1905, at Vienna, and at Ken 
sington. At the International Exhibition at Venice in 
1914, he was accorded a special place in the Italian 
section, and twenty of his works were displayed. The 
earliest was Monello of 1882, and the latest, Ecce Puer 
of 1901, and there were four portrait busts one of 
Yvette Guilbert of the years 1894 to 1897. 

Rosso was an enquirer and he wondered how things 
were done. To find out he made copies of the head of 
Vitellius in the Vatican ; in wax of Michelangelo's 
Madonna and Child at Berlin ; a torso from Rodin's 
John the Baptist ; he made numerous heads of women 
and children : he was always enquiring. At the zenith 
of his art, between thirty and forty years of age, he 
produced La Rieuse (1890), in 1893, Vers le Soir, three 
years later the Femme a la Voilette, the two latter in 



the Noblet collection, Paris. A Head of a Child is in 
the Folkwang Museum at Hagen, Westphalia, witness 
ing to the assiduity with which he pursued his theory, 
and one of his child studies in tinted plaster is in the 

There can be no limit put upon the imagination of 
the artist, and no criticism of the method by which he 
conveys his ideas so long as imagination and method 
make for sincerity, and it was the obvious sincerity of 
Manet that gave to Impressionism in painting its 
power of conviction. It was a development which led 
to higher truths in the realm of painting, if it did not 
establish itself as the one and only gospel. To it the 
world is indebted for priceless works, and for what is 
no less valuable, a splendid influence. Inevitably the 
failures were in evidence, too, but even these were in 
teresting and in some ways valuable. 

Impressionism, however, was not only the product 
of Paris. The microbe developed elsewhere, and in 
Italy the blood of the sculptor suffered inoculation. 
Medardo Rosso was the victim, and, filled with the 
virus, he embarked on a startling career, producing 
some extraordinary results. He was twenty-four years 
old when, in the early eighteen-eighties, he left for 
Paris. He called on Rodin first and conveyed to the 
great modern sculptor the distemper from which he 
himself suffered, and in which he delighted, for it is 
believed that Rodin had not then entertained the idea 
of applying Manet's theory to sculpture. 

Rosso was more thorough in his view and practice 
of Impressionism than was Manet himself, as the works 
of 1883, and the years immediately following, indicate : 



La Concierge, Marchande de Legumes, and others. 
" Art," he said, " must be nothing else than the ex 
pression of some sudden sensation given to us by light. 
There are no such things as painting or sculpture. 
There exists only but light." Further, " I have attempted 
to reproduce in an Impression de Boulevard, a feminine 
physiognomy, seen in the fugitive space of the fraction 
of a second, but caught just as I saw it. That is my 
conception of art which can also be defined in the 
words of the poet : * A moment's monument.' " 

This invites the comment that art is like photo 
graphy, but does photography produce a moment's 
monument ? It produces only a momentary expres 
sion, and is therefore worthless in terms of art. Art 
has to produce a monument of a life-time or it fails, 
and a moment does not suffice for the expression of 
character, for it may be a moment of joy or anger, and 
in either case, the portraiture can hardly afford the 
expression of both emotions. It must be said that 
Rosso 's sculpture belies his theory, for there is char 
acter in his impressions, and though the impressions 
are regarded by many as nebulous and inconclusive, 
they are always more congested than momentary. 

That Rosso cultivated his powers of observation to 
a remarkable degree no one would deny, and if, as he 
infers, his observation was momentary, then the result 
of the heavy toil which followed is remarkable. Con 
firmation of his theory and statement is found in an 
ample degree in his works, as they are studied chrono 
logically. Malade a I'Hopital of 1889 is a development 
on the work of five years earlier. In 1892 there is the 
Enfant au Soleil to prove this ; two years later, the 



Vers le Soir au Boulevard Femme a la Voilette. In 
the mask La Rieuse, Rosso comes nearer to the work 
of his contemporaries, and the moment 's monument in 
this case is a singularly attractive and humorous smile. 
In his Docteur Fles, and Paris la Nuit, we see his im 
pressionism, if not his theory of it, carried to its full 
length, and in it he has outdone himself. His principle 
that only light matters is weakened : mere light with 
out form is proved a complete negative. There is more 
in the theory of art than Rosso stated, as was proved 
by his own practice, and proved, moreover, by Rodin, 
even more conclusively. 

No theory or system, not even impressionism, will 
bring into a work of art life and emotion. Impressionism 
enables an artist to produce a work that is vital, and 
it is in its essence too a vivid seizure of an emotion, 
but the work of art produced is an expression of life or 
emotion which may have entailed an infinity of labour. 
Now it is not impossible, logically, to reverse the pro 
cess. The impressionism may entail an infinity of 
labour, the expression, the labour of a few hours ! It 
is a matter of technique after all. Rosso 's vision was in 
lightning flashes, but he may have worked slowly while 
the result of his vision emerged : I am not aware if 
this is so, but I know of sculptors whose eyes are not 
so quick, but are no less sure ; who work with such 
facility that it is only believable when witnessed. The 
result in both cases is a moment's or a life-time's monu 
ment, just as you look at the matter. The serious point 
is that it shall be a noble monument, not of any time, 
but for all time. 

It is claimed for Rosso, as I have indicated, that in 



1883 he infected Rodin with his theory, and that Rodin 
turned from his old ways, and that later, the Balzac 
was the result. Rodin was ever alert and ever percept 
ive, ever receptive. It may be quite true that Rosso 
largely intrigued Rodin's mind, but Rodin liked that : 
his mind was a busy enquiry bureau, and Rosso was 
as welcome there as any other vendor of ideas, or as 
any other anxious enquirer. It would not matter that 
the new caller was eighteen years Rodin's junior : you 
can always learn something from the young, and they 
are always, or almost always, eager to teach. I think 
it may be granted therefore that Rodin may have learned 
something from Rosso, for Rosso held his ideas pas 
sionately, and that would impress the older artist, to 
whom passion in all forms was everything. 

After all, however, Rosso 's ideas were incapable of a 
wholesale distribution among sculptors. Sculpture 
requires something more than impressionism : save 
architecture, it is the most concrete of all the arts, as 
music is the most abstract, painting and poetry coming 
in between. All sculptors are not all great thinkers, as 
were Rodin and Rosso, and so Rosso 's own particular 
theory, tenuous as it is, was, in the nature of things, 
bound to be overlooked, but, at the same time, bound 
to have its effect. There is no doubt that it has had its 
effect, and there are evidences of this in the contem 
porary sculpture of his own country, and in that of 
England, France, and Belgium. He was by far the 
freshest force in Italian Sculpture since the Renais 
sance, for Canova was too dependent on the Greek and 
other classical work, and was not a disintegrating 
power. All the same, the influence of Canova has by no 



means disappeared from Italian sculpture : neither is it 
probable that it will ever do so, Canova was the very spirit 
of Italy, and until that spirit changes, much more even 
than it is changing to-day, Canova's smooth beauty 
will hold part of the field, however much the other 
part may have been disturbed by Rosso, and influences 
from France and elsewhere. The development of 
Italian sculpture has, with this main exception, and 
some smaller subsidiary ones, been singularly homo 

Ideal sculpture is a distinguishing feature of the 
contemporary Italian school, combined with the cult 
of the monument, memorial, and tomb. The greatest 
Italian sculptors have made splendid monuments, and 
the Arte Funeraria Italiana is almost an art in itself, 
and the Italian cemeteries are galleries of sculpture. 
In this there is nothing fresh, for the Campo- Santo 
has often been in Italy, not only a holy ground for the 
dead, but a holy ground of art. The Campo-Santo at 
Pisa has flooded the minds of more artists than the 
Pre-Raphaelite Brothers, with its beauties, and some 
of the works in the modern cemeteries of Italy may 
serve as inspiration to present and future sculptors. 
Not all of them are good : that would be too much to 
expect or even hope for, but when the most accom 
plished of a country's artists are at work in this direc 
tion, there is plenty of room for hoping that the country *s 
mortuary art will be worthy of the great subject of 
Death, and conducive of happiness and pleasure to the 
cultured living, while raising the taste of the uncul 
tured, often, in this direction, of the most appalling 
character. The greatest, as well as the least, of the 



Italian sculptors have taken part in the work, in this 
way imitating the greatest artists of all time : Michel 
angelo, Alfred Stevens, and Rodin. There is a fine 
inspiration in the death of a great prince, a great soldier, 
a great poet, and only sculpture and architecture can 
rise to so fine an occasion, and the arts of painting 
and poetry have not vindicated the same greatness of 
opportunity. In very truth death is a monumental sub 
ject, and not even Adonais, nor In Memoriam, inspired 
respectively by the desire of freedom and the ideal of 
friendship, and personified in the passing of two fine 
lives, have reached the magnificence to which the 
masterpieces of memorial sculpture have attained. 
Among sculptors who are almost wholly devoting their 
energies to this work are Alfredo Sassi, Gigi Orengo, 
Antonio Carminati, Roberto Greter, and Enrico Cassi, 
but Italy's greater artists also lend a hand on great 

One of the most important of these is Leonardo 
Bistolfi, who was born in 1859. His birthplace is Casal- 
monferrato, in Piedmont, and he was trained in art at 
the Academia de Brera at Milan, from 1876 to 1879. 
He afterwards settled in Turin, from which city his 
works have gone out over Italy and the world. He is 
mainly a monumental sculptor, but has also produced 
ideal works and portraits. In the Venice International 
Exhibition of 1910 he exhibited a bust, in marble, of 
the Contessa Mito Minotto Ceresa. In the garden of 
the same exhibition was the model of the sepulchral 
monument for the Abegg family, Zurich, an impressive 
work, which was completed in 1914, and placed in a 
position in the cemetery at Zurich, which is admirably 


suited to its character. It is isolated from all other 
tombs, and surrounded by trees at a suitable distance. 
There is a great deal of early Greek simplicity in the 
two statues, especially in the case of the one of Death. 
It is a noble figure, the drapery designed successfully 
to give it dignity. Death turns her back on Life, repre 
sented by a much younger figure, half-draped, desiring, 
in her sorrow, almost to follow Death ; full of grief 
yet hesitant, knowing that the joys of life are awaiting 
her even if visible death is there for her to lament. 
There are no adjuncts to the two figures, and they speak 
for themselves most eloquently. Another mortuary 
monument an earlier one that to Vittorio Bersegio, 
is in the cemetery at Montevideo, Uruguay. It is called 
the Holocaust, and consists of three female figures of 
distinctly modern type. The central figure is mourning 
the dead, kneeling at the foot of the plain stone which 
marks their resting-place, and on either side is a winged 
figure condoling with her. The whole is inclined to be 
pretty, but there is fine modelling in it. Earlier still 
(1895) is the Sebastiano Grandis tomb at Borgo S. 
Dalmazzo, in Piedmont, known as The Beauty of 
Death. A woman of the day in voluminous, graceful 
dress brings flowers to place on the effigy lying under a 
low, wide-curved arch, and the tomb is naturalistically 
decorated with a display of flowers not quite suitable 
for sculptural uses. Flowers are again used in the Pansa 
tomb at Cuneo, which somewhat mar the surmounting 
figure of a modern type of woman in simple, heavy- 
falling drapery, with long hanging hair, called The 
Sphinx. The Cross is an ambitious monument at Genoa 
belonging to the year 1905, and indicates an advance 


in taste. The floral decoration is very much reduced, 
and the realism of the figure-work greatly improved. 
There are a dozen figures of men, women and children, 
and the modelling of the men shews much more 
strength than a study of earlier work promised. There 
are still elements of prettiness in it,butthere is additional 
sincerity, grace and a sympathy with humanity which 
gives the work distinction. The figures form a group in 
very high relief, some of them almost in the round. 

Another type of sepulchral monument is the low 
relief of 1898, of Sorrow assuaged by Memory, in the 
cemetery of the Madonna of the Campagna at Turin. 
A central draped sorrowing figure, with clasped hands, 
listens to and regards the numerous female figures 
which represent the past. This work has not the bold 
ness of most of Bistolfi's sculpture even up to this 
period, but there is a pensive sadness imparted to the 
whole relief by the central figure, which is engaging 
without being at all sentimental. 

Another relief, of a different class, is the Rosaggo 
monument, a work belonging to the year 1910, in which 
a great development of Bistolfi's powers is discernible. 
Against a background of fine trees is a platform of 
stone, on the raised parapet of which, at the back, is 
the high relief of men, women and children, in action, 
for the most part draped, offering an allegory of the 
joys and duties and sorrows of life. In front of this is a 
bust of Federigo Rosaggo on a stone pedestal, on a 
plinth led up to by a series of shallow steps. This work 
shews the sculptor at his best in his sepulchral work. 
The earliest of his important tombs is that of Urbano 
Rattazzi of 1887. 




facing p. 176 


Of Bistolfi's ideal and symbolical works the most 
important early example is the Christ of 1899, a curious 
figure, heavily draped, full long hair and small hands 
hands which draw attention by their meagreness as 
the hands of the Sphinx also do. The placing of this 
statue in the park in the Piazzola sul Brenta at Padua, 
with a wide open space all around, is admirable. The 
Victim is the ornate group of the Victor Emanuel II 
Monument at Rome. It consists of four figures, two 
male and two female, the central flaccid male figure, 
attenuated by the ardour of sacrifice, is supported by 
the second male figure on his shoulders, and partly by 
one of the women. The other woman, placed high 
above the three, bends down to give the kiss of reward 
on the cold lips of Death. The Awakening of Liberty 
is a graceful figure in high relief forming the monu 
ment to Cavour at Bergamo. The face, although the 
work dates as late as 1914, is rather pretty, but the 
modelling of the figure and the drapery are charming. 
The figure emerges from the block of stone, which in 
itself is an essential part of the design. This is even 
more the case with the Giovanni Segantini monument 
at Saint Moritz of 1906. Here the whole mass repre 
sents a mountain peak, the stone hewn roughly for the 
purpose and, as though part of it, the tall woman's 
dignified figure is carved. The woman, too, has a beau 
tiful face, far better suited for sculptural purposes than 
those with less character of which I have spoken. 

Bistolfi's most important portrait statues are Vit- 
torio Bersegio, the Piedmontese poet at Peveragno, 
dated 1904, a delightfully simple naturalistic work, the 
poet seated, his hands by his sides, his pince-nez in 

177 N 


place, and Garibaldi at Sauvinio, of 1908, a fine figure 
standing and leaning against the massive rectangular 
mass of stone led up to by steps, and ornamented by 
two bronze low reliefs, the whole treated in the good, 
simple way that Bistolfi affects. The latest work, in 
progress in 1920, is the monument to Giosue Carducci, 
the poet, for Bologna. 

Eduardo Rubino and Pietro Canonica, like Bistolfi, 
are Piedmontese. Canonica was born in Turin in 1869. 
He is one of the most distinguished sculptors of Italy, 
and his work is delicate, strong and dignified. His first 
success was at Palermo in 1891, and was followed by 
another at Paris. Maternal Instinct, and Christ Cruci 
fied were seen in Venice in 1899, and in 1901, at the 
International Exhibition there, he shewed six works 
in marble which included portraits of the Duchess of 
Genoa, and Tommaso Vallauri, a head of a child, a 
Christ, In Cordis Vigilia, and The Communicant. 
There was also a bronze, Ex humo ad Sidera. In 1914 
his exhibit at Venice was a marble portrait of the 
Princess Clotilde Bonaparte, a kneeling figure at a 
prie-dieu of coloured marbles, with closed eyes, in the 
act of prayer. In 1920, at Venice, he was represented 
by a Cristo Flagellate, which was seen in London at 
the International Society's Exhibition of 1904. Much 
of Canonical work is of a religious character. 

Rubino was born at Turin in 1871, and educated at 
the Royal Academy of Art. His first important work 
was a decorative fountain-group exhibited at Turin 
in 1898, and a bronze bust the following year was 
acquired by the Gallery of Modern Art. In 1902 he 
was given a gold medal for his Dancer group at the 



Turin Exhibition of modern decorative art, and in the 
same year his marble statuette, La Giovinetta, was 
also purchased for the Gallery of Modern Art. His 
monument to King Humbert I, a statue, Adieu, for a 
tomb, and a memorial of a Turin citizen followed from 
1903 to 1905, in which year his high -relief, Passion, 
was awarded ;a gold medal at Venice. Another Turin 
sepulchral monument, for the Boido family, and one 
in memory of Allesandro, the sculptor, at Trent, led 
to the important and large Winged Victory at the left- 
hand of the steps of the Victor Emanuel II Monument 
at Rome. Remembrance is the title of the next work, 
and Consolation (seen at Venice in 1912) is a bronze 
group for the Silvetti family at Turin. A statue in bronze, 
also at Turin, is called the Last Salute, and Love and 
Industry (1914) is a group in marble in the cemetery 
at Milan, commemorating Emilio and Teresa Rosetti. 
In 1919, Resurrection formed the subject of the Gam- 
baro tomb at Turin, and Sculpture and Architecture 
were the subjects of ornamental work done by Rubino 
for the faade of the Palace for the promotion of the 
Fine Arts. To this year belongs the Carolina Invernizio 
statue in Turin, and, in 1920, a Portrait of a Youth was 
exhibited at the annual show of pictures and sculpture. 
Rubino has made a number of medals and plaquettes, 
some of which were included and catalogued in the 
American Numismatic Society's Exhibition of 1910. 
Later works are King Humbert I at Rome, and the 
General Bartolomeo Mitre for Buenos Aires, in collab 
oration with Colandra, and the monument to Antonio 
Foggazaro for Venice. Rubino holds several official 
posts in Turin, and is devoted to his native city. He is 



professor of sculpture at the Royal Academy, and 
teaches also at the Polytechnic Institute, and is an 
honorary professor of the Italian Academy of St. Luca 
at Rome. 

To pass from Piedmont to Lombardy is to get into 
a freer atmosphere, for Milan is the birthplace of 
Futurism ; the natural child of a literary man and artist 
of parts, but barren so far as itself is concerned. It was 
the invention of Boccioni for the purpose of producing 
a striking piece of writing, and in this it was quite suc 
cessful, but as for creating a new sculpture, in spite of 
the fact that its author essays to practise in the art, it 
has been futile. There is very little evidence in Italian 
sculpture of to-day which supports its claims. It is 
easily understood, however, that dissatisfaction is felt 
by Italian sculptors of the young generation at some of 
the results of the established practitioners of the art in 
their country so finished in style and often so refined 
in feeling and their desire to replace it by something 
different is natural, but even artists know that it is 
easier to destroy than to create, and behind creation 
there must be a real force which no theory can ever 
replace. The Futurists set out not to galvanise a corpse , 
but to create a new body, and not even Boccioni, aided 
by Marinetti, nor Brancusi could achieve this with 
materials entirely self -supplied. Pure abstractions are 
just as impossible in sculpture as in all the other plastic 
arts, and the products of Futurism have proved this at 
their every appearance. Sculpture in Italy, however > 
must advance, and is advancing, with the sculpture of 
other countries, but it is no reproach that much of it 
is monumental, concrete, real, for Lorenzo de Medici 


the Duke of Wellington, and the Duke of Clarence 
have all been celebrated by magnificent tombs, monu 
ments in themselves of the art of sculpture in its most 
acceptable and accepted form. It is questionable if 
Futurism or any other process will be able to produce 
with its machinery-motives and its future forms still 
undreamt of, monuments of art as interesting as these, 
but it will be a great day for the theory if and when it 
does. It is satisfactory to see these endeavours, however, 
for there cannot be too many experiments. In the mean 
time natural forms persist. 

Lombardy has provided modern Italian sculpture 
with some of its masters. Rembrandt Bugatti, of Milan, 
was the great sculptor of animals : his list of works 
includes cats and dogs, lions and tigers, camels and 
panthers ; birds and serpents in an unending succes 
sion, varied by boys and girls, and men and women ; 
athletes and goddesses. He seemed to have a passion 
for an infinite variety of form and action, and to have 
observed every movement of every living creature he 
encountered. He was more of a naturalist than Rude 
or Barye, and less of a monumentalist ; he sculptured 
animals because he loved them, and not so much be 
cause they were useful to him as sculptural materials, 
or as decorative details, and there are few sculptors to 
whom he can be compared, and then only in a limited 
sense. His suicide in Paris in 1919 was a great loss to 
the Italian School of Sculpture. There is a bronze 
figurine of an Elephant of Bugatti 's in the Luxembourg. 

Ernesto Bazzaro is a Milanese, and was born in 1859. 
He was trained at the Milan Academy of Fine Arts, 
under Ambrogio Borghi. His earliest work of importance 



is the Garibaldi Monument at Monza (1886). In 
1888 The Widow was exhibited at Munich and Pal 
ermo, and purchased for the National Gallery at Rome. 
Esaurimento was finished in 1894, and received the 
Grand Prix in Paris in 1901, and awards were also 
obtained for it at Dresden, Barcelona, and Buenos 
Aires : it is now in the Museum of Modern Art at 
Munich. These two works are essentially realistic. 
The Esaurimento, an old man with a beard sitting in 
old clothes with an old overcoat round his shoulders 
and a cap on his head ; The Widow, a woman of the 
middle classes, in contemporary dress, sits brooding 
on her sorrow, while her child endeavours to give her 
comfort. These, with the Trovatella of 1899 the old 
man almost overcome with joy at having found his lost 
daughter, as he holds her in his arms are the principal 
pieces serving to mark out the earlier period of 
Bazzaro's art when he worked on lines similar to 
Meunier and the other Belgian realists. Passing from 
this, the marble Water- Carrier seems to have affinities 
with more modern work still, affinities with the work 
of Maillol even. Bazzaro's monuments are important : 
the series, more modern in tone than the Garibaldi, 
begins with the Torrani monument of 1894, the half- 
nude figure of a man seated on a rough-hewn block, 
the lower limbs draped and only roughly hewn like the 
block, the upper part finely modelled, and shewing 
great muscular development, the left arm contrived 
so as to present this feature. The Cavalotti monument 
of 1906 in Milan is of importance, and there are five 
tombs, one of which, for the Crispe family, is very 
striking. The base consists of a series of rectangular 



blocks, the topmost of which, in four pieces, forms 
supports at the corners for a huge slab, on which rests 
the sculptural work, which is of original conception. 
It is triangular in shape, and on one side is the stand 
ing, half-draped figure of a woman, on another the 
seated, somewhat emaciated figure of a man, his head 
thrown back, the tips of his fingers of both hands touch 
ing his shoulders, while on the third face is a dancing 
boy. In the Squadrelli monument a similar treatment 
for the main part is used, but is continued upwards 
in massive formation, and a huge oblong block sur 
mounts the whole, the sculpture being at a lower level 
and at the side. It consists of three impressive draped 
figures, one standing, one sitting, and one kneeling in 
an attitude of lowly acceptance of fate. The most 
original, however, is that to Carlo Romussi. This is 
carved from a big cube of stone, the lower part roughly 
ornamented to form a frieze, the upper hewn into the 
head, shoulders, and arms of a woman whose head is 
bent downwards to read the wide-spread scroll of the 
Book of Life held open by her hands. The Leonida is 
a striking monument of 1903 in the form of a low, broad 
obelisk, the third stage of which consists of a frieze of 
high-relief figures in modern dress, forming a hurry 
ing crowd, and producing an unusual, decorative effect. 
This frieze at one corner breaks into the stage above, 
which, however, is not sculptured on three of its sides, 
but above it, its right leg hanging over it, is the seated 
colossal figure, wearing a helmet, the left leg raised, 
the left arm resting on a shield, the right hand holding 
a spear : a classical figure in strange contrast in its 
placidity to the busy groups below. 



Bazzaro 's decorative work is seen in the two fine 
caryatids at the entrance of the Castiglioni Palace. 
Original again, the artist has placed one three-quarters 
front view, and the other three-quarters back view. 
They are nude, except for some stray pieces of drapery, 
and each one leans on an arm on the moulding of the 
large window above the doorway. A group of a partly- 
draped woman holding a platter, and a nude reclining 
boy in bronze, called Post Prandium, illustrates also 
the sculptor's decorative method, but his greatest work 
in this direction is the figure-decoration in the splendid 
alto-rilievo frieze in the cemetery of Bergamo of 1912, 
in which there are many figures, draped, partly-draped 
and nude in various attitudes and avocations, forming 
a very stately piece of sculpture. Bazzaro is also a sculp 
tor of animals, and his bronzes of a goat, and a camel 
with a woman and child riding, are only two of the 
many attractive studies he has made. In 1917 Ernesto 
Bazzaro and his brother, the painter, Leonardo, held 
a joint exhibition in Milan, and Ernesto shewed nine 
pieces in plaster, four in marble and eighteen in bronze, 
including some of those mentioned above, and such 
other subjects as heads of children, portrait busts, 
Sorrow, and At the Cafe Concert. In the Venice Ex 
hibition of 1914 were his bronze Dammi un bacio, 
and in the garden, Historia Mediolani, in marble. 

One of the most ornate and one of the finest ex 
amples of memorial sculpture of modern times in Italy 
or elsewhere is the National Monument to Victor 
Emanuel II at Rome, erected in 1915 the Country's 
Altar, and on which the greatest of the country's 
sculptors have offered their work. The great relief, 



representing a symbolical triumphant procession, is the 
work of Angelo Zanelli, the Brescian sculptor, who 
was born in 1879 at $ Felice di Scovolo, and educated 
at the Institute of Fine Arts at Florence. In conception 
it is Greek, modified by Renaissance feeling, and made 
individual by its author's knowledge of the human 
form, and his love of sumptuous ornament. The central 
motive is a chariot carrying winged figures with richly 
wrought emblems of power. The rearing horses, in 
the Greek style, are held in check by a broadly-modelled, 
male helmeted figure, and are preceded by draped 
female figures carrying wreaths, and other decorative 
objects, while other figures of similar design follow 
the chariot. The background, in lower relief, consists 
of many figures blowing trumpets. The whole is very 
rich in its effect, and is full of stirring life and glad 
emotion, and is everywhere indicative of its author's 
joyous sense of life and movement. 

Eugenio Maccagnani is one of the oldest of the 
Italian sculptors, having been born in 1852 at Lecce, 
in Apulia, and educated in his art at Rome, where he 
has remained and himself taken pupils. He is thoroughly 
representative of the Italian School, which has had a 
singularly homogeneous development. Maccagnani 's 
work has grown out of Canova's, and he has gained 
strength without losing grace, as may be seen in the 
marble group of Adam and Eve, which obtained for its 
author a gold medal at Paris, and the Cross of the 
Legion of Honour in 1900. The figures of the first 
parents are beautifully carved, and their attitudes, 
with the aid of simple accessories, relate the whole 
story of the Fall. The group is thoroughly descriptive, 


for the bitten apple lies on the piece of rock, beneath 
which the serpent is curled into spirals, and on which 
Eve is partly sitting, partly lying, her face hidden in a 
wealth of beautiful hair. Against her, his right arm 
flexed on her body, Adam sits with bent head, his left 
hand supporting the drooping part of his dejected 

The same full, ample modelling of the figure is seen 
in the partly draped, marble life-size statue of Lia. This 
work, even more than the Adam and Eve, is typical of 
the period which Maccagnani represents. The drapery 
is a silk scarf wound round the head and face and 
falling to the knees, one of which presses the flower- 
covered base in the posture of kneeling. A thick rope 
of solid-looking flowers is held suspended from both 
hands, and the figure leans slightly to the right. The 
attitude and spirit are that of grand opera, but the 
accomplishment of the carving leaves little to be de 
sired. A more realistic work is Dolce far Niente, but 
the realism takes the form of an almost undisguised 
life -study of a sitting man, on a , base lettered with the 
title, and extended at the back to form a rest for the 
leaning body, and this rest is also lettered, but even this 
contrivance does not do away with the impression. As 
a life-study it is very fine, for Maccagnani 's knowledge 
of anatomy and his use of it, are not to be criticised. 
In both these works there is a frankness of presenta 
tion which equals that of some of the Scandinavian 
sculptors, ajid might with advantage be imitated in 
other schools and countries. 

His statue on the King Humbert memorial, with a 
high-relief in cast silver of Goodness, is in the Pantheon 



at Rome, and works in marble and bronze in Santa 
Casa di Loreto, and a large work of the four Evangelists. 
A statue of Giuseppe Garibaldi is at Buenos Aires, 
and one at Brescia. There is a bronze statue of a Boy 
at Play, premiated at twelve thousand lire, in the 
gallery of the Academy of S. Luca, in Rome, and the 
colossal group of the Two Gladiators, premiated at 
ten thousand lire at the exhibition of Turin in 1880, 
which won a gold medal at Paris. The bronze group 
of two Boys Bathing is in the Gallery of Modern Art at 
Rome, and in the civic museum of Turin, and there is 
a colossal statue of Saint Thomas in the Basilica of 
Saint Paul. For the Victor Emanuel memorial at Rome, 
Maccagnani did the fourteen figures around the base 
which supports the' equestrian statue, and the trophy 
of arms on the socle beneath, a grandiose piece of work. 
For his native town, Maccagnani has made several 
monuments and busts in marble representing the 
celebrities of the province, and on the Bellini Theatre, 
at Catania, is a colossal group of allegorical figures, 
including Music and Poetry, together with other decor 
ative work. 

Adolf o Apolloni was born in 1855, in Rome, and is 
intimately concerned with the city of his birth, being a 
Syndic (as well as a Senator of the Kingdom), and 
President of the Royal Academy of S. Luca. He is also 
a member of the Institute of France, and of other acad 
emies. His work is largely monumental, and one of his 
most distinctive things is his Allegory of Sculpture at 
the Royal Academy of S. Luca. A beautiful nude female 
figure symbolises the artist, and beneath her hands 
there begin to emerge the arms and hands of the male 


figure that is being created from the block of marble 
upon which the creator is seated. There is great suavity 
and grace in the carving of the woman, and the fulness 
of the lines of her figure suggests a Greek ideal of beauty, 
and on the face is the impress of thought which gives 
the allegory its significance. Another work in Rome is 
the fine free figure of Victory of the Victor Emanuel 
monument. Poised beautifully on the right foot upon 
a sphere, the drapery clinging delicately around the 
lower limbs, the right arm extended outwards and the 
left holding a sword, the winged figure is seen in 
arrested flight, but yet suggesting a supreme static 
moment. Of a different character is the figure of sorrow 
of the funeral monument of Prince Cenci. This is 
wholly at rest, a gentle sadness gives character to the 
face, and it is also imparted to the hands, while the 
long downward flowing draperies give dignity to the 
pose. On the funeral monument of Prince Chigi, the 
detail of Maternal Love in Grief is a more definite ex 
pression. The left breast is pressed by the hand, the 
mouth partly opened, the eyes turned upward a little. 
The design is more conventional, and in the further 
detail of the Angel of Faith on the same tomb, there 
is a purely conventional representation. Another 
important memorial by Apolloni is the Calcagno 
tomb at Genoa. 

There are two fountain groups at Venice, the Fountain 
of Youth, and the Feast of Grapes in the courtyard of 
the Lido Hotel. This is a gay composition of a girl, a 
youth and a faun, supporting with their hands above 
their heads, a huge flat basket of grapes and vine leaves, 
figures are nude and very graceful, and the work 

has a certain pristine feeling which is not obtained 
even by the men of the younger school. Another 
fountain is at a private Villa at Capri. Apolloni has 
made a number of portrait busts and reliefs. 

An all-round artist, Michele de Benedetti was born 
in Rome in 1881, and educated at the Royal Academy 
there. He is a draughtsman and a pastelist, and he has 
written on art, is the critic of the Nuova Antologia, and 
Professor of the History of Art at the Academy. His 
work, The Violinist, exhibited at Munich in 1910, is 
in the Gallery of Modern Art at Rome, and his Har 
mony, a girl playing the harp, was exhibited at the 
International at Rome in 1911. In 1921, a fine portrait 
bust of the young Princess di Viggiano was shewn at 
the National Exhibition in Rome, and works in marble 
have been seen at the International, Venice, at the 
Salon d'Automne, Paris, and are in the possession of 
the Queen of Italy, and a portrait of Queen Marguerite 
from life is the property of the King. 

The sculptor family of Tadolini links Italian sculp 
ture of to-day directly with that of Canova, for Adamo 
Tadolini, with a scholarship provided by Napoleon I, 
entered Canova's studio as a pupil in 1814, His chief 
works in Rome are the statue of Saint Paul in the 
piazza of Saint Peter, erected in 1821, and that of 
Saint Vincent Anastasius in the interior of the basilica, 
and in Calcutta there is also an example. His son, 
Scipione, carved many important works, including 
Saint Michael, Archangel, at Boston, U.S.A., and Eve 
after the Fall, in 1865. His son, Giulip, was the author 
of many monuments in Italy, in the Argentine and 
elsewhere, and of the monument of Pope Leo XIII in 



the Church of Saint John at Rome. Completing four 
generations of sculptors, Enrico Tadolini was born in 
1884, an d in the studio, number 150 B. in the via 
Babuino, in which his forefathers worked, carries on 
their art. He was educated by his father, and at the 
Institute of Fine Arts, under Professor Eugenio Mac- 
cagnani. He has made the centenary monument to the 
Carabinieri in their barracks at Rome, in which a draped 
female figure points to the inscription below, and a 
nude helmeted man completes a lettered legend above. 
Most of Enrico Tadolini 's works are to be found in 
Rome : his tomb of the Mauri family, representing 
Sorrow, is in the Bara cemetery, and another grave- 
monument is the Aviator, a broadly-modelled muscular 
figure poised on the right knee, the left leg and arms 
extended in suggested flight, which commemorates 
the death of the aviator Saltini, and is the tomb of the 
Saltini family. The monument to Count Dandini de 
Sylva is in the church of Saint Marcellus. A life-size 
nude is in the municipal museum, and in various 
private collections are a Bacchante, and a charming 
work, a bronze Smiling Woman, in a marble chair with 
a girdle and sandals. Tadolini has made a number of 
portrait busts in bronze and silver, fountains and other 
decorative work. The four sculptor generations of the 
Tadolinis is comparable with the Geefs of Belgium, 
and the Thornycrofts and the Friths of London, pro 
viding veritable illustrations of the persistence of 
faculty in families. 

All good sculptors go to Rome : some of them re 
turn soon because they do not like what they see there, 
but most come away only when they are obliged, 


because they like so much what they see there. The Prix 
de Rome is coveted by most young artists, and it is the 
experience and research and direction, and often the 
training at the English, the French and other Acad 
emies there that open their eyes and stir their imagin 
ations, and stimulate them to the efforts which result 
in their subsequent success. To be at the head of one 
of these academies is a responsibility as well as an 
honour, and Professor Antonio Sciortino is at present 
Director of the British Academy, which in 1920 cele 
brated its centenary. Sciortino was born at Malta in 
1883, an d so is a British subject, but his associations 
are mostly Italian. By means of a scholarship from the 
Maltese Government he went to Paris, and later studied 
at the Royal Institute of the Fine Arts in Rome. He is 
a draughtsman as well as sculptor, and uses pencil, 
crayon, and water-colour. In 1903 he exhibited at the 
Salon, and afterwards, at the International at Rome 
his first bronze group ; at Venice, in 1909, Irredent- 
ismo, and in 1914 his female fountain figure with a 
pitcher in bronze and marble ; an old Breton Woman, 
a Breton Fisherwoman, The Player, and May and 
Helen, all in bronze. Other small works, the bronze 
vase, Les Peureuses, Maternal Love, Eureka, The 
Indian Serenade, have been exhibited in different cities 
of Europe, and he has made busts of Sir Edwin Egerton 
(in the Johannesburg Gallery), of Field-Marshal Lord 
Grenfell, of Princess Anvaroff, Maestro Sgambati, 
and Leo Tecktonius, which are in different parts of 
the world. It is in monumental work, owever, that 
Sciortino specialises, and he has a most impressive 
conception of a Temple of the British Empire, or 



Temple of Peace. He gained the first prize in the 
international competition in 1911 for the monument to 
Alexander II at Petrograd, and he won in the com 
petition for the memorial to Schevchenko, the poet of 
the Ukraine, at Kief in 1914. He made the monument 
for the Eucharistic Congress at Malta in 1917, an ex 
traordinary work in bronze and granite eight metres 
high, and that to the Russian writer, CharkofF, in the 
Crimea in 1920. His work from nature is important, his 
busts of Baroness Hayashi in bronze, and Mademoiselle 
Duchaine La Ver, in marble, and his thoughtful head of 
Professor Baiardi are recent examples, and his statue of 
Remorse shews him at his most realistic. It is a tragic, 
gloomy figure, bending forward on the right knee, the 
right forearm and hand hiding the shamed and grieving 
face, the left arm bent aimlessly but expressively. 

Carlo Fontana is said to be a Roman, but he was, 
possibly, born at Carrara, for the year of his birth is 
not certainly known, and his training is wrapped in 
mystery, but he is one of the half-dozen Italian sculp 
tors represented in the Luxembourg Museum, his 
work there being a figurine in bronze of an Arab Water 
Carrier. He has made portraits of the Queen Mother, 
of the sculptor Gallori, and has works in the National 
Gallery, and on the Piazza Sarzana at Carrara. Many 
private collections contain examples of his work, and 
in 1921 he was engaged on a large piece which was , 
expected to be better than any previous effort, because 
of the fact that it was a commission. Corrado-Alberto 
Mazzei was also born at Carrara, and exhibited at the 
Salon d'Automne in 1920, Contemplation, and Le 
Sourd (Beethoven), both in plaster. 



Another sculptor in Rome is Arturo Dazzi, an artist 
whose work, like d'Antino's, is in some respects similar 
to that of Troubetskoy, and his portrait, in bronze, of 
Countess Mary Jean De Bertaux, with a greyhound, 
seen at Venice in 1914, is a very graceful and attractive 
work. A fountain, in bronze and marble, was also 
shewn, and in plaster, La Pieta, a group for the tomb 
of the Counts of San Bonifacio at Padua, and a high 
relief, The Car of Victory. In 1920 he exhibited there 
his Serafina in rose marble. Alesandro Delahelga, 
also of Rome, exhibits at the Paris Salons. 





^USCANY provides another of the younger 
Italian artists in the person of Ercole Drei, 
born in 1886 at Florence, and following Zan- 
elli at the Institute there for his art education. Like 
Zanelli and others, he has contributed to the Victor 
Emanuel Memorial, and his work is a symbolical statue 
of Insurrection, and other monuments are in Bologna 
and Milan, and a funeral monument is in the cemetery 
of Faenza. A remarkable group is The Death of Eros, 
made in 1913 for a national art memorial. The dead 
god lies with drooping wings on prone supporting male 
figures, while his head and shoulders are supported 
by standing male figures in the nude, and at his feet 
are two kneeling draped women, playing mourning 
music on the flageolet. 

Abandon is the full-length figure of a nude woman, 
lying back against the matrix marble which supports 
her recumbent head, and into which her hair merges, 
as also her left arm and ankle and feet. This work was 
exhibited at Venice in 1914, while in the same year, at 
Rome, was The Breeze, a head and torso of a woman, 
her hair blown back from her face, her eyes closed, her 
mouth slightly open, her body pressing forward to 
meet the weight of the wind. In Rome the year after, 
the charming and intriguing nude female Dancer with 



a Hoop was seen, a quaint figure on one foot, the body 
bent forward, the protruding chin joined to the hoop, 
the left leg raised. Eve, of 1919, is a seated nude with 
the serpent twined around her body, its head advanced 
on her right shoulder, towards her mouth, turned in 
its direction. All these studies of the female nude are 
accomplished in their knowledge and achievement, and 
so is the bronze of a naked boy struggling with his 
shirt, which was Drei's contribution at Venice in 1920, 
he having shewn there in 1914 A Young Girl in the 
Sunshine in marble, in this and in The Breeze, indicat 
ing the action of nature's impress upon humanity. 

The province of Emilia furnishes two sculptors of 
the Italian School. Giuseppe Romagnoli was born at 
Bologna in 1872, and studied art in his native city, 
where, on the fagade of the Town Hall, is his monu 
ment to Humbert I, a fine relief with a lettered tablet, 
on the left side an undraped male figure, on the right a 
draped woman and a child. Another relief, in the Campo- 
Santo, is the Albertoni grave-monument in the current 
flowered Italian style, but containing a group of five 
female draped figures of some beauty (1908). An earlier 
work is the Borghese monument in the Republic of San 
Marino, and to 1911 belongs his most important public 
work the Universal Telegraphic Union's Memorial at 
Berne an imposing pile in which a number of figures 
of men, women and children are modelled in a design 
which includes large masses of unsculptured material. 
Exhibiting Romagnoli 's technical ability and know 
ledge is his Terra Mater in the Gallery of Modern Art 
at Venice, a nude woman holding a child in her arms, 
of 1903, and Giovinezza, in marble, seen at Munich in 



1909, and acquired by the Gallery of Modern Art in 
Rome. He began to exhibit at Venice irx 1896, and Ex 
Natura Ars, and Salvo ! were seen there. At the Inter 
national there, in 1914, he shewed a bust of a woman 
in marble, and a head in bronze. He is now the Director 
of the Royal School of Art and Medals at Rome. 

A native of the same province is Gaetano Cellini, 
born in 1875, a maker of striking original works, 
ambitious, interesting, and sometimes symbolic. In 
action more violent even than the Laocoon, L'Umanita 
Contro il Male, is symbolical. A strenuous male figure 
is represented with his feet and knees pressed violently 
into a mound of earth ; his body bent over, his head 
lowered, and his arms extended at full length, and the 
large hands thrust into the earth and seeking a hold. 
Humanity against Evil ; man endeavouring forcibly 
to root out evil from the Earth. It is a great conception, 
and its symbolism is considered and finely achieved* 
Energy and desire are welded, and the pose is compact 
and determined, while the struggle contained in the 
idea is fully represented. It is highly dramatic, and the 
modelling is forcible, so as to convey to the full extent 
the dynamism of the figure, while technically, the 
muscular play has been achieved with a full parade 'of 
knowledge. The work is in marble, and was exhibited 
in Munich in 1909, and purchased by the Italian State 
for the Gallery of Modern Art, and awarded a gold 
medal in 1906. 

As a contrast to this figure in violent action is 
Crepuscolo di un Sogno, a female statue in marble of 
a beautiful woman seated a little sideways, her legs 
together, her arms hanging loosely, the hands lying 



inert and reflexed ; the torso thrust forward, and the 
splendid hair falling over the marble on which the head 
is leaning backwards, the face thrust upwards, the eyes 
closed : a beautiful face and a beautiful woman in the 
twilight of a dream, all motion suspended in a moment 
of ecstasy. It is a fine work, and was commissioned by 
the lawyer, Umberto Anselmi, and is dated 1911. 

Another type of beauty is provided in the marble 
Testa di Giovinetta, a bust of a very lovely young 
woman carved with great tenderness; the eyes are 
closed and the lips form a bow, while the hair springs 
exquisitely from the brow and is drawn to the delicate 
ears. The bust is mounted on a square ornamental 
base, and is the property of Commendatore Piacenza 
of Turin. Physical beauty is well expressed by this 
sculptor, and it is accompanied by another beauty, 
that of the soul. It was in Ravenna that Gaetano Cellini 
was born, and at the Academy there he began his study 
of art. It is not surprising that inspiration should have 
come to him there, and that such works as his Angel 
of Faith of 1919, and the Maddonina marble relief of 
the same date resulted. Many great artists have been 
inspired by the mere name and associations of Ravenna 
to produce great works : to have been born and bred 
in that old city, and to have been born an artist there, 
is a story in itself fit for poetry. Calm beauty, such as 
the quattro-centists had the secret of, is the character 
istic of Cellini's Maddonina, and in its frame of carved 
wood, it is a fitting modern monument of the skill of 
the modern sculptor of Ravenna. The work belongs 
to the Advocate Guiseppe Maranzoni of Turin. 

Quite in a different key is the portrait bust in marble 



done in 1912, of a young woman, in the style of Louis 
XVI, also very attractive but not possessing the grace 
of the previous work. A good bust of Signorina Maria 
Christina Grosso was shewn at Venice in 1912. An im 
portant portrait bust, and a wonderfully modelled work, 
is the Professor Camillo Bozzolo, executed in 1920, by 
subscription for the great hospital at Turin. Turning to 
the relief of The Leper, Cellini is discovered in quite 
another guise. It is a horrible subject, and none of the 
horror of it is omitted, but it is so beautifully done, 
and with such feeling, that only pity, not loathing, 
is evoked, and it illustrates the range of its sculptor's 
sympathies. One more relief is of an entirely pleasing 
subject, a priest Assisting the Emigrants : an old man, a 
boy, a mother and children, and behind, a group of 
other men, the hull and sails of a ship, and the sea and 
sky. These two reliefs form part of the monument to 
the venerable Don Bosco, beloved in Turin, and in 
augurated there in 1920, and the principal group for 
this memorial represents the Don surrounded by 
children in draperies, whilst he is himself in the priestly 
garment, the children smiling with the happiness of 
being with one in whom they have perfect trust and 
love, while the Don smiles his own satisfaction at being 
able to minister to them. The grave -monument in the 
cemetery at Ravenna is in the form of a marble lunette 
representing the Angel of Faith, kneeling with out 
stretched wings and holding with raised hands the cup. 
Cellini has also modelled in mediaeval style a St. 
George and the Dragon ; high reliefs in bronze and 
marble, busts and statuettes of boys and girls ; he has 
made the Quaranta tomb at Carmagnolo, and the 



mortuary-monument to Monsignor Emiliano Mona- 
corda at Fossano, and other work for churches includes 
relief panels for the sanctuary doors of San Giovanni, 
in Campiglia Cerro ; the Baptism of Jesus, and a 
Charity to match the Faith already mentioned. Another 
Faith forms the subject on the tomb of the family of 
Reymond des Maisons in the Campo-Santo of Turin 
the plinth of which is of black polished Anzola granite, 
and the monument includes an inset portrait medal 
lion. The figure of Faith is an impressive one, copious 
robes, crossed hands, bent head according to the 
accepted traditions, but with a difference, coming 
from the hand of an accomplished artist, and this must 
be said of many of the Italian tombs, which are in 
almost all cases partly conventional. 

Rosso desired to say only new things in a new way, 
and that is very difficult in all the arts, but especially 
in the art of sculpture. He succeeded in a limited 
degree ; most of all, he succeeded in avoiding saying 
things in the old way. He found a fresh method of ex 
pression while others used the older methods, even 
when they had their new ideas ready for delivery to 
the world. Domenico Trentacoste has a new outlook^ 
while he adheres to old methods. In the former aspect 
he is a romantic, in the latter a classic. He is content 
to abide by the laws and rules which are the result of 
the classical tradition, and to carry on, in his own work, 
to a further stage of mastery, the technique associated 
with the tradition. He is a homely and a human classic 
ist, however, and there is nothing cold about his work, 
and if it has not the passion which we associate with the 
Sicilian temperament, it has all the grace and humanity 



of a highly cultured artist acquainted with the best 
in the art of which he is a master, and able to produce 
the best in his own particular category. 

Trentacoste was born in 1859, the son of one of the 
old baronial families of Sicily, fallen, like so many, on 
less prosperous days. At the age of nineteen he realised 
his ambition of visiting Florence, and there confirmed 
the love of sculpture which had been with him during 
his youth. After two years in Florence, engaged in the 
study of Classic and Renaissance examples, he pro 
ceeded to Paris for practical work, and in 1881 had 
reached so far in his art that he obtained notice in the 
Salon for his bronze Head of an Old Man. This was 
followed by a number of portraits, and in 1885 he 
exhibited two works in marble, Fleurs de Champ and 
Beatrice. The next year his output included Le Lierre, 
and bust-portraits of M. Gaston Faure, Madame Lion, 
and Madame Herbillon. So much was his art appreci 
ated that Edwin Long acquired his Pia dei Tolomei, 
and Queen Alexandra then Princess of Wales pur 
chased his marble bust, Cecilia ; a decorative group, 
Pomona, became the property of Countess Rancy, of 
Paris, and a little later Trentacoste made a funeral- 
monument of the Count. His statues of Autumn and 
Diana belong to this period, as well as the portraits he 
made of Edwin Long and his daughter Ethel. Another 
mortuary work was the bronze statue of Grief in the 
cemetery of Montmartre. To 1895 belongs his seated 
nude female figure, Abandoned, by which his growing 
powers were demonstrated. The beautiful modelling 
from the life, the knowledge of anatomy, the exquisite 
pose, and the touching droop of the head, placed the 



statue among the best of similar works of the time. It 
was exhibited at Venice, and acquired for the museum 
at Trieste. A bronze statuette, Ophelia, and a reliquary 
in silver and ebony, were purchased from the Salon, 
but the next important work is Alia Fonte, a bust of a 
boy with a water-vessel, as merry as Abandoned was 
sad. It is in marble, and was first seen at Turin, and 
was bought by the State for the Gallery of Modern Art 
at Rome. In 1899 ^ e marble Niobe, a draped figure, 
huddled on the ground, the face hidden by the arms, 
was exhibited at Venice and acquired for the Gallery 
of Modern Art there, and two years afterwards the 
process was repeated with the bronze, Ciccaiuolo, the 
searching man carrying a lantern ; the Old Man's 
Head ; a bronze portrait, a marble bust of a child, and 
the Broken Pitcher, a child crying at the accident, also 
in marble, were in the same exhibition. 

To the year 1903 belong two of the sculptor's best- 
known works, Cain, and The Sower. Curiously, these 
two statues recall Rodin, as the Old Man eating soup 
and Ciccaiuolo recall Meunier. In the case of Cain, 
the sitting pose, the head bent on the right hand, the 
left hand resting on the knee, resemble The Thinker, 
in that of The Sower, the extended right arm and the 
stride, recall St. John. The resemblances are super 
ficial ; the comparisons can go no further, but as illus 
trating tendencies they are of interest. There is fine 
technical work, as well as spiritual, in both these bronze 
statues : the Cain is a painful bowed figure in deep 
thought, if not contrition, suffering from remorse 
possibly, but certainly suffering. The Sower is a hap 
pier subject, a young man, nude, the left hand to his 

20 1 


breast, the right extended and scattering the seed ; a 
look of hope on his face, and a motion of purpose in 
his stride. Both statues were exhibited at Venice, and 
both purchased, Cain going to the Gallery of Modern 
Art at Rome, and The Sower to the Luxembourg 
at Paris, and Trentacoste's position as a sculptor was 
assured. Well known in Paris, known in London, his 
pieces purchased for the principal modern galleries, 
he pursued his work in his Florence studio, producing 
portrait-reliefs, Nannina, busts, including Vittorio 
Alfieri, and the Dead Christ, in marble, for the tomb 
of the Mondello family in the cemetery of San Miniato. 
In the first study for this work, the figure lies on its 
back extended full length, the marks of the nails are 
seen in the feet, the hands do not exhibit suffering, 
and the bearded face expresses peace and acquies 
cence, and the figure is nude, except for a loin cloth. 
The second version of the subject in plaster is a less 
serene and less beautiful representation, if more real 
istic and less symbolical. The head has fallen back, 
there is no beard, and there is more suffering indicated, 
both in the head and in the somewhat less fleshy body 
and limbs. The full extension of the figure is retained. 
Concerning these striking effigies, Gabriele d'Annunzio 
in his notes on the types of the Christ in art has written. 
The Dead Christ was exhibited in Venice in 1912. 

Other works of this period are the Moschini monu 
ment at Stra, the Donna Nuda, in marble, exhibited 
at Venice and bought for Rome, a fine, full-length 
recumbent figure. From 1914 to 1918 the sculptor was 
engaged on work for the new Houses of Parliament at 
Rome, two large groups in Subiaco stone at either side 



of the main entrance of male and female figures, 
realistically treated in a decorative setting and over 
life-size, and twelve statues for the tower of the building : 
allegorical groups of draped and nude figures in bold 
style fitting their situation, in the same stone. A further 
work in series is that of the four upright bas-reliefs in 
sandstone, illustrating Ceramic Art. The subjects in 
clude the Potter's Wheel, Sculpture, Painting, and 
The Potter, they are realistically treated, but with a 
decorative effect which is further continued in the top 
and bottom mouldings of the panel where conventional 
floral ornament is used. Some of Trentacoste's busts 
are of fine quality, and often very full of character : 
there is a fine double study of Brother and Sister, there 
is the delightful Laughing Girl, in marble, and as a 
contrast, the lugubrious Ave. 

For the Court of Justice in Milan, in 1919, the sculp 
tor made a marble fountain statue : Undine reclines 
at full-length upon and against a mass of marble, one 
hand placed behind her head, and the other, reversed, 
lies on her forehead and partly shades her eyes. The 
study is in the nude, and one leg is lightly thrown over 
the other, providing the opportunity for the display of 
some good modelling. The hair is long and hanging, 
and merges into the marble block, giving a reminder 
that Trentacoste is of the generation of Rosso though 
by no means an Impressionist. In fact, he is alive to all 
the movements which have characterised sculpture 
during his generation, and with which he has been 
thoroughly in unison. The times have fitted him, and 
he has fitted himself to the times, and is completely 
representative, but another nude marble statue, 



acquired for the Museum of his native city, Giovinezza, 
is a beautiful standing figure, in which Trentacoste 's 
leaning to the classical ideal is demonstrated. This was 
followed by Youth, exhibited at Milan in 1920. Thor 
oughly pagan in feeling is the crouched and drinking 
Faunette, in marble, an altogether delightful con 
ception carried out with exquisite workmanship, also 
exhibited at Milan in 1920. 

A charming bronze statuette is Victory, a robed, 
winged figure, poised on one foot on a small sphere, 
which is supported on the prow of a ship, forming a 
souvenir given to the Duke of Abruzzi when an officer 
on board the Regina Elena. Among the reliefs is the 
marble Maternity, the Egidio Gallinari bronze tablet, 
and the medal to Salvini, the actor, all of which belong 
to earlier periods. Trentacoste is a native of Palermo, 
as are Ugo and Nicolini, the two other most prominent 
Sicilian sculptors. 

Antonio Ugo was born some ten years later than 
Trentacoste, and by a municipal scholarship was aided 
in his study in Rome. Bronze works of his are La 
Pompeiana, II Voto, Diotinia, and Pippo e Filomena ; 
and in marble, Pubescit, which was seen at Venice at 
the International of 1901, and in 1914 there, portraits 
of Ludovico di Rovasenda, and Principessa di Cuto, a 
distinguished bust with good pseudo-impressionistic 
treatment, were exhibited* 

Giovanni Nicolini was born in 1872, and began to 
study sculpture when he was sixteen years old in the 
Museum of Industrial Art, and when he was eighteen 
he went to Rome as a pupil of Giulio Monteverde. In 
1900 he began to exhibit at the Salon at Paris, his first 




facing p. 204 



facing p. 205 


work being the Pale Chimera, and in 1902 he shewed 
at Venice. In 1905, at the Universal Exhibition at St. 
Louis, a new class of work was seen in his Sulphur 
Mine, and during the same year, Vanquished, at 
Barcelona, for both of which he received silver medals, 
and for the bronze, Lombardy Sentry, in the National 
Museum at Palermo, he was awarded a gold medal, 
and another for the Portrait of his Daughter in the In 
ternational Exhibition at Munich. His Humbert I 
monument belongs to 1906, and to 1908 the Crispi 
monument in the Pantheon at Palermo, where there is 
also the Francesco Paolo Ferrara memorial. The 
Triumph of Statesmanship is the group on the Ponte 
Victor Emanuel at Rome, a seated, draped female 
figure of great dignity, holding the mace of political 
power, supported by two standing and two sitting nude 
male figures with emblems of military power and 
victory. The date of this was 1911, and two years later 
the impressive tomb, with portrait bust of Joaquin 
Nabuco, and a number of draped and nude figures, 
was erected at Pernambuco, Brazil. In 1916 another 
tomb was made for the cemetery at Palermo, com 
memorating Antonio Perdichizzi, and the following 
year, one for the cemetery at Messina. At Habana is 
his equestrian statue of General Rodriguez, with bronze 
panels on the pedestal ; General Galliano, in bronze, 
is in Rome, where is also La Calabria, the monument 
in marble to Victor Emanuel. 

Among the smaller works of Nicolini is The Source, 
in marble, of 1918, acquired by the King of Italy, In 
the Gallery of Modern Art, at Rome, is the bronze 
group, The Mowers, the Portrait of a Child, a 



delightful study, and the Little Satyr. At Antwerp is 
Orfeo ; at the Gallery of Modern Art, at Venice, The 
Drunkard ; at the Gallery of Modern Art, at Dtisseldorf , 
Ophelia, in bronze. The portrait of his daughter is in 
the Modern Gallery at Palermo, where is also a copy 
of the bronze group of Satyr and Nymph, purchased 
by Sir John Lavery, the English painter, at Venice in 
1902, known as Credi a me ! This is a realistically 
treated work, conveying an original conception, and 
a companion group, in sentiment, is The Roundabout 
Dance, which consists of a satyr swathed in bunches 
of grapes, a nude human female, with a swathe of 
drapery and grapes, the two holding hands with stretched 
arms so as to provide a seat thereon for an infant satyr 
who sits there. The group is for a fountain monument 
for Havanna. Nicolini is very much concerned with 
the semi-human, as these two works, and The Glutton 
testify : The Glutton is a jolly little seated faun, hug 
ging bunches of grapes with his chubby hands and 
gorging them. At Venice, in 1920, at the exhibition at 
which this work was seen and bought by the King, 
was also a portrait of Antonio Manchini, who was 
honoured by a special show of twenty-one of his 
pictures and portraits. 

Nicola d'Antino was born in 1880, at Caramanico 
in Abruzzo, and educated himself in his native village 
until he was eighteen years old, when he went to Rome, 
where a work of his is to be seen in the Municipal 
Museum, as well as in the Gallery of Modern Art. In 
the Modern Gallery at Venice is one of his typical 
pieces, the Young Girl with a Jar. The figure is long 
and thin, the bony framework shews through the skin ; 



the anatomical exposition is admirable, and in this 
respect the work is in advance of the Two Greyhounds, 
shewn at the Venice Exhibition. This is not a study of 
two dogs, but of one dog and one woman, and the 
figure of the latter is elongated intentionally for the 
purpose of the subject. Both in subject and treatment 
d'Antino's work in this direction resembles that of 
Prince Troubetzkoy, but there is another and entirely 
different aspect of it which is illustrated by a Portrait 
of a Lady in modern dress, providing a link between 
these fanciful figures, and the naturalistic portrait 
busts which are of fine quality, one of a man with a 
slight moustache being especially good. D'Antino has 
made a grave-memorial in Abruzzo. At the 1914 Venice 
Exhibition he shewed three pieces in bronze. 

Amleto Cataldi is a Neapolitan, and was born in 
1883, the son of a sculptor. He was educated in Rome 
and studied the classic masters, with whom he works 
in sympathy, but maintaining, too, a vivid modern 
spirit. He commenced to exhibit in Rome in 1907, and 
at the Salon in Paris in 1912, and in 1914 at Venice 
he shewed two female studies in the nude. Cataldi is 
very accomplished in this class of work, and on the 
Pincio, at Rome, is his statue called The Jar a woman 
kneeling and dipping a jar downwards to take up some 
water, the left arm extended outwards, the hand held 
downwards in a characteristic pose ; it is a realistic 
work with a fine classic grace. Another work possessing 
similar qualities is Danzatrice, exhibited at Venice in 
1920, a splendid figure, poised on its toes, legs crossed, 
the right hand touching the hair of the inclined head, 
the left extended at full length upwards. This statue 



is full of strength, and there is, too, an added character 
of sweetness, while its technical qualities are admirable. 
J3o are those of the Boy Archer, a beautiful figure in 
bronze comparable in its style and finish with the 
Lycidas, and Thyrsis of Havard Thomas. This work 
also was seen at Venice in 1920, as well as a portrait in 
marble of the Princess Giovanelli, and a head in plaster 
of a girl, which is very life-like. 

Another Neapolitan sculptor is Vincenzo Gemito, 
whose bronze figurine, The Water Carrier, is in the 
Luxembourg, and who, in 1920, exhibited at the Interr 
national at Rome, a bronze bust of an Old Man, Winter, 
and a small work in silver, II Tempo. 

Attilio Selva was born at Trieste in 1888, and be 
came a pupil of Leonardo Bistolfi at Turin, afterwards 
proceeding to Rome with a scholarship awarded by 
his native town. He began to exhibit at Turin in 1907, 
and in 1914, at Venice, his remarkable Sphinx was 
shewn and became the property of Senator Albertini 
of Milan. This is a fine work in the half -nude of a 
woman squatting with crossed legs, and arms at her 
sides, the hands pressing on the base. The figure from 
the waist downwards is draped, but the left foot is seen 
beneath. He also shewed at the same exhibition a Nude 
Woman seated, and looking to the left, with the right 
leg reflexed and the left raised above it, both feet rest 
ing on the base, and the arms held above the head, 
the hair of which is treated conventionally. Another 
striking female nude is a figure kneeling with the right 
knee upon a raised base, the lower left leg being hidden 
in drapery. The arms are held up and the hands tied 
at the back of the neck, the head consequently being 


pressed down so that the face is in shadow. In all 
these works there is fine modelling, and interesting 
surface-finish, as is the case with many of the Italian 
bronzes. In the 1920 Venice International were two 
rose-marble heads, Mariella and Augusta, charming 
portraits of girls, indicating Selva's facility in this 
direction. A portrait mask called Marcellino is at 
Piacenza, and Berta and Cecilia are portraits of young 
girls made in wax. In wax, too, is a torso of a young 
woman. Susanna is the title of a figure of a woman in 
the Gallery of Modern Art at Turin, and there is a 
bust of the Sultan of Egypt at Cairo. Apart from these 
life studies, Selva has made a number of garden orna 
ments and tombs, including commemorative urns at 
Trieste to Giorgio Golotti, at Rome to Giacomo 
Venezian, and at Canino for the Conti family. Ritmi, 
a torso of a Dancer, and The Idol are other garden 

At the twelfth International Exhibition at Venice, 
held in 1920, an unusually large display of Italian 
sculpture was made, many of the younger artists creat 
ing an impression by the excellence of their work, 
which, in many cases, gave signs of being affected 
by the modern movement so apparent in the carvings 
of the young Dutch, Belgian, French, Swiss and Ger 
man sculptors. The indications of a wholesale adher 
ence to Futurism or even Cubism were absent, but the 
discarding of many of the older naturalistic features, 
common since Rodin was the prevailing influence, 
were in evidence. The bronze head, called Silvia, by 
Oreste Licudis, was quite in the prevailing Paris fashion, 
the hair being discarded in favour of a covering of the 

209 P 


nature of a close-fitting metal cap ; much the same 
treatment as that used by Jacob Epstein in his Iris 
Tree bust, and by Auguste Heng in his girls' heads, 
and by Anna Coleman Ladd in the figure of the Foun 
tain of Youth. Another work by Oreste Licudis, in 
bronze, was a portrait of the poet, Aldo Fiammingo. 
Only less modern are the Conqueror, a group in marble 
by Lina Apresani, and the marble bust, Carezza, by 
Eugenio Bellotto. In these the subject emerges from 
the marble matrix, which is treated as part of the whole 
work, and not merely as material from which to make 
figures or heads. A characteristic study was Saverio 
Sortini's Surprise : a slight portrait of a lady quite in 
the mode, and a mouse. Sortini also shewed a bronze 
soldier, and in the garden a bronze frog-fountain sub 
ject. Many other sculptors contributed to the making 
of a fine display of modern Italian work. 

A striking fountain group was exposed in the gardens 
of the exhibition by Clemente Origo, a girl seized by a 
triton, The Surprise, in bronze, quite unconventional 
in its subject, if conventional in treatment. Achille 
d'Orsi shewed two bronzes, Anguish, and A Dream, 
of 1915, a bearded old man seated, his face upturned. 
The following Italian sculptors, or sculptors of Italian 
birth, were awarded gold medals at the Panama Ex 
position : L. Ansigoni, R. Buozzi, Arturo Dazzi, R. 
Grasiosi and Antionetta Pagliani. 



^T^OWARDS the end of nineteen-twenty the 
I Italians and the Jugoslavs signed the Treaty 

JL of Rapallo. The main feature of the treaty was 
that, with the exception of the city of Zara, the whole 
of Dalmatia, with its islands, became part of the King 
dom of Jugoslavia. On the other hand, a considerable 
portion of Eastern Istria, with its Slovene population, 
was assigned to Italy. Thus borders which had existed 
for twenty centuries, were modified, and old countries 
swallowed up by Jugoslavia. Slav art is derived largely 
from the handicrafts of the Slav nations, and the needs 
of their religion. The Slavs had pleasure in using things 
which were not ugly, and joy in producing them to the 
glory of God. It was at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century that the modern Slav spirit was awakened. 
After centuries of oppression from within and from 
without, the nations awoke to find that they were men 
and not slaves : that they had aspirations and tastes, 
and the events in Balkan and general history encour 
aged the new gospel, and it grew. With the passion for 
self -expression and national-expression, the passion 
for liberty increased, and men turned to enjoy the 
beauty that had been allowed them precariously during 
the dark centuries, and to imitate it. 

Those were the conditions at the time of the birth 
of Slav art : in the North, where the Russians groaned 


in servitude, and the Poles and the Czechoslovaks 
struggled always for freedom and nationality ; in the 
South, where the Serbs, the Croats and the Slovenes 
emulated them. The beginnings of Slav sculpture are 
to be found in the cathedrals and churches ; in the 
crafts of wood and stone carving practised by the 
workmen. Painting, too, was born, and made progress, 
in the North and in the South, and it was apparent 
by the end of the century that the Slavs were highly 
artistic peoples. The oldest of the sculptors was Jovan- 
ovic, and he was represented, in the advent of the Slav 
School in European culture, at Rome in 1911, as well 
as the rather younger artists, Ruza Mestrovic, Bodrozic, 
Penic and Simo Roksandic. The importance of these 
men, however, was entirely overshadowed by two 
others of the next generation, Ivan Mestrovic and 
Toma Rosandic, both Dalmatians. 

The summer of 1915 is important in the history of 
modern sculpture, for at South Kensington were re 
vealed the powers of Ivan Mestrovic in the great mass 
of his work exhibited there. This mass, of its own in 
trinsic energy, made an impression which was not 
surpassed even by the Rodin gift to England. It opened 
the eyes of the public to sculpture, and proved that the 
public felt some interest in the art. No such oppor 
tunity had ever been provided before. There were 
sculptors in Great Britain, but the public did not know 
them ; does not know them. No such hospitality at 
South Kensington had ever been offered to a British 
sculptor as was offered to Mestrovic, and as is offered to 
Rodin. Indeed British sculpture is not encouraged in 
that tax-aided institution. Putting on one side, however, 



this glaring discrepancy in the official recognition of 
the art, there can be no real doubt that the Mestrovic 
exhibition was conducive of good. It is unfortunate 
that the generosity accorded should have been mis 
taken for a tacit acknowledgment that, while Serbian 
sculpture was worthy of a display such as it received, 
British sculpture was out of the running. This was not 
the intention of the authorities, but the impression 
prevailed. Nevertheless, the mere fact that a show of 
sculpture could attract so much attention was to be 
welcomed, for it indicated an interest that had hardly 
been suspected, and one worth exploitation. 

Few modern sculptors have received wider recog 
nition than Ivan Mestrovic, and that at a much earlier 
age than is at all usual, for he was born only as far 
back as 1883. He came of Croat peasant stock, and 
during his youth was a shepherd, and a studious one, 
storing his mind with the poetry, legends and history 
of the people. His native village was Otavice in the 
highlands of Dalmatia, and until the age of eighteen 
he remained there, making rough carvings in stone and 
wood. Then he was bound apprentice to a marble 
carver in Spalato, until a scholarship from the muni 
cipality enabled him to study at the Vienna Academy 
of Arts. He began to exhibit almost at once at the 
Vienna Secession, and continued in Germany, Croatia 
and Serbia until 1907, when he went to Paris, exhibit 
ing at the Autumn Salon. In 1906, at the Austrian 
Exhibition at Earls Court, London, Mestrovic was 
first introduced to Great Britain, and five years later 
the main feature of the Serbian Section at the Inter 
national Exhibition at Rome was the collection of his 



work. Mestrovic believes in mass-impression : he is 
quite right. If he had relied on his work being appreci 
ated in little, he might have gone on as he did at the 
Salon des Beaux- Arts in Paris, of 1909, exhibiting a 
Vase, a fragment of a woman, an architectural fragment, 
and he would never have filled the main galleries of 
the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1915. 

In England the practice adopted at the Venice In 
ternational Exhibition and also used at the Salon des 
Artistes Franais in a modified form, of having mass- 
exhibitions of artists' work, as well as the usual 
numbers in the catalogue, is practically unknown, and 
certainly not encouraged. It was this form of present 
ing the works ; of Mestrovic which has resulted in their 
appreciation by the world. Even previous to the Rome 
Exhibition, Mestrovic had been collectively exhibited 
at the Vienna Secession in 1910, and in 1914, at Venice, 
and almost at the forefront of the catalogue he is repre 
sented by twenty-six works, including the model of 
the Temple of Kossovo, as well as the Widow group, 
and the Widow statue in marble ; in bronze the Widow 
and Child, his self-portrait, busts of a man, a woman, 
and a child ; the marble relief of the Dancer, the 
bronze relief of Salom6, all of which were sent on to 
London for the exhibition at South Kensington, where 
they were added to largely, seventy-four works being 
there catalogued. Other British exhibitions including 
the sculpture of Mestrovic, were at the Twenty-one 
gallery in the Adelphi ; the Serbo-Croatian Exhibition 
at the Grafton Galleries in 1917-18 ; the Spring Ex 
hibition at Bradford ; the Royal Scottish Academy, 
Edinburgh, in 1918, and the Serbian Exhibition at 



Brighton in 1919. Mestrovic firmly established his 
reputation in London before returning to Jugoslavia, 
leaving behind some busts in bronze done during his 
stay in England, and a number of other works in the 
care of his friend, Mr. Ernest Collings, who acted as 
honorary secretary to the fund for purchasing a work 
by Mestrovic for the English national collection. The 
result is the relief in wood, the Descent from the Cross, 
at South Kensington, where also is the torso of Strahinic 
Ban, the Serbian hero, in marble, presented by the 
Serbian Government : his ideal of manly beauty. 

The wood relief is low and flat, full of action and 
violent grief ; the intense concern and sorrow of the 
men and women followers of the cross is rendered 
dramatically, and the Christ, instead of being emaciated, 
his body flaccid, and the whole corpse-like, is repre 
sented as in health with a large firm head of distinct 
Serbian type, a very different Christ from the plaster 
Ecce Homo of Rosandic. A companion relief-panel is 
the Annunciation, Assyrian almost 'in character, cut in 
the wood, rather than moulded. It is, however, in the 
marble and bronze reliefs that Mestrovic's art is seen 
to better advantage, in these there is not the primitive 
cutting of material that the artist derived from his 
father, but the modelling he has learned from his study 
of the life. He discards obvious and archaic forms, and 
imparts his individualistic style, based on the real 
Serbian tradition, to his subjects. The Dancing Woman 
is a good example of the result, and shews that its 
maker was born to be much more than a craftsman, 
for it exhibits the true plastic sense as well as the glyptic. 
This work is in relief, but you have only to turn to the 



statues of heroic size, The Widows the two marble 
groups and the four plaster figures to mark the same 
indication. Mestrovic has an imagination which feeds 
on bigness. In the Kossovo Temple idea, it swelled to 
the heroism of the great battle of 1389, heroism which 
has never been rewarded, and but little recorded, except 
in the Serbian annals and legends, until to-day when 
the later Serbs are rejoicing at their long-postponed 
liberation from Turkish suppression. At length the 
defeated heroism of the Field of Blackbirds has come 
into its Kingdom, and Mestrovic's sculpture, but a 
prophecy in 1915, has proved a monument of actuality 
in 1918. 

It is easily understood, therefore, why its individuality 
and its nationality are so intense : it was an indelible 
passion of centuries that produced it, and it is not to 
be said against it that it is peculiar or strange or different 
from accepted sculpture. It is all these things, and I 
am glad that it is ; glad that a nation's voice is heard 
again and a nation's aspirations seen through the eyes 
of a man searching for hidden beauty, and succeeding 
in finding it in the greatest era of a nation's history. I 
regard Serbian sculpture from this point of view rather 
than from a purely aesthetic, and I do not complain 
that Mestrovic and other Serbian sculptors derived 
certain benefits from Vienna, for it is quite clear that 
any mere technical facility they acquired there has 
nothing to do with the definite, undeniable Slav 
character of the result. If, however, we turn from the 
essentially Serbian work to the busts which Mestrovic 
has made from time to time it is clear also that he can 
hold his own in this part of his art with some of the 



sculptors of Paris and London who have no deflection 
of nationality. The bust of Leonardo Bistolfi has qual 
ities which all the best sculpture of the world possesses, 
and it has the dignity of an Italian bust of the Renais 
sance ; his self-portrait bust is less fine, but has its 
own peculiar qualities ; his head of his wife, in bronze, 
is a beautiful work, and while it may be said that his 
bust of Rodin is more symbolic than realistic, there is 
nothing to complain of in that. Criticism may have 
very diverse views regarding his Moses, and his head 
of St. John the Baptist, but criticism and uncultured 
humanity alike, cannot fail to discover the universal 
appeal of the portrait of the artist's Mother. However 
Mestrovic's sculpture is looked at and with whatever 
feelings of pleasure or revulsion, it must be admitted 
that it is in conception spacious and thoughtful, and in 
execution adequate to its inherent requirements. 

An entirely new and original style is difficult of 
achievement. Even the greatest artists have been un 
able to escape tradition, and the smallest have derived 
their style from the inspiration of the primitives who 
went before, avoiding the obviously fine work which 
would have been of greater use to them. It is a feature 
of the artists of the first line that they accepted only 
the first-rate in the tradition of their art. There is 
nothing wrong with primitive work in itself, it only 
becomes so when it is wrong-headedly accepted, even 
sought after, as an inspiration by men who are not 
primitive, but only decadent and imitative. Influence 
is not the same thing as imitation. To be influenced by 
Rodin is not an objectionable thing in itself, but to 
imitate the later mannered and uninspired work of the 



master, has lured more than one sculptor of parts on to the 
rocks, and many a sculptor lacking in parts has found an 
unhonoured grave in the cemetery of cranks by so doing. 

There is a Femme Accroupie of Rodin and a Femme 
Accroupie of Henri Matisse, there is a Torse de Fillette 
of the latter and his Le Serf ! There is some relation 
ship in these, although it is an unfortunate one, but it 
is an ineptitude to claim for a plaster relief by Matisse 
an inspiration and aim comparable with the sincerity 
and simplicity of the thirteenth century. That work 
bears the high-water mark of its period ; it could not, 
for its time, be better, but the relief by Matisse is in no 
sense representative of ours. 

There is better reason in the claim made on behalf 
of Mestrovic that when he absorbs an interest he adds 
to it. A small artist cannot do this. He borrows and 
becomes an undischarged bankrupt of the arts. The 
portrait of his Mother, by Ivan Mestrovic, may be 
Tuscan in its inspiration, but it is something else as 
well. It does not exhibit the mere mannerisms of the 
period of its inspiration, but the spirit which animated 
the sculptors of the place and period. It does more : it 
exhibits, as its primary appeal, the individuality of its 
author. There is another portrait by Mestrovic, The 
Girl with an Apple (Miss St. George), a statuette in 
costume, charmingly suggestive of the Renaissance. 
This was modelled in England during the war, but it is 
not English, nor is it Serbian, nor does it owe its appeal 
to its costume : its sculptor has used all these things to 
make a pleasing and convincing study. 

As to English influences on Mestrovic, they are to 
be found in his portrait busts ; those of Lady Cowdray, 



Mrs. Kinnell, and even in that of Madame Mitrovitch. 
The bust of Elsie Inglis in this connection is not quite 
to the point, for it was not done from life, but still, it 
comes in with the series. No one looking at these busts 
would suggest that their sculptor had borrowed from 
his English brethren, but there is undoubtedly a strong 
indication of the effect of environment during his stay 
in England, and due to his study of English work. This 
does not count against him, but rather in his favour, 
and in favour, too, of English sculpture, which English 
critics maintain is so far from being worthy of emula 
tion or study that they must needs regard it as negligible, 
and this in the face of the expressed opinion of the 
critics of other countries better trained in the judgment 
of sculpture. So Mestrovic maintains his individuality 
while admitting influences on his work. 

Mestrovic has been happy in securing a following of 
enthusiastic admirers who have, in the pleasant old 
fashion, hailed him as master. The disadvantage of 
this, however, has been that in many directions imita 
tions of his style have become de riguewr. Every young 
student of sculpture in Paris has felt a glow of success 
when he has at length , succeeded in perpetrating 
something in the Serbian manner from which he has 
succeeded in eliminating every trace of his own 
personality. It is well that great artists should have 
followers, and not so bad if they have imitators, but 
merely to have slaves serves no useful purpose. There is 
no doubt that Mestrovic's earnest spirit has influenced 
European sculpture profoundly, and if this could have 
happened without the imitation of his manner and 
matter, it would have been an advantage. 



In certain directions this has occurred, and in none 
is it better illustrated than in that of Toma Rosandic, 
an original artist on his own account, and by early 
occupation a stonemason, also at Spalato, where he 
came in contact with Mestrovic in the early days, he 
being a little the elder of the two. They drifted apart, 
however, for Rosandic went to Venice, but after ex 
hibiting his first statue in Milan, he sought out his 
younger fellow-craftsman and joined him as assistant 
at Vienna, and exhibited also at the Secession, and at 
Spalato, in 1908, a Head of a Musician. At the Rome 
exhibition, in 1911, he was represented in the Serbian 
Section with Mestrovic, but was not known at all widely 
in London before 1917-18, when, at the Graf ton 
Galleries, he had a room placed at his disposal and 
revealed himself there, his works going on to Bradford, 
Edinburgh and Brighton, as in the case of Mestrovic. 
A further London exhibition of Rosandic was at the 
show of Serbo-Croat art, held by the Serbian Red 
Cross at Ennismore Gardens at the end of 1919, where 
thirty representative pieces were seen. Rosandic has 
made a number of portrait busts and reliefs, and his 
series of panels of fighting Turks, and a doorway were 
conspicuous features in the Serbian Pavilion at the 
Rome Exhibition. 

Rosandic shares with Celine Lepage the instinct 
which often prompts them to give an architectural 
expression to their sculpture. It is due to the fact that 
both of them are instinctive artists with a strong lean 
ing to the primitive, adopting their forms from nature. 
In the case of Rosandic, this is very credible, for he 
carves in wood, and in large works he is likely to be 



influenced by the form of growth of his medium. This 
is of value in more or less primitive art, but becomes 
less so as culture advances. I prefer Rosandic's wood- 
sculpture to his essays in plaster and metal. In his 
pearwood Pillar, a group consisting of a very tall man, 
with arms extended upwards to increase the height, 
with a child standing at his feet, whose head reaches to 
the man's middle, there is the architectural essential, 
allied with the primitive form demanded by the medium, 
and a decorative sense which is equal to that of Celine 
Lepage, and is even more sculpturesque : the work 
might serve as a pillar or as a caryatid, and is admirably 
suited to either purpose, and the same may be said of 
the Vestal Virgin, a queer draped figure with a certain 
engaging charm. In his Young Woman, a fine, erect, 
naturalistic statue of palisander wood, the origin and 
.logic of the impulse is even more clearly seen, as the 
base of the statue consists of a piece of the trunk of the 
tree from which it is carved, in an almost native state. 
This is Rosandic's finest work, and I do not know of 
any full-length figure in wood in modern sculpture 
which compares with it for truth and sincerity. Putting 
the Weight is a statue in ebony, and another ebony 
work is the group of Mother and Infant. In Conscious 
ness, there is a hint of artificiality ; it is a torso, of palis 
ander, but it has not the virtues of the Young Woman, 
for the pose is apparently an affected one, in the droop 
of the head and the turn of the hand, but it is as inter 
esting technically as its actual tool-work produces an 
attractive surface. Another torso is Languor, in walnut, 
also exhibiting the artist's surface-work admirably, and 
this has been lent to the Victoria and Albert Museum. 



There was also seen at the Serbo-Croat Exhibition 
a group of Mother and Child, of palisander, of great 
interest. The other works seen in England, in the round, 
are in plaster, and prove that Rosandic is a better carver 
than modeller. While his work in wood retains all the 
virtues of his uncorrupted craftsmanship, his work in 
plaster indicates that the schools at Vienna and else 
where have only served to foster eccentricities based on 
national peculiarities, which are far from being 
essential to good sculpture. Ecce Homo, I have already 
referred to : it is compact of the faults which make 
Mestrovic's Madonna and Child almost grotesque, 
and Mother and Son, the group by Rosandic, is almost 
equally unsuccessful. When the reliefs are considered 
this fashion of the sculptor increases in intensity ; the 
Awakening being an example, also in plaster ; getting 
back to wood is getting back to better things, and there 
are several reliefs in walnut and ebony, like the Dance, 
Youth, and Maternal Solicitude, which are far better 
art than the plaster works. 

In considering the sculpture of Toma Rosandic, it 
has to be remembered that his whole works can never 
be studied, for no less than fifty of them were destroyed 
at Belgrade during the war, and what we have been 
allowed to see and admire, can but make us deplore the 
more the ravages which war makes upon art, and con 
vince us once again, that it is one of the chief aims of 
the spirit of savagery which engenders war, to destroy 
beauty and all its concrete expression in works of art. 
However great the destruction, it is art that is eternal, 
and art emerges from the ashes of the holocaust of 
millions to solace the millions that are left maimed 



and mourning. Already the old nations with their new 
names and boundaries are extending the boundaries 
of their art, and Serbia had, in the Salon Nationale des 
Beaux- Arts, in Paris, in 1920, the first fruits of its new 
generation of artists, the head in plaster of the blind 
philosopher, Iguman Stefan, the principal character 
in the Serbian poet Niyegoc's work, La Couronne de 
la Montagne. This was succeeded in the Autumn Salon 
by La Femme, a massive head raised and held back, 
with the hair, according to the new method, treated 
without regard to actuality, the lips parted in a smile 
and the eyes closed. The sculptor of these two works 
is Risto Stigovic, born at Podgoritza, in 1894, and sent 
with a scholarship by the Serbian Government to study 
in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux- Arts. Another Serbian 
is Branko Deskovic, a sculptor whose work consists 
mostly of representations of animals, and whose Effort, 
shewing considerable action, has been accepted as a 
typical work. He exhibited at the Autumn Salon in 
1920, in plaster, Kratievic Marko, the Serbian national 
hero ; a plaster, Victory and Liberty, for the National 
Museum at Washington ; an Old Sailor in wax, a Young 
Girl in plaster, and a Dying Horse in palisander. 



NORTHERN Slav art comprises that of Russia, 
Poland, Lithuania, and of the new nation, 
Czechoslovakia, compounded of the ancient 
Kingdoms of Bohemia, Slovakia, Moravia and Silesia , 
or parts of them. These newly organised countries 
have much to shew in both painting and sculpture, 
and there is all the evidence that in their new con 
ditions the arts will develop at least as quickly as com 
merce, for the Slav mind has for long been seeking to 
express its ideals as well as its realities. It has but 
waited for its opportunity, and in the few short months 
since the war, and the consequent new settlements, it 
has displayed a highly commendable activity. 

The new Republic of Czechoslovakia lost no time in 
establishing communications with America, England 
and France in art matters, and its eagerness in this 
direction resulted in the formation within its new 
government of a Ministry of Instruction and National 
Culture, embracing, of course, all the arts. It issued, in 
1921, a finely illustrated volume, " L'Art Tcheque 
Contemporain," by the Czech authors, Antoine 
Matejcek and Zdenek Wirth. 

The new art of Czechoslovakia is already of con 
siderable importance, for there are several fine painters, 
and the sculptors are admirable. The older generation 
was made up of a mixture of men and influences, mainly 


German, and Vienna and Budapest were the schools 
in which the artists of Bohemia were nurtured, and 
the Double-monarchy exercised its repressive influence, 
but later this was relaxed and the Czech artist escaped 
to Paris and a new era began. After the period when 
craftsmen and workmen were responsible for sculpture 
in Bohemia, the two German sculptors, Max, intro 
duced a new aspect of the art, with their statues decor 
ating the Charles Bridge at Prague. This was in the 
middle of the nineteenth century, and the succeeding 
years are notable for the production of the classical 
and religious work of the native sculptors, Wenceslas 
Levy and Antonin Wagner, the former's Adam and 
Eve a Canova-like group, and the statue of the 
rhapsodist Zaboj, on the faade of the National Theatre, 
in the Renaissance fashion by the latter, indicating the 
character of the work done at the period. The architect 
of the theatre, Joseph Zitek, also employed Bohuslav 
Schnirch, another sculptor trained in Italy and under 
the Renaissance influence, as is seen in his Triga on 
the faade, and his equestrian statue of Wenceslas, but 
Schnirch continued the Italian style, and it is not until 
the work of Joseph-Wenceslas Mylsbek is reached that 
a marked change is noticeable. With his sculpture the 
true modern Czech school was incepted. 

Mylsbek was brought up on a course of antique and 
Renaissance work, but he was encouraged by Levy to 
travel and study in a wider field than the schools of 
Italy, and his admiration for Joseph Manes that 
really fine painter whose basic principle was the study 
of life, and by which he became a great draughtsman 
led him on to finer and more original efforts ; led 

225 Q 


him on, in fact, to realism. He became one of the group 
of artists decorating the national theatre, which was 
known as the " generation du Theatre Nationale." 
The four groups for the pylons of the Palacky Bridge 
at Prague followed Mylsbek's work for the theatre, 
and in them the great advance in Czech sculpture is 
clearly indicated. Together with classic draperies there 
is real study of life and character, and this is seen in 
the sandalled, draped male figure of Devotion, and the 
female Music. More life-like still is the portrait-statue 
of Cardinal Schwarzenberg, but the feature is most 
pronounced in the two fine busts of the -actor, Kolar, 
and the musician Smetana. Other well-known works 
are the Christ Crucified, an impressive conception, 
and, what is regarded as his masterpiece, the Saint 
Wenceslas monument, the chief detail of which, the 
surmounting equestrian statue, is a really imposing 
and arresting work. At the Exhibition in Paris, in 1920, 
of TArt Tchecoslovaque, an annexe at the Grand 
Palais of the Societe Nationale des Beaux- Arts, Mylsbek 
was represented by five fine bronzes, including busts 
of Baron Lanna and Count Leon Thun, of Cardinal 
Schwarzenberg, Devotion, St. Wenceslas, and a study 
of a horse. , 

Josef Mauder was content to follow the old tradition 
as his mausoleum, including a Winged Genius, in the 
acropolis at Prague, and his statues of Astronomy and 
History on the Museum indicate, while Vincent 
Vosmik's style was influenced by Vienna, and by 
Wagner, his group of a great bull and draped standing 
figure, at the entrance to the Abattoirs of Prague, pro 
viding evidence of this. 



About the year 1885 various new buildings were 
erected in Prague, and some of them were supplied 
with good sculpture. Chief among the artists who were 
available for this work was Celda Kloncek, whose ideas 
at the moment were certainly ahead of his period, for 
he shews great taste, as the Bank of Bohemia and other 
buildings testify. Kloncek's work resulted in the found 
ing of a fashion which has been responsible for the 
excellence of much of the architectural decoration of 
the capital. 

The lure of Vienna and Munich waned in Bohemia, 
and her younger artists turned in other directions. 
The new generation consists of men who have been 
educated in art for the most part in Paris, and one of 
them, Stanislas Sucharda, died during the war at the 
early age of fifty, but there are at least a dozen others 
who, since the war, have shewn great activity, and pro 
duced striking work. Most of them were born at Prague, 
the others in different parts of the new Kingdom. They 
have all preserved national types, which is a thing to 
be grateful for, and they have not forgotten nor neg 
lected their native land because they have studied in 
Paris. Their work is- not, however, so obviously national 
as that of the sculptors of Jugoslavia, but it is more 
accomplished and less mannered, and it still retains a 
strong national flavour. Sucharda expressed this very 
strongly, and combined with it a love of simple human 
ity of which the lunette exhibited at the Grand Palais 
in 1920, called Cradle Music, is a proof, as well as 
being an example of sculpture in relief relating a story. 
Sucharda expressed most of his ideals and beliefs in 
the monument to Frantisek Palacky, the historian of 



Bohemian life and struggle for freedom. One of the 
details of it, known as The Dead Nation, is a single 
nude, thin, female figure, lying prone and inert, the head, 
however, raised and indicating hope in the fixed gaze 
of the deeply-set eyes. This factor of hope is further 
developed in two bronze reliefs, in which the city 
dead and the city living are indicated. In the former a 
partly-draped figure in a dramatic pose points to it and 
prophesies its resurrection, in the latter, the newly- 
risen city is symbolised by a boyish figure whose face, 
filled with joy, is lifted to the face of a finely-draped 
woman, bearing the arms and chains of municipal 
office. There are other groups in bronze on the memorial 
symbolising other phases of the new birth of the Nation, 
and the main figure is the partly-draped statue in granite . 

In some of his works, Sucharda used the impres 
sionist method, as in the Dead Nation just mentioned, 
and in this he was followed by Ladislas Saloun in the 
impressive monument in the Grande Place of the old 
city of Prague to Jan Hus. This is a work of sculpture 
allied to architecture, and consists of a massive base of 
very large dimensions, led up to by five widely-circling 
continuous steps. Above all is the upstanding draped 
figure of the protagonist, and two groups : one of 
recumbent figures bowed in sorrow, the other of stand 
ing figures in action expressing the aspirations of the 
country seeking delivery from its servitude. 

Impressionistic also is the work of Frantisek Bilek, 
the sculptor from Southern Bohemia, with the mystic 
mind. Bilek, after his studies at the Prague Academy, 
went to Paris as a pupil of Inj albert, and as a student 
of Gothic in the Louvre and Trocad6ro. His work, 



however, retains little trace of Injalbert's style, although 
in its technique it speaks of his good teaching. It is 
strongly marked by the spiritual outlook of its author, 
and of the lyrical mysticism of his friend, the im 
provisator and poet, Jules Zeyer. As might be expected, 
he works direct in stone and wood, but uses also clay. 
An example of his wood-sculpture is his Christ on the 
Cross, a very impressive and, in some important 
respects, original vision, and this may also be said of his 
Calvary, a group of two desolate women at the foot of 
the cross, where also lies the lowered cross-piece, and 
the cords which bound the body still pendent from the 
shaft. The group, The Blind, a draped man and woman, 
is striking and indicates the mystic character which 
Bilek construes into abnormal physical states. Another 
wood-sculpture is Le Vertige, a large work, and there 
are also a v number of y statues of national reformers 
including Stitny, Hus, Zizka, and Chelcicy. 

His high relief, Krisna, cut roughly from the trunk 
of a tree, has good qualities, and so have the Carrying 
of the Cross, in lime wood, and his allegorical figure 
for a Czech tomb, in the same wood on a dark base. 
His tomb of the writer, Trebizsky, is in poplar wood ; 
his monument to Jan Hus in lime, and his Comenius 
in Exile is in walnut. These works were seen at the 
Grand Palais, as well as a work in marble, Que la Terre 
Nous Pese. 

Frantisek Uprka is of the same generation as the 
three preceding sculptors, and is a Slav who is devoted 
to the expression of the picturesque qualities of his 
compatriots, of which he makes very charming use. 
He was represented at the exhibition in Paris in 1920 



by two works in marble, The Young Mother, and 
Vespers, one in stone, Pilgrims, and three in bronze, 
A Young Mother, The Night Watchman and A Work 
man. Uprka has a leaning towards the feeling which 
animated Meunier in the choice of his subjects and 
their treatment. At the 1920 Venice International 
exhibition yet other examples were seen in the bronzes, 
The Mower and Gajdos. 

The succeeding generation is somewhat less fervently 
national ; still more definitely French, but completely 
patriotic all the same. Josef Maratka made all the 
difference to the character of the sculpture of Czecho 
slovakia, for he not only spent three years in Rodin's 
studio and assisted him with several important works, 
but he arranged, in 1903, the first Rodin exhibition in 
Prague. He was at home not only in Rodin's studio in 
the rue de PUniversite, but at Meudon, too, and in 
this way, in 1904, his first important works were issued 
with Rodin's imprimatur. On leaving the Master, and 
by his influence, he obtained the commission for the 
Santos-Dumont monument for Buenos Aires. He 
returned to Prague and became the collaborator of 
Stanislas Sucharda in the execution of part of the 
Palacky memorial. He then went again to Paris to finish 
the Santos-Dumont model. Bourdelle, keen as always, 
was interested in the struggle of the Czechs and 
Slovenes, and, in 1909, a Bourdelle exhibition was 
held in Prague, which also had its definite influence 
on the future of Czechoslovakian sculpture. Although 
Maratka's association with Rodin, Bourdelle and others 
was so close, his work does not offer definite resem 
blances : he himself was too definitely an original artist 



to be so affected. His Souvenir, a nude woman sitting 
sideways, shews the sculptor's sufficiency in form ; 
his portrait-bust of Antonin Dvorak, the composer, in 
character, while his Intelligence, a draped female figure, 
exhibited at the Salon d'Automne in 1914, displays 
his idea of womanly grace. The statues at the entrance 
to the Town Hall at Prague are by Maratka, as well as 
figures on the top storey ; two granite bas-reliefs are 
on the Rudolphinum bridge, the subjects being Com 
merce and Work ; he has made a monument to Hlavka 
at Prague, and there are statues on the Maison Corn- 
munale there. 

At the Czechoslovak exhibition at Paris in 1920, 
Maratka was represented by a bronze statuette of a 
Young Mother, Legionnaire Tchecoslovaque, Un 
Tchecoslovaque blesse, Symphony, and A Souvenir, 
and another work of his, seen at the Salon, was a bust 
of Santos-Dumont. At Venice, in 1920, he had a group 
of four bronzes, including the bust of Dvorak. 

Maratka brought back to his native land the culture 
of France, and he shewed the younger men what they 
could gain by following his example. These younger 
men, however, were subject to a very strong force at 
home ; a more acute national feeling even than that 
possessed by Maratka, and in this they were strength 
ened by the moral support of their artistic master, 
Mylsbek. There were four very important sculptors 
nurtured as pupils in Mylsbek's studios, the first of 
them being the older Sucharda. He was succeeded by 
Bohumil Kafka, Jan Sturza, and Otokar Spaniel, and 
all these artists congregated in Paris, forming there a 
Czech group and exhibiting certain characteristics 



common to all, while at the same time demonstrating 
equally certain differences, both personal and national. 
By going to Paris these men did not become French 
artists, or their work like that of any other sculptor 
there, and if, for instance, in Jan Sturza 's After the 
Bath, the woman is heavy, allied to Mestrovic's 
women, but with a difference, that is all to the good. It 
is not required of a Czechoslav or a Jugoslav that his 
work should be like that of a French or an English 
sculptor, and on the other hand, we do not want the 
English and French sculptor to produce works with a 
strong Slav flavour as some fondly but erroneously 
imagine they do. 

A more important point, however, is that quite 
definitely this group discarded the pseudo -impression 
ism of their own immediate predecessors, and, as M. 
Matejcek points out, became the plein air school of 
Czech sculpture, regarding definite form as of more 
importance than the problems of lights and shadows. 
It was form, however, of a very different character 
from the form of the early Levy, and different, too, 
from that of Mylsbek their master ; it was a develop 
ment on the sound lines of the latter, however. It was, 
moreover, an understanding of form that these Czecho 
slovaks shared with sculptors of other Slav nations, 
the Poles particularly. Jan Sturza is the most uncom 
promising adherent, and his statues of Eve, and the 
Gifts of Heaven and Earth, the most uncompromising 
examples. These two works are the definite challenge 
which Sturza offered to Impressionism, for they are 
entirely pure form, so much so indeed as to preclude 
naturalistic modelling and to rely on the general effect 




of broad statement. A good deal of Sturza's work is in 
stone, the Eve, in the Glyptotek at Munich, and The 
Gifts, being examples, and the material, to a certain 
extent, dominates the details of form, and the Vie qui 
s'echappe in the State Gallery at Vienna, is in marble, 
and the form is therefore modified. 

The influence of Rodin is not apparent in these 
works, but in La Jeune Fille Melancolique and in The 
Blessing, it is definitely observable, and it was probably 
partly transmitted through Maratka. All Sturza's work 
is very sincere, and in his portraits he is very true to 
character. He has made statues of Day and Night, and 
groups for the Hlavka bridge, and bas-reliefs, like 
Maratka, for the Rudolphinum bridge, and has pro 
jected a monument to the celebrated actress, Hanna 
Kvapilova. Sturza was represented at Venice in 1920 
by four bronzes, and he is well known in Paris, where 
earlier in the year, at the Czechoslovakian Exhibition, 
at the Grand Palais, he was represented by eight bronzes, 
of which Ma Mere, and portrait of the painter Svab- 
insky, were very good, and Une Danseuse au Repos, 
very good indeed. Sulamit Rahu was very ugly and 
very attractive, and the other works were Un Blesse, 
La Primevere, Toilette, and the Gifts of Heaven and 

Bohumil Kafka has a studio in Paris, where he had 
an exhibition in 1906, having previously shewn his 
works in Prague (1903). The development of his talent 
was rapid between these dates, and he at once took a place 
in the art-world with his Gathering of Bathers on the 
Beach, the Dead Swan, A Dog Resting, and others, 
and extravagant praise was given to him. It was said 



in Paris that his imagination was finer than Rodin's. 
Kafka takes a very serious view of his art, and a reflec 
tive cognizance of life. I do not compare his work with 
that of John Tweed in England, but so far as British 
sculptors are concerned, Kafka is nearest to Tweed 
in style. Some of the best-known of Kafka's works are 
studies of camels, bulls and elephants in different 
materials, and in plaster there is his Breath of Spring, 
The Eternal Drama, Love and Death, and a bust of a 
man, a head of a woman, and a seated woman ; in 
bronze, a standing woman, Bathers, a Somnambulist, 
Mummies, Les Fous, and the Falling Star, while in 
marble he has made a number of busts. At the Czecho 
slovak Paris show there were five works in marble, 
three being portraits, one of which was of really 
first-class importance, that of a woman. The other 
works were Femme Assize, Eveil, and Les Biches in 

Kafka has exhibited at the Societe Nationale and the 
Salon d'Automne since 1905, and to his one-man show 
at the Galleries Hebrard, M. Camille Mauclair con 
tributed a catalogue introduction. His work is very 
much influenced by the modern French School, and 
the rigorous naturalism set forth by Rodin is taken 
advantage of by Kafka in such of his works as Femme 
Accroupie, and Orpheus, while in his portraiture he 
has observed, too, the lessons of the Master, taken 
advantage of them and produced a splendid result. In 
Paris, Kafka was brought into a very different atmos 
phere from the romantic one he was accustomed to in 
Mylsbek's studio. The new spirit was stirring very 
definitely, after the close of the old century with its 



decadence, in some of the arts, and Kafka's spirit 
assimilated ; his art flourished and he soon obtained 
recognition, all the important Parisian art journals 
from 1906 down to the date of the war dealing with his 

Otokar Spaniel, a native of Jaromer, followed the 
example of Maratka and Kafka by finishing his art 
education in Paris. He exhibits at the Societe Nationale 
and the Salon d'Automne, and the Luxembourg and 
the Petit Palais have examples of his work. He is 
essentially a portraitist, and his busts of the Slovene 
Architect Plecknik, of the Czech physiologist, Purkyne, 
and of the Croat poet Vojnovic, are splendid depic 
tions of character, and the latter a fine example of bronze 
technique. The Purkyne bust is in stone, and was 
seen with a marble portrait of a Doctor, at Paris, in 
1920. Other fine busts are of the poet Vrchlicky, the 
historian Ernest Denis, the astronomer Jules Janssen, 
and the young Milan Roshislav Stefanik, since dead 
for the cause of Czechoslovakia Delivered. Ladislas 
Kofranek and Benes-Machain are artists who have 
resumed sculpture since the war. 

Jacob Obrovsky is another Prague sculptor who 
was represented at the Paris Exhibition by a bronze 
Head of a Woman, and he shewed at Venice a bronze 
Water Carrier ; Karel Dvorak exhibited a bronze, 
Spring, at both exhibitions ; and Otokar Svec a por 
trait in bronze. 

Fran?ois Kralicek, like Otokar Spaniel, is a portraitist, 
and he had two heads of men in the Salon des Beaux- 
Arts in 1920, and at Venice he displayed a Dancer, 
and a portrait in bronze. Stanislas Czapek was born at 


Jisin and lived in Vienna, working there in terra-cotta 
and other materials, and is one of the few Bohemian 
sculptors who turned to Austria rather than to France, 
but he also exhibited at the Salon. Other Prague 
sculptors are Henri Kautsch, who has exposed marble 
portrait-busts in the Salon, and Ferdinand Opitz, who 
exhibited at the Salon a bust of Minerva, and other 
works. Albin Polasek, who went to America in 1893, 
must be reckoned with the Czechoslovakian sculptors 
as representing Moravia, where, in 1899, he was born 
at Frenstat. 



of the Polish sculptors, having been born 
at Warsaw in 1859. H* 8 fi rst studies in art 
were made in Paris with Cyprian Jodebski. He com 
menced as a painter with Delaplanche, and later as 
sculptor at Munich with Benczur and Loeffer. He was 
successful as a painter in Paris and Vienna, and some 
of his pictures were bought in America. In 1900 he 
first exhibited his sculpture at the Vienna Secession 
and at Prague. His Improvisation of Mickiewicz was 
bought for the National Museum at Cracow, and he 
has made monuments to Grottger, the Polish painter, 
which is in Cracow, and of Chopin. He has planned a 
procession of the greatest figures in the history of 
Poland for the Wawel palace. Poland has not yet pro 
duced in the plastic arts a man who can rank with 
Chopin in music, or even with Mickiewicz in poetry, 
but it is one of her ambitions to do so. In painting and 
etching, wood-engraving and lithography she can shew 
fine contemporary work, and she is rich in young sculp 
tors, and they are, as a group, as interested in thought 
as they are in form. Eli Nadelman was so immersed in 
thinking that he reduced form to the simplest presen 
tations, and using mostly idealistic themes such as 
Dawn, Youth, Reason, Grace and Mystery, he tried to 
convey what others have tried to write, but finding 



this insufficient, he projected his thoughts into words, 
which appeared in the catalogue of the ten pieces of 
sculpture which were seen at Paterson's Gallery in 
London in 1911, among them the Nocturne, simple and 
calm, delicate and profound. Nadelman was born in 
Warsaw and lived in Paris from 1903 to 1911, and perhaps 
longer, for a female torso of his was exhibited in 1912. 
Nadelman thinks that three mistakes are made by 
artists of to-day : the belief that any kind of beauty 
can be employed in plastic art, whereas only plastic 
beauty can ; that thought and reason are useless or 
even harmful to sentiment, and that sentiment is the 
creative element in art. Nadelman holds that sentiment 
can merely stimulate thought, and that it is reason 
which directs the making of a work of art. He believes 
that art is not imitation, and the artist who copies 
nature, that is, tries to imitate it, does not understand 
it and does not care to understand it. It is naturalism 
pushed to the furthest limits, and it has therefore no 
thought, and therefore cannot be great art, and the 
result is negation. The artist is meanwhile thrown back 
on the discovery of what is creative art, and Nadelman 
says that " the element that brings beauty in plastic 
art is logic, logic in the construction of form. All 
that is logical is beautiful/ * Taking the analogy from 
formal literary logic, the contention comes to this, 
that as each proposition is merely for the purpose of 
reaching a conclusion that cannot be attacked, so the 
artist must find that only lines which have significance 
are perfect. Every fine draughtsman and every lover of 
fine drawings will admit this. 

Having secured this truth, that perfect form is 



significant form, Nadelman allows that the artist can now 
produce beauty by building on nature, not imitating, 
but interpreting, and can therefore create things 
that are not to be found in nature. He will, of necessity, 
have come closer to nature by a bigger understanding ; 
he will have come to understand nature's forms, which 
are not art's forms, because nature's forms are, of 
course, significant in their own way, but the art-pro 
cess is not nature's process ; which all comes to this, 
that the function of art is to create beauty from thought 
and not from senseless matter. The artist of to-day 
becomes pessimistic because he thinks too little, and 
when he studies the great masterpieces of art, he forgets 
to look at the mental process which produced them 
and regards only the forms ; he looks only at the 
execution and forgets the intention ; therefore he 
despairs of doing the great thing himself because he 
has missed the secret of the creator. 

Nadelman 's heads of men and women, his torsos 
and his standing and dancing men and women are full 
of intrinsic value, as well as being illustrations of his 
theory, but he left comparatively few works in Europe 
when he departed for the United States of America. 
His chief legacy was an intellectual one, which deserves 
a wider enjoyment by artists in general, but is largely 
confined to the understanding and refreshment of his 
own countrymen. He certainly left his impress on the 
Polish sculptors, and whatever may be thought of their 
finished works, it must be admitted that they have 
tried to think out something which they wished to 
create, and not merely to reproduce graceful form or 
reproductions of charming poses. It is curious that 



most of the sculptors of Poland, whose work is now 
widely known, are very nearly of the same age. They 
were born during the five years from 1876 to 1881, 
and most of them gave early promise of their powers. 

The work of Stanislaw K. Ostrowski was known in 
England as long ago as 1904, when, in the Polish section 
of the Austrian Exhibition, his bronze bust of the 
poet, Miecinski, was seen. He was a member of the 
Vienna Secession, and at that time his sculpture was 
marked by the characteristics of that school. He has 
exhibited also in Italy and at Paris, where he lived for 
a time, his works being placed in the Salon d'Automne, 
where a relief, called Rhythm, was a notable piece. In 
1921, at the Exhibition of Polish Graphic Art at the 
Dorien Leigh Galleries at Millais House, South Ken 
sington, his fine bust of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, the 
Polish Commander-in-Chief, was the only piece of 
sculpture presented, but it was a typical work, more 
than life-size, full of character, and strongly modelled. 

Ostrowski was born in 1879, at Warsaw, and he was 
the son of a sculptor. His wife is the poetess, Branislawa 
Ostrowski, who also translates into Polish, lyrics of the 
English poets. Of her, in 1911, he exhibited a portrait, 
which was his first work to be seen in Paris. This was 
followed by his best piece in portraiture, a bronze relief 
of Madame Bosninska, the painter, at the Champ de 
Mars, which was also seen at Venice in 1920. Other 
works are in the museums of Cracow, Warsaw, and 
Lemberg, and his most important public monument 
is in the cemetery at the latter town, that to ChmdelT 
owski, the historian of literature. Ostrowski is the 
President of the sculpture section of the General Union 



of the Polish Arts, and was formerly President of the 
whole union, and he was instrumental in the founding 
of the Arts Co-operative Guild, the function of which 
is the procurement of every sort of artistic material and 
the general survey of the interests of all artists. Mem 
bers of the sculpture section are Jan Biernacki, who 
shewed a marble bust at Venice in 1920 ; Stanislaw 
Poplawski, Lubelski, Breyer, Antoni Madejski, Otto, 
and Welonski. 

A Polish sculptor of distinction is Georges Clement 
de Swiecinski, who was born in 1878 in the Bukowina, 
and educated in art in Paris. De Swiecinski has made a 
special place for himself in modern sculpture, which 
he challenged in his one-man show at the Galerie 
Brunner, in Paris in 1920 ; with his exhibits at the 
Salon des Independants Notre Dame des Refugies, 
the Senegalese, Shen-Tsou-Wey and Japanese Blue, 
and also with his Jeremiah in the Salon of the Societe 
Nationale des Beaux- Arts. His art is interesting from 
several points of view. In conception it is religious, in 
execution it is direct, and further, colour is employed. 
Its inspiration is derived from Sanscrit, Hindu, Christian, 
Greek and Japanese sources, and he has illustrated 
the Sanskrit poem, The Ramayana, by four bas-reliefs, 
and busts of Rama and Sita, all in polychrome. His 
subjects from the New Testament include groups of 
the Annunciation, and Visitation, and the Descent 
from the Cross ; a polychrome statue of Our Lady, 
and a relief of the Crucifixion ; in stone, carved direct, 
the Notre Dame des Refugi6s, Virgin and Child, and 
the Wise and Foolish Virgins ; St. John and St. Paul, 
and in addition St. Francis of Assist. From the Old 

241 R 


Testament he has taken four of the Prophets. He has 
chosen to make his figures abnormally tall, and in other 
ways he has departed from a literal transcription from 
nature. He seems to have the same principles as Nadel- 
man and to have carried them further, and in his direct 
work he appears to have treated his material with 
loving respect and to have caressed it as he carved it. 
This is especially the case with Notre Dame des 
R6fugi6s. In the Annunciation he has overstepped the 
conclusions of the Nadelman theory or his own theory, 
for they are the same and has reduced it somewhat 
to an absurdity. The height and the pose are unneces 
sarily unnatural. The work in stone direct in the Wise 
Virgin is considered, but there seems here to have 
been a too ready acquiescence in the mere joy of 
carving. The pose is dignified ; the statue is convincing, 
but the sculptor has over-indulged his love for tech 
nique. If, however, still another direct work in stone is 
taken, the Young Basque Girl, no criticism of this 
kind can be made. Here we have a real naturalistic 
study rendered with all saneness ; it does not violate 
the principle of interpretation, neither does it the 
principle of form. The pose is odd, the arrangement 
of the long piece of drapery is startling, but for a work 
of its character it possesses a delicacy combined with 
a massiveness derived from its material, which is rarely 
seen in stone sculpture. 

The most original of the creations of De Swiecinski 
is undoubtedly his Chiron et Achille. On the near hind 
hoof of the great centaur stands, beautifully erect, the 
graceful figure of the young god drawing his bow, 
aided by the bearded centaur, who holds the extended 



bow-hand and pulls back the hand which holds the 
bow-string behind his own head. The younger figure, 
and the head and arms of the centaur are modelled 
naturalistically, the former being very graceful, and 
by the animal half of the centaur, enormous strength 
and vitality are conveyed. Of allied subjects, the sculp 
tor has produced the Centaur and Bull, Centauresses, 
the Combat of the Centaurs, the Titans, in coloured 
bas-reliefs, and also of Herakles tirant une Fleche au 
Soleil, and a polychrome statue of the same subject. 

Above all things, De Swiecinski's sculpture is hier 
atic ; it comes down from the old priests ; it is religious 
in this sense, that it is a continuity of the priestly 
tradition, not in any sectarian way, but in the sense 
of the upholding of an ancient and overwhelming 
history ; of superiority over the smaller affairs of life. 
Religion has been at various times the only culture, 
and the priests the only teachers, and even the only 
artists, and it is in this direction that the sculptor prac 
tises his art, not by any means in striving to make 
it archaic. His sculpture has certain of the virtues of 
archaic work, strength, directness, vigour, but it is not 
a mere reproduction of either obsolete feeling or 
presentment. This, it is true, might be obtainable in 
other art, not religious, but it adds to the force of the 
art of De Swiecinski that it is alive with the feeling and 
presentment of archaic art, allied to a real religious 
sensibility. At the Autumn Salon, Paris, 1920, The 
Dance, a group, was shewn and also a Young Basque 
girl, carved in stone direct. 

Fran9ois Black was born in 1881 at Laborou, War 
saw, and studied in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux- Arts, 



and has not only exhibited in Paris, statuettes in wood 
and works in plaster, but at Lausanne, Zurich, and 
Geneva. After the war he again exhibited in Paris, at 
the Salon des Artistes Fran9ais, a portrait in marble, 
and a work in stone and bronze. Black lives at Laus 
anne, and is often regarded as belonging to the Swiss 
sculptors, and indeed he has influenced the younger 
Swiss considerably. He has made, among others, busts 
of Paderewski and Scienciewicz, and one of his prin 
cipal works is a group in wood of a seated woman with 
a male child at her knee, finely carved ; another is a 
head in marble, The Awakening, a girl with almost 
closed eyes, by which wonder and expectancy are in 
dicated, and hair treated curiously, and bound by a 
fillet. A woman's bust in stone, with hair forming a 
smooth covering to the head, with the planes of the 
features beautifully drawn and carved, the face slightly 
smiling, the eyes full of thought, is a fine work. At the 
Autumn Salon, in 1920, Black exhibited three works 
in wood and two in bronze, a Model, and Laughter. 

In the Polish section of the Venice International 
Exhibition of 1914, was a show of paintings and sculp 
ture organised by the art society of Cracow, Sztuka. 
Twenty painters and draughtsmen were included, and 
three sculptors. Animals by Ludwik Baron de Puget, 
in bronze, were Fighting Kids and a Panther, and por 
traits by Henri Hochmann were also seen. 

Theophile Koszarek, who has made good portrait 
busts, Joseph Gardecki, whose Despair, a statuette in 
plaster, is notable, Boleslas Biegas, Ladislas Iruberski, 
who live in Paris, and Jan Szcrepkowski, Rosika, Daun, 
and Lemendowski, are men who are doing good work. 

244 . 













facing p. 244 



facing p. 245 


Edward Wittig's Nike, in bronze, is an individualistic 
work which was shewn at the Venice International 
Exhibition in 1920, The central figure, and the two 
supporting figures, are heavily built and impressive, 
and the conception is entirely original. The sculptor 
also exhibited a portrait of a woman, and a study of a 
woman 's head in marble. His best piece is his marble 
Eve. In the Luxembourg is a bronze statuette of the 
Sphinx, and other works are his monument to Chopin, 
one in stone called The Poet, and he has done busts in 
marble and bronze of men and women, of a fine quality. 
He is a native of Warsaw, was born in 1877, and edu 
cated at the Vienna Academy. 

Xavery Dunikowski was represented at this ex 
hibition by a good head of an old man, with closed eyes 
and drawn mouth, a work very characteristic of old 
age approaching dissolution, the features being as fine 
as a death-mask. Another piece was a portrait of a man, 
also in bronze, and at Venice, in 1914, he exhibited a 
portrait of an Architect, which was distinctive. He has 
made many such of the actors and poets of Poland. 
His works have been bought for the National Museum 
at Cracow, and at the chief church in that city the main 
door is of his composition, and other works are in 
Warsaw. He was born at Cracow in 1876, where, in the 
following year, Ludwik Baron de Puget was also born, 
and both were educated at the School of Art there. 

Pius Welonski was born in 1879, and began his art 
learning in Warsaw, passing thence to Petrograd, and in 
1897 won the Prix de Rome. His chief works are Acteon, 
Venus, and Ave Caesar! and these were in the Alexander 



A collection of bronze works by Antoni Niadeyski 
was a feature of the Polish section at Venice, which 
included commemorative medals of Chopin and Mickie- 
wicz, and tablets of Professor Sokolowski, and Stefano 
Batory, and studies of dogs. Further sculptors whose 
works were shewn are Jan Biernacki, Sofia Kaminska, 
and Henryk Kuna. 

Other works by contemporary Polish sculptors are 
to be found in the National Museum which has been 
established in the ancient castle Wawel, now being 
restored in Cracow : a wonderful building, the his 
torical repository of the nation, the burial-place of its 
kings, the symbol of the spirit of struggling Poland. 
Sculptural work is also being executed in the courtyard 
of the castle by national artists, among whom there are 
a number of women, one of them being Zadriga 
Bohdanowicz, who was born in 1889 at Warsaw, and 
after studying there and at Cracow, became, in 1911, a 
pupil of Bourdelle, in Paris, and she now works in 
Bourdelle's studio. The master's influence is marked 
in her work, but it exhibits a greater naivet6. The bas- 
relief in stone of St. Felix and St. Aductus, in the court 
yard of the Royal Palace, Wawel, at the entrance to the 
reconstructed ancient church of these two saints, was 
carved in 1918, and well indicates the peculiar sim 
plicity of the sculptor's style. It is an embodiment of 
the spirit of medievalism, and is a reminder of statues 
in stone and wood of that period. No other artist has 
so successfully achieved this feeling among all the 
moderns. Zadriga Bohdanowicz 's work was first seen 
in 1913 at the Societe Nationale des Beaux- Arts, where 
she exhibited a Young Girl and the Head of a Woman, 


which was seen at Cracow, Warsaw, and elsewhere. 
In 1918 she exhibited a portrait bust in Paris, followed 
in 1919 by a Fountain which was purchased by the 
Polish Ministry of Fine Arts for the National Museum 
at Warsaw ; at the Salon d'Automne, a nude woman, 
and at the Societe des Beaux-Arts the head of a young 
girl. The following year a similar work was exhibited 
in Paris, and at the International Exhibition at Geneva. 

Marie Stattler-Iedrzeiewicz, another woman sculp 
tor, of Warsaw, is an exhibitor in Paris of portrait 
studies, and so is the Countess Iza Albazzi de Kwiat- 
kowska, a native of Lopatyeska, and Marie Szczytt- 
Lednicka is a Pole although born in Moscow. At the 
Autumn Salon of 1920 the latter exhibited a bronze 
head of a woman, a bronze stooping woman, a relief in 
stone called Ecstasy and two decorative motives of a 
Danseur and a Danseuse. 

Moryc Lipchytz is another true Pole, full of ideas 
and striving to express them. He has not followed the 
routine of any school, for he found that it interfered 
with his ideas of life, as well as of art. Painting and 
music were as much to him as sculpture, and as neces 
sary for the full life, but for expression he has adopted 
sculpture. This imperative need for self-assertion is 
common to all young artists, for their heads are full of 
longings and unrealisable ideals, and a landscape seems 
as potent to them by which to express themselves as a 
sonata, but before they become artists they have to 
become painters or composers, that is, they have to 
find means of expression. Lipchytz was born as recently 
as 1896 (at Lodz), and is, therefore, in the early stage 
of plastic utterance, and his mental state and stage 



are well expressed in the work exhibited at the Salon 
of the Societe Nationale in 1920. Its title is Tete 
d'Aveugle ; it represents the agonised desire of the 
blind to see the light, and that is this young sculptor's 
condition, and this work of his is so alive with this 
burning desire, that there can be little doubt that those 
blind eyes will soon be opened, and the longing behind 
them realised. The sculptor has a good deal to learn, 
but his spirit is worth the travail that will be entailed 
in liberating it. The size of the Tete d'Aveugle is 
colossal, and this also is symptomatic of the striving of 
the young artist ; he is yearning to do great things, 
and one of the stages in his development is to make big 
things. Lipchytz will soon pass from this stage, and 
already, in the Autumn Salon of 1920, he shewed 
progression, indeed an inversion, for he had there a 
statuette, Innocence, nude, in ivory, proving that his 
enthusiasm and imagination are tempered by patience 
and real study. The latter is seen, too, in the portrait 
head of a young girl in plaster, also at the Autumn 
Salon, and in other busts of men and women in his 
studio, while an auto-portrait serves to indicate the 
poetic nature of the sculptor. Two sketch studies in 
plaster-relief of incidents in the life of Christ, the 
Healing of the Sick and the Betrayal, seem to shew 
the direction which future work may take. 

Lipchytz is associated with Le Groupe " Action," 
which includes Picasso, Matisse, Vlaminck, Derain and 
Dufy ; Kars, Crissay, Kisling, Valadon, Gontcharova, 
LarionofF and Gris, and Archipenko and Zadkine. 
While these are, however, mostly cubists, futurists, 
vorticists, post -impressionists and even dadaists, 




facing p. 248 


Lipchytz stands independently among them by the 
force of his young talent and the sanity of his views on 
form. Not only can he draw, but he does draw, and the 
whole of his sculpture witnesses to the fact. 

Landowski is claimed as a Pole, but his father was 
a naturalised French subject when the sculptor was 
born in France. Jo Davidson and Jacob Epstein are of 
Polish descent, but both were born in New York, 
Epstein becoming attached to the British school by 
long residence in London, Davidson continuing his 
peregrinations about the world. 

Almost the youngest of all the young sculptors of the 
period, and certainly the shortest-lived, was Gaudier- 
Brzeska, partly Polish and partly French by birth, and 
partly English by association and education. He was 
born in 1891, and was killed on the field of honour for 
France in 1915 ; a sad but brave record, sad because 
the young artist shewed great promise. Although he 
was not a complete cubist like Archipenko, nor an un 
compromising archaist like Zadkine, I prefer to place 
him with these artists rather than with the Vorticists 
in London, who claimed him for their own. He was so 
young when he lived in London from 1911 to the 
time of the war that it was impossible to conjecture 
where his talent would have led him, and he was so 
amiable and charming in private life that he seems to 
have let his friends claim his personality as well as the 
direction of his art. This would have come right in 
time, no doubt, and he would have proved himself an 
original sculptor, having divested himself of the isms 
that clung to him from the first and clogged him. It is 
not certain that sculpture would have secured him, 



however, for he was a draughtsman, and might have 
been a painter, and he was a writer who might have 
been a thinker. On coming of age, or even before, he 
had made pronouncements concerning aesthetics in 
more or less original language, if not more but less 
original, in actuality. He stated that " sculptural feel 
ing is the appreciation of masses in relation. Sculptural 
ability is the defining of these masses by planes," and 
no one, having dissected the two sentences, would be 
inclined to quarrel with either. All sculptors work 
according to those principles, but all sculptors do not 
interpret them according to vorticism, and there might 
have come a time when this young artist, in spite of all 
his amiability, might have turned from archaism with 
all its reputed magic, as well as from vorticism ; turned 
even from the rounded form of Maillol, if it had been 
offered to him as an alternative, to naturalistic work, as 
a ship in trouble at sea longs for a safe haven. 

Gaudier-Brzeska had not time to produce much 
sculpture, and most of it has gone to the collection of 
Mr. John Quinn, of New York ; some of it still re 
mains in London ; Mr. Alfred Wolmark, his friend, 
has some, including a portrait bust of himself, and at 
South Kensington Museum there is a Dancer propped 
with struts, for Gaudier-Brzeska was not a very 
experienced or a very old hand at setting up an 
armature and a torso of a girl in marble, which is less 
vorticist than archaic but is really very little carved at 
all. These two works, a naturalistic head by Epstein, 
a Christ on the Cross, by Eric Gill, the Rodin sculpture 
and the examples of Mestrovic ; the casts of Alfred 
Stevens ; some few things by Lanteri, Legros and 



Boehm : some small bronzes by Alfred Gilbert, Onslow 
Ford, and Leighton, are the contribution which the 
Victoria and Albert Museum at South Kensington 
make so far as the interior is concerned to modern 
sculpture. It would be more interesting and useful if 
the whole could be moved to the Tate Gallery, there 
to add to the National Gallery of British Art and the 
hoped-for Foreign collection. Mr. Wolmark has a nude 
figure of a woman seated, her head bent upon her 
raised knees, and other sculptural works of Gaudier- 
Brzeska are the Mother and Child, the stone Female 
Singer, the Erect Birds, the Head of a Man, a marble 
nude relief, a seated figure, and the quaint object that 
looks something like a duck trying to swallow a very 
small torpedo. 

In these works their author made the same mistake 
as is made by other futurist or vorticist artists, he gave 
to them the semblance of naturalistic forms, and no 
amount of clever writing or specious reasoning will do 
away with this illogicality. If we are to have new forms 
then by all manner of means let them be new, even 
abstract, but by all means new, and if possible new 
and strange, not mere modifications of the archaic and 
the grotesque. Being a Pole, or partly a Pole, Gaudier- 
Brzeska was naturally given to conjecture, and the 
wonder of the thought of being able to throw new 
light on old problems, seems to have appealed to him 
with great force, and to have shaped largely those too 
early years of his too short life. 

There are differing opinions regarding the relations 
of Poland and Lithuania since the war, and the Polish 
offensive against Lithuania, as it is called, although by 



many it is regarded as a home-coming rather than an 
offensive. I have adopted this latter view, seeing that 
from the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries the 
countries were one, and seeing also that the greatest 
Polish writers and patriots, Mickiewicz and Kosciuszko, 
lived in Lithuania, and wrote and fought for their 
homes against the Russian partition. There is an oppo 
sition between sections of the Lithuanians and Poles, 
of course, but in literature and the arts they are almost 
united. Archipenko is geographically a Lithuanian, 
but he is so consistently associated with Russian art 
that I have dealt with him in that section. 

Serge Zelikson is a Lithuanian, born at Polotck in 
1888. He was trained in art at the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts, and has shewn his work at the Salon of the 
Societe Nationale. In 1920 he exhibited the head of a 
child, the year before a bust of President Wilson, 
naturalistic and characteristic, and in this year he made 
for the Comtesse de Salignac Fenelon a group called 
the Last Kiss, a war subject. He has made a monument 
consisting of an obelisk, with steps, up and down which 
a number of draped figures in attitudes of grief are 
walking, the composition suggested by a sentence of 
Victor Hugo's. A seated draped statue of a woman in 
grief is another work of merit with the legend " The 
Tears of the World may dry, but those of the Mothers 
never." A rugged statue, the Last Thoughts of Tolstoi, 
is impressive. 

Leon Droucker was born at Vilna in 1887, an d edu 
cated at the Academies of Paris and New York. He now 
lives in Paris, where he began to exhibit in 1913, the 
work being a decorative fountain, at the Salon Nationale 




facing p. 252 



facing p. 253 


des Beaux- Arts. In 1917 a portrait of a man was seen 
at the National Academy of Design in New York, and 
at the Pennsylvania Academy. In 1920 he exhibited, in 
Paris, two vases at the Society of Artist-Decorators, 
and at the Salon a Study, being a bust in plaster of a 
woman with closed eyes, with character and good 
modelling. A more adequate work there, however, was 
Solitude, a nude statue in coloured plaster of a young 
woman, her hands and arms close to her side, her feet 
crossed, standing erect, with chin on shoulder, and 
hair clinging to her shoulder : a queer solid subject 
and well studied from the life. Droucker has always 
worked at decorative art other than sculpture in Paris, 
as well as in New York. 

Antoine Jousaytis is also a Lithuanian and a decor 
ative worker in stone. He exhibited Arbre, a decorative 
figure, at the Salon of the Societe Nationale in 1920, 
and also statuettes of an Alsatian girl and Le Jour, and 
at the Autumn Salon the same year three works, 
Summer, Day, and Biruth. Isaac Pailes, who was born 
at Kief, also exhibited at the Autumn Salon, his works 
being a bust of the painter, M. Esnault, and a study in 
wood. Raphael Schwartz was also born at Kief, and 
works in ceramics and exhibits at the Salon. 



AT the London Salon, as far back as 1908, the 
Princess Marie Tenicheff exhibited, among 
other products of the School of Art at Talash- 
kino, in the Government of Smolensk, some works in 
carved wood. These served as an indication of the 
efforts then being made to educate the Russian peasantry. 
But sculpture of a higher order than this was seen in 
the work of Baron Rausch von Traubenberg, who 
shewed a bust of a Russian Girl, two statuettes and the 
Knight Ilia Mourometz. There has been no actual 
school of early Russian sculpture, indeed of any Slav 
sculpture, but the craft of carving has been kept alive 
in the hearts and hands of the peasants. As is the case 
with other forms of culture in Russia, sculpture has 
been known and cherished very largely by foreign 
examples. Russia has always known the best and 
appreciated the highest, but has faltered in production. 
Now there are abundant signs of a different state of 
things, for Russian culture cannot afford to be behind 
that of Poland, Lithuania, Bohemia, and Roumania. 

There have, however, been great artists in Russia, 
and some of them were sculptors, and the history -of 
Russian sculpture goes back to the middle of the 
eighteenth century, when Shubin, the greatest classical 
sculptor of the country, Count Rastrelli and Kovlovsky, 
began their work, which continued over the beginning 



of the new century. Schedrin and Martos were con 
temporaries who carried on the work until 1835, a ^d 
Baron Klodt, born in the year of Shubin's death, 1805, 
took it on to the year 1867. Count Theodore Tolstoi, 
Beklemishev, and Antokolskoy (born 1843) were then 
ready, and the work of the last especially, gave to the 
Russian school of art considerable distinction. Wroubel, 
the painter, also added lustre to Russian art as a sculp 
tor. Marc Antokolskoy died in 1902, and among his 
successors are many accomplished artists, while his 
pupils, such as Ilia Giinsbourg, and his later con 
temporaries, struggled hard to express the thoughts 
and desires that were seething within them. 

There was Marie Bashkirtseff represented in the 
Luxembourg by a nude female study in bronze a true 
Russian, longing to be mistress of all the arts, trying to 
be a musician, a writer, a painter, a sculptor. " I am 
a born sculptor," she cried in 1883 "> " I love form to 
adoration." She loved Bastien-Lepage, she loved every 
thing that was beautiful to adoration, and she was dying 
to produce ; even Carlyle's infinitesimal fraction of a 
product would have given her satisfaction. She had her 
satisfaction, she did produce, a little, and she died in 
the doing. That was her tragedy, and it symbolised the 
tragedy of Russia. That cannot go on. A country that 
has adored culture as Russia has, and has tried to pro 
duce, and has done so little, must surely do much now. 
Marie Bashkirtseff was a sculptor in little, as well as a 
painter, but some of those who have come after her are 
much more ; they are producing men as well as 
women their statues and statuettes in marble and 
bronze ; carving their reliefs in stone and wood direct, 



making their busts and other portraits in plaster and 
terra-cotta, or fashioning their wares in clay and porce 
lain. Eager and uneducated, young Russia has gone 
forth on the Continent or to America seeking culture, 
and the facility to produce things of beauty, and has 
become merged in Paris or New York, and it yet remains 
for that great country to collect her artist sons and 
daughters, and restore them to a land where the appre 
ciation of the beautiful shall have become a national 
possession. Russia must rise again when her world- 
cultured children return to her cities. 

Prince Paul Troubetskoy is a sculptor claimed by 
Petrograd, Paris and Rome. He has known everyone 
in the European art-world for half a century, and has 
made portraits of most of the great men and women 
of his time, from Rodin to Anatole France, and he has 
tried most forms of sculpture from the colossal to the 
tiny. He has made equestrian statues of the Czar 
Alexander III, in Petrograd, and of Tolstoi, and he has 
modelled small dogs, and there is a certain realistic 
method about him which he must have learned from 
Rodin, but its result is not at all like Rodin's sculpture. 
It is portraiture without great thought or inspiration 
behind it ; the pleasant occupation of a sculptor in an 
interesting society ; a very charming and graceful 
society, clever and also sincere. It is said that Troubet 
skoy has made the definitive full-length portrait of 
Rodin ; grave yet lively, in the familiar attitude of the 
master, hands in pocket, standing easily ; the modelling 
is full and the wax process is well indicated. 
Troubetskoy has modelled in wax, as well as in clay, 
and has produced a number of figurines for translation 



into Saxe and Sevres biscuit ware. He has done a great 
deal of small work, and some of his studies of the nude, 
of young girls, are very tender and delightful. His 
groups of men and women with dogs are also well 
known, and his portraits include members of his own 
family, Mme. Decori, Reinach, Robert de Montesquion, 
de Vitte, and M. Gil. His Marchesa Luisa Casati 
Stampa with a greyhound, in wax, exhibited at Venice 
in 1914, in its tallness and slimness, is attractive and 
amusing. In 1909, at the Salon of the Societe Nationale, 
he shewed a portrait of the Marquise de Casa Fuerte. 
In the Luxembourg, his Tolstoi on Horseback, Alex 
ander III, and a seated woman, all small bronzes, are 
to be seen. In 1907, Troubetskoy's works, to the ex 
tent of a dozen, were shewn at the International Society 
in London, and in the following year eight others were 

Russia is represented in the Luxembourg, in addition 
to Troubetskoy and Marie Bashkirtseff, by Leopold 
Bernstamm, of Riga, with a bronze called G6rorne > 
and a portrait of Coquelin cadet in Le Malade Imag- 
inaire ; and a bronze figurine, by Pierre Nicholas 
Tourgueneff, of a small bronze horse. 

Russian sculptors have learned much in Paris, and 
Paris is their intellectual home. Anna Goloubkin was 
an artistic foster-daughter of Rodin ; Mestchaninoff 
is a disciple of Joseph Bernard ; Soudbinin has a Paris 
vogue, and there is Stdl tzky, who, like Soudbinin, 
works in the style of th Florentine wood-carvers of 
the fifteenth century. 

Russian sculptors ar^ known in Rome : there is 
Glizenstein, who works a the note of Bourdelle, and 

257 s 


there is also Michael Katz, who was born in the North 
of Russia, in 1888, and studied at the school of Fine 
Art at Petrograd, afterwards going to Rome. His 
group, Samson after being Blinded, is in the Art 
Museum at Petrograd. He has exhibited his work else 
where, including the Royal Academy, in London, 
where, in 1920, his bust of Compton Mackenzie was 

Naoum Aronson was born at Kreslavka, and studied 
in Paris, exhibiting there in 1909 three works in marble, 
Adolescents, a group, a Statuette and Kim. A series of 
works followed, and in 1920 a bronze female torso, 
Moise in granite, and Douleur, indicated that his 
powers had arrived at maturity, fulfilling the antici 
pations of the English artists who were his fellow- 
students in Paris twenty or more years ago. 

" Art is for the whole world, but the whole world is 
not for art," is the pronouncement of Alexandre Archi- 
penko, the Cubist, who was honoured by a Mostra 
Individuals at the International Exposition of Art at 
Venice in 1920, There have been individual shows at 
previous exhibitions when Rosso, Rodin, and Bour- 
delle have been similarly isolated. It means that Cubism 
is accepted by an Italian jury of artists as a force in 
sculpture ; in the work of Archipenko we have cubism 
in excelsis. There have been excrescences of cubism, 
sometimes : Epstein has produced his Venus and 
allied pieces to indicate it can be done in England, 
but there is no other sculptor so consistent as Archi 
penko, not even in the wonderful group to which he 
belongs Le Groupe " Action" 

At Venice the chief piece in the Archipenko show 



was his Bather, a figure in plaster without feet, and 
tapering upwards from very large hips to a very small 
head, proportions quite unknown in nature, and only 
expressive in art, and therefore mysteriously intriguing : 
it makes you pause, and it makes you think, but it 
never satisfies you. Neither do the pieces illustrated 
in Action, the journal of the group, the queer arrange 
ment of quaintly-shaped pieces of wood and castings 
of plaster, either with or without the aid of painting, 
but they interest you, as do even the allied works of 
Brancusi and the Vorticists. Even Archipenko, how 
ever, is not entirely consistent, for he has exhibited 
drawings which are naturalistic, and in themselves 
quite admirable and accomplished as normal art. 
Further, he has striven to shew that there is no great 
gulf fixed between sculpture, painting and design, by 
producing sculpto -painting : a combination of wood 
and metal ; of wood, glass and metal. Indeed, he 
claims to have discovered the door of communication 
between the two arts. In some of the so-called cubist 
exhibitions in London, an attempt of this kind has 
resulted in reducing the whole thing to an absurdity. 
Old wood box-lids have been daubed with paint, and 
used match-sticks and pieces of broken pottery have 
been glued to -them, and these, as Ruskin phrased it, 
have been flung in the face of the public. It may be 
thought that the more restrained productions of Archi 
penko are even more dangerous, in that they are being 
taken seriously. It has therefore become necessary for 
apologists to come forward to elucidate the cubist 
artists' claims : Maurice Raynal and Ivan Goll are the 
chief. Raynal refers to the naive realism of Greece 


which obtains in contemporary sculpture, together 
with the influence of the degenerate imitators of 
Michelangelo. He says that Archipenko thinks that art 
has not made the strides in the world which have been 
made by science : art has lagged behind because it has 
not developed equally with other advances in history. 
He claims that Archipenko 's intelligence has pene 
trated more into the secrets of the teachings of tra 
dition, because at the same time his heart beats in 
unison with his own extraordinary and wonderful age. 
Archipenko admits the value of study from nature, 
but goes further in assuring us that there is very much 
more to it than that, as he himself has found. He has 
thoughts and ideas which nature's forms cannot pro 
ject, and he has therefore had to invent, perforce, forms 
of his own. Personally I prefer nature, and I believe 
that art is its interpreter, but I see no reason why 
Archipenko should not interpret his thoughts by means 
of a cubistic formula, which may well possess secrets 
worth the unravelling, as the formulae of symbolism 
are said to possess, but I cannot perceive why he or 
Maurice Raynal should drag in God and St. Augustine, 
and call on religion to help science, and I cannot 
see why others should use Archipenko 's symbols in 
order to express something which contains nothing 
worth expressing. One further criticism is that Archi 
penko might easily render his works more understand 
able if he named them less arbitrarily, To call an 
arrangement of paint, wood and metal, Woman, or 
another of wood, glass and sheet-iron, a Woman at her 
Toilet, is not enough for me : I want to be further 
instructed, and because I see some resemblance to a 



human hand and a piece of cotton frilling in his sculp 
ture it is spoiled for me : I do not want any such hints 
from nature and the stores, I want to take the whole 
principle in a neat form. Either Cubism is capable of 
standing on its own base, or it is not : there cannot be 
any half measures about it. I feel more at home with 
the Portrait of Mme. Archipenko in wood, glass and 
sheet-iron because there is only one thing to discount 
the complete impression of Cubism, and that is the 
suggestion of a human eye. I do not like that, nor do 
I care for a statuette in terra-cotta, which has a hole 
for a head, and for a bosom a depression in which two 
egg-shaped masses are insecurely located : these things 
are too near nature to be satisfyingly cubistic. Indeed, 
to read the Catalogue of the works exhibited at Venice, 
and that of the more extensive collection to be ex 
hibited in Geneva and Zurich, Paris and London, 
Brussels and Amsterdam, Athens and Berlin, is to 
read a dull and uninspiring list of natural forms : a 
Marching Soldier, a Woman and Umbrella, a Negress, 
Still Life, a Dancer, and a Bather. Until Cubism has a 
vocabulary of its own it cannot be said to have estab 
lished itself securely. In this catalogue are no fewer 
than a hundred and four works ; sculpture, sculpto- 
painting, painting, pen and ink drawings, and drawings 
in water-colour, and pastels, and they all have names 
claimed by long association for the quite ordinary 
objects of everyday life. I do not like this translation 
of a new gospel into the terms of the old : Cubism 
must exist alone and for itself. 

Not until this happens will it stand on a logical basis, 
for it is in no sense a development from previously 



recognised art-forms : it is an entirely new form of 
expression, and has no claim to use the descriptions 
which were adequate for naturalistic productions. So 
long as it does this, it must bear the risk of being classed 
as decorative art, and in this sense its claim would be 
valid. Cubistic form is distinctly decorative : all those 
interestingly devised fragments of shapes, shaped into 
a whole, do indeed result in a decorative effect, but this 
can be competently performed by the mere students 
of cubism, whilst the aim of Archipenko is on a much 
higher plane, namely, a method of artistic expression 
of thoughts that were impossible of expression by the 
old forms. It is claimed by an American writer that 
Archipenko applies the .Einstein theory to statuary ! 

Alexandre Archipenko was born at Kief, in Lithu 
ania, in 1887, and for four years he studied at the art 
school there, and then went to Paris and studied at the 
Ecole des Beaux-Arts for fifteen days ! After this he 
turned his attention to the Louvre, and the other 
museums of Paris, this being the only way in which to 
learn to appreciate the greatness of the great masters 
of the grand style, the Ecole des Beaux- Arts being 
merely an academy for the instruction of the artisan. 
He began his sculpto -paintings in Germany in 1911, 
and in 1913 began to shew them in Berlin and other 
cities of the Empire, After the war he recommenced 
their exhibition in Geneva, and at Venice, where 
at the International Exhibition of 1920 there were 
sixteen sculpto-pictures, twenty pieces of sculpture in 
bronze, plaster, terra-cotta, cement and wood, and fifty 
drawings, and this number was increased when the 
Archipenko collection was due in New York in 1921. 



The old titles of the works were retained, however, 
and the illusion of an absolutely new form of art was 

Zadkine is even less consistent than Archipenko, so 
that by some critics Cubism is denied him. There is in 
his work actual representation or attempt at it, or an 
avoidance of it, whichever way you consider the matter 
It looks like very primitive work ; the modelling is by 
no means accomplished, the poses are impossible, and 
the whole thing is very ugly, but, at the same time, it 
does suggest plastic representation, and therefore as 
Cubism it fails, and this was the case with Gaudier- 
Brzeska, with Epstein in his trial runs in Cubism, as 
with all others : you must either be a Cubist or not a 
Cubist, otherwise you are beating the air, and providing 
interesting experiments for other people's delectation 
or derision. Fortunately there are no completely suc 
cessful cubists or the interest of Action and similar 
journals, and of the groups which they represent, 
would fade away. 

Osip Zadkine, who was born at Smolensk, was well 
represented at the Autumn Salon, Paris, 1920. There 
were no less than five pieces which he had himself 
carved : a Young Girl with a Pitcher, a male torso, a 
Woman, and a Head, all in wood, and a Leda in marble. 
Another work in marble was a Young Girl with a 
Guitar, and in wood, gilded, a Buddha. Zadkine 's 
Cubism may be doubted, but there is no question as 
to his being the representative of the primitive negro 
sculptor, as he demonstrated at this Salon. The cult in 
Paris, which has resulted in a violent search for examples 
of the carvings of the aborigines of Central Africa, New 



Guinea, New Zealand, and other places, is producing 
its own artists, and it is infecting London, where, in 
Chelsea, in 1920, a collection of these interesting savage 
objects was seen and admired. In Berlin, Max Pech- 
stein has produced this kind of work for some years 
past, and Zadkine is his able coadjutor. 

Apart from the special Archipenko show in the In 
ternational at Venice in 1920, Russian sculpture was 
represented only by three pieces by Seraphim Soud- 
binin, a Dancer, in wood, a decorative head in cement, 
and a Virgin Mary in ebony. In 1914, the only Russian 
sculptor was Ilia Giinsbourg, who shewed three bathing 
subjects in bronze. In 1909, at the Salon of the Soci6te 
Nationale, Eleonore Bloch-Lucy, who was born at 
Krementchoug, exhibited a terra-cotta portrait of a 
young girl, and a plaster study of a baby. At the same ex 
hibition, Nathan Imenitoff displayed a bust of a woman 
carved direct in wood, Olga Metchinikoff exhibited a 
portrait bust, a study of a woman's head, and a Mother 
and Child, and Pierre Mitkovicer, born at Odessa, a 
portrait of his own Mother, Wladimir Perlemagne, of 
Saratow, was responsible for a plaster statuette, Com- 
municante ; Constantin Ronczewski, of Petrograd, 
for a bronze Horse and Sledge, on an oak pedestal, 
and a bronze statuette of an Old Man, and Vera Stein, 
also of Petrograd, a portrait bust. 

One of the best Russian artists is Korenkof, of 
Moscow, and he has been compared with Rodin and 
with Bourdelle. He works in wood as well as marble, 
and his chef-d'oeuvre is his statue of Paganini. Nicholas 
Andrejew, of the Moscow Art Theatre, is the author 
of the monument to Gogol, and has done a number of 



facing p. 264 



facing p. 265 


portraits. Leon Indenbaum exhibited, at the Autumn 
Salon, 1920, a torso of a young girl in stone, and an 
Impression in rose marble, together with three por 
traits in stone, marble and bronze. Epimoff is another 
Moscow sculptor, who is chiefly celebrated for his 
studies of animals. In the same Salon, Serge Yourie- 
vitch, a Russian born in Paris, shewed a Faunesse in 
marble, Towards the Abyss, in bronze, and a bronze 
portrait of the historian, Waliszewski. 

The neighbours of Russia have their sculptors, and 
in Bucharest there are Emile Damian, and Constantin 
Ganesco, who makes bibelots, and exposed a case at 
the 1909 Salon containing works in bronze and wax. 
Works of his in bronze are The Singers, and Christ 
and the Hypocrite, and he has also made vases in 
bronze. The boundaries of Roumania were altered 
after the war, and Bessarabia, which previously was a 
Russian province, is now included in the Roumanian 
nation. This brings to the new state a new sculptor, 
Numa Patlagean, who was born at Kitchineff in 1888. 
He learned his art at the Ecole des Beaux- Arts in Paris, 
and lives there, and for his art alone. There are many 
young painters and sculptors doing this, but they have 
not all of them the talent of Patlagean, which is a quaint 
humorous talent with the humour verging on sadness, 
He exhibits at the Salon Nationale and, at the Autumn 
Salon, such works as Faust and Mephistopheles, An 
Impression of Middle-Age, the Clairvoyant, and many 
versions of Pierrot and Pierrette and the whole of the 
family connection, including Brother and Sister, 
Clowns, and what-not. He has also made busts of 
Kerensky and Ferruccio Busoni, the pianist, and a 



relief portrait of Gustave Mahler, the composer. In 
1920 he shewed at the Salon a tinted plaster clown, and 
a group of small girls, and in the Autumn Salon, his 
Sister of Pierrot. 

As far as I know there is only one artist of the 
Ukraine to support the claims of sculpture in that 
nation, and he is Constantin Stakhowsky, who was 
born at Podolie. He is a sculptor of animals, and fine 
examples of his work in bronze were seen at the Autumn 
Salon, Paris, 1920. Esthonia is responsible for two 
sculptors, Saan Koort, and Minnie Harkavy, both 
born at Dorpat, the latter being an American, who 
has studied in Paris, and both have exhibited at the 

In London very little of the quite modern develop 
ments of Slav art have been seen, and it is unfortunate 
in a way that a beginning although but a small one 
was made in 1921 at the Exhibition of the Inter 
national Society, with an example of the negro -inspired 
work of Zadkine, The Guitar Player, a truncated statue 
in wood, lacquered black, with gilded decoration. 

The progress of the Slav nations which have, by 
self-determination and the aid of the Allies, emanci 
pated their people from the oppression of the old order 
on the one hand, and the new tyranny on the other, 
has been rapid, and in no direction has it been more 
pronounced than in that of the arts. The desire of 
expression on the part of individuals as well as of the 
race, is deep-rooted and determined. It is an obvious 
prophecy that at no very distant date the Slav spirit 
will make itself felt in European art to a far greater 
extent than it has hitherto done, which, considering 



the difficulties, has been by no means inconspicuous. 
Apart from the initial natural impulse towards artistic 
expression, there is the impetus due to the slackening 
of the shackles on freedom of thought and movement, 
the introduction of national education and the fact of 
the whole world being born anew : factors of vital 
importance which will hasten development. Western 
Europe will soon become cognisant to an extent never 
before realised, of the stores of artistic energy conserv- 
ated during recent centuries in the East. The old flow 
of humanity westwards will carry with it the flow also 
of new culture, derived so far as technique is con 
cerned largely from the West, it is true, but so far as 
originality and imagination the essentials are con 
cerned, from virgin springs. This will be the case not 
only with the Slav nations, but with others which have 
never expressed themselves, or whose expression has 
been retarded, or has been lying dormant, as in the 
case of Greece. 

The modern Greek is not like the Slav, he has no 
inherent passion for art-and-craft work. Of modern 
Greek sculpture there is at present but little : at the 
Autumn Salon, 1920, Athanasse Apartoglus, who was 
born at Smyrna, shewed a portrait head, and a portrait 
statuette, and Antoine Sochos of Patras, a statue in 
plaster of a young girl. With the renaissance of the 
Greek nation, it is not unlikely that the arts will once 
more flourish in Greece, and pride in the glories of the 
past revive, and act as a stimulant for the production 
of those of the future. 




SCANDINAVIAN carving was known to Eng- 
land and other northern nations at a very early 
period, and it was comparable with the carving 
of the Celtic races, but unlike that of most of them, it 
persisted, and remains even to the present day. It was 
centuries before the peasant crafts of the Scandina 
vians, like that of the Slavs, projected itself into the 
domain of pure art. The Renaissance, however, left its 
mark in the North, where Greek and Roman influ 
ences, owing to the remoteness of the countries, had 
failed to penetrate. The Scandinavians were affected 
by the Italian styles ; later by French, and then at last 
Greece and Rome came to their own belatedly, in 

There is only one outstanding name in Swedish 
sculpture before the nineteenth century, and that is 
Tobias Sergei, who carved the statue of Gustavus 
Adolphus III, and made a number of marble groups 
of considerable merit, though of a mixed character of 
rococo and neo-classical. Sergei was known in England 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds and others, and it was his name 
with which sculpture was associated, until the advent 
of Borgesson. It was during Borgesson's time that 
Swedish art was struggling to make a new life for itself, 
but the painters, rather than the sculptors, were the 



stragglers, and they did not accomplish their work 
completely until they had been to Paris and brought 
back freer ideas than were prevailing at home. 

Vigeland, the Norwegian, and Kjellberg, the Swede, 
were the early precursors of the naturalistic school, 
but the latter died in 1885, and after him, John Bor- 
gesson reigned for a quarter of a century, during which 
time the men of the contemporary school were born 
and educated, and getting ready for the splendid new 
life of our own period. 

The older generation of Swedish sculptors ended 
with the death of John Borgesson in 1910. He was the 
first great modern sculptor of the Scandinavian races ; 
the first to throw over the classic tradition which the 
excellence of Thorvaldsen had compelled and main 
tained for so many years. 

Borgesson 's name, like that of Milles, is linked with 
the Dramatic Theatre of Stockholm. Here, on either 
side of the entrance are bronze groups of Poetry and 
Acting by Borgesson, and sculpture by Milles is in 
plenty on the fagade. At the bases of the eight pillars 
is high-relief work of children playing by Milles, and 
two corner figures, and there is the Goddess of Song, 
Poetry, Sculpture, Painting and Architecture. In the 
vestibule of the Theatre is a bronze statue of Tragedy 
by Lundberg, and one of comedy by Lindberg. In the 
foyer are busts : one in bronze of King Oscar II, by 
Milles, and among others, those of famous actors ; in 
the auditorium is sculptured decoration by Neujd ; 
not decoration in plaster as is the rule in the London 
and New York theatres, but sculpture in marble, stone 
and bronze. This is the great monument which Sweden 



has erected to modern sculpture, but not the only one. 
In the Djurjarden is Borgesson's Bound Viking monu 
ment, remarkable for its extreme realism, and at the 
Northern Museum is his great equestrian, Charles X. 
In the Djurjarden also is Friberg's Carl XV, and 
Theo. Lundberg's bronze Boy with a Fish, Orpheus, 
a simple and beautifully conceived figure on a sloping 
base, and in the Park of the Natural History Museum 
is his tender group, The Foster Brothers. To the Salts - 
jobaden, the banker K. Wallenberg has presented 
Borgesson's magnificent Swimmer, well known in 
casts, but seen here in bronze. Everywhere in Stock 
holm, by the munificence of great bankers and mer 
chants, or by the taste and foresight of the Council of 
the City, great sculpture abounds, and, what is of 
moment, great sculpture by artists of Sweden, Art is 
appreciated, and the nation is proud of its artists, and 
extends to them whenever it can, the hand that grasps 
and helps ; not the hand that niggardly gives or openly 

Elsewhere in Sweden, too, sculpture is a living force, 
In Malmo, Borgesson is again to be seen ; his bust of 
the composer, Otto Lindblad, is in the university town 
of Lund, and the memorial of the painter, Ernst Joseph- 
son, by Christian Eriksson, adorns the grave in the 
Jewish cemetery at Stockholm, for painters and music 
ians and literary men as well as sculptors are honoured 
in their native land. 

Christian Eriksson is the oldest of the living sculp 
tors of Sweden. He was born in 1858, at Tasserna, near 
Arvika, his father being a cabinet-maker and small 
farmer, with whom the boy began work at the age of 



nine. He afterwards went to Stockholm, where his art- 
studies began, and was apprenticed to cabinet-making. 
He practised the craft of metal-work in addition at a 
later date in Hamburg, where he also studied art in his 
spare time. In 1880 he went to Paris and worked in 
metal, as well as on busts and statues, producing medals, 
plaques and other small pieces. His first important and 
significant work was a fine lamp-stand with figures, in 
silver, which was afterwards enlarged and produced 
in marble, and is in the National Library at Stock 
holm. In Paris he also executed his graceful statue in 
the nude called The Snow Belle, which in bronze is in 
the public gardens, and in marble in the National 
Museum at Stockholm. His Skater is a fine, vigorous 
work, to be seen in the Saltsjobaden ; seldom is action 
so well rendered, and the swing and rhythm of skating 
is truthfully translated. Eriksson is equally facile in 
naturalistic and decorative work, and both are seen at 
the Saltsjobaden ; the examples of the latter being the 
bases of the two flag-poles an obvious object for the 
sculptor's art, but one very seldom appropriated 
one with splendidly modelled high-relief figures of 
Summer, and the other of Sports, dated 1905. To the 
naturalistic class belong the Snow Belle, and the Skater 
among his earlier works, and of his later, there is the 
Lapp, of 1903, in the Gothenberg Museum, the work 
being a portrait of a bear-hunter from the life, and 
there is the exquisite Dansapata, or Dancing on Tip 
toe, belonging to Mr. K. O. Bonnier of Stockholm. 
The same figure in marble, draped, and called Play, 
is known to be a portrait-study of the sculptor's daugh 
ter. The Bowman is one of Eriksson's latest works, 



and it is a monument to the national liberator of the 
Middle Ages, Engelbrekt, and was erected in 1916 in 
the Kornhamnstorg Place in Stockholm. 

To Eriksson, Stockholm owes other sculptured 
reliefs : the marble dedicated to the memory of Lin 
naeus on the National Museum, and on the Dramatic 
Theatre two gigantic carvings dealing with the develop 
ment of the theatre, from the cult of Dionysos, on the 
left the Bacchanalia, and on the right Italian Actors. 
A sculptured pediment at the portal of the Norrlands- 
banken, Stockholm, done in 1902, is a fine example of 
street decoration, and the vase in the National Museum 
is of importance. Eriksson was for a time an assistant 
to Hasselberg, and on his master's death finished the 
well-known Water Lily at Gothenberg. Other works 
are Love and Enchantment, Christian Eriksson is 
among the best of the Scandinavian sculptors, and in 
Sweden is regarded as occupying an equal place in the 
art with the master, Carl Milles. He is a socitaire de la 
Soci6t6 Nationale des Beaux-Arts and other artistic 



Anders Zorn, painter and etcher, born at Mora in 
1860, was also a sculptor of rank. He studied at the 
Academy of Art, Stockholm, in Paris, in Spain, and in 
London. He also worked at painting at St. Ives, in 
Cornwall, England, in 1888. His principal sculptural 
works are the statue of Gustavus Wasa in a fine up 
standing, noble pose as a young adventurer and national 
liberator, at Mora, 1903 ; The Morning Bath, a foun 
tain in the open space in front of the Royal Academy 
of Stockholm, 1909, the figure of a beautiful female 
nude, standing with hands clasped at the height of her 



chin, on a large shell-like base ; Grandma, a head of an 
old woman, sculptured in wood, and Gryvel, a Swedish 
dalkulla, with robust and well-formed limbs, creeping 
on the floor, belongs to the National Museum. A 
bronze of Gustavus Wasa in Mora was exhibited at 
Brighton, as well as one of Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, 
and a Faun and Nymph which had been seen at the 
Venice International Exhibition in 1901, it having been 
sculptured in 1896. 

Among modern artists few are better known than 
Zorn, and the news of his death in August, 1920, at 
so early an age as 60 was greatly deplored. The know 
ledge of Zorn's sculpture is not general, but in his self- 
portrait in the Uffizi he has painted himself in the act 
of making a bust of his wife. Zorn in the sculptured 
work he has left, did not rise to great heights in this art, 
great as he was in the sister arts, but yet he continued 
his work in sculpture, and did not entirely cease from 
it in late years. 

There is a certain robustness in some of Zorn's 
sculpture, which deteriorates into coarseness, as in the 
case of the Faun and Nymph, where the faun is seen 
seizing the nymph in a very rough fashion. The faun 
is embracing the nymph in a realistic manner. The 
legs of both form a firm basis for the very heavy super 
structure of their bodies. There is no doubt, however, 
of the knowledge of the human figure possessed by 
the artist ; the drawing, as in his painting and etching, 
is very accomplished, and in all his work, if there is 
coarseness, there is also strength and glowing healthy 
life, as may be seen in the studies in reddish clay, like 
that used by Carpeaux and Bouchardon in France. 

273 T 

Another sculptor-painter is G. A. Fjaestad, who was 
born in Stockholm in 1868. He studied at the Academy 
of Art, Stockholm, and is principally known as a painter 
of Swedish winter-landscapes. Like Anders Zorn, he 
works as a sculptor, but mainly in wood, iron and 
copper, and very often in connection with handicraft, 
and in this respect he has developed many new and 
original ideas. 

Born at Doderhult, in the province of Kalmar, also 
in 1868, Axel Pettersson is of peasant origin. Beginning 
as a child to cut figures in wood, he worked for some 
time for a decorative sculptor in the town of Oskars- 
hamn. Altogether self-made and original, and a humor 
ist of first rank, he is mostly known as a wood-sculptor 
of animals, and caricatures of folk-types in miniature. 
His humorous art was recognised, when first exhibited 
in 1909 at Stockholm ; it had much success at the ex 
hibition in Paris, 1910 ; at the world-exhibition in 
Rome, 1911, and at the Swedish art-exhibition in 
Brighton the same year, where three of his pieces were 
on view. His principal works are The Wedding, and 
The Funeral, both in the gallery of Mr. Ernest Thiel, 
Stockholm, and Inspection for Military Service in the 
Museum of Gothenberg. Among his animal groups 
are Cows, a Rural Idyll, and Out at Grass. He still 
works at Oskarshamn. 

Perhaps the grimness of Pettersson's humour is at its 
best in The Village Trial Here, seated at an oblong 
table on benches, are eleven carved figures, typical of 
the peasantry, and indicating the mental and judicial 
height to which such can aspire. His work has been 
described by Mr. Blaikie-Murdoch as Goyaesque in 



character, so far as it goes, without suggesting any 
comparison between Pettersson and the great Spanish 
master, for there is the same humorous contempt for 
all pretence and stupidity, and in its range it deserves 
to be classed with the work of all good satirists. It would 
have made Carlyle laugh ; he would have been delighted 
with The Village Trial. 

It will be seen from the above how many of the 
sculptors of Sweden have turned their attention to the 
crafts and especially to carvings in wood. It is a healthy 
sign in the art-life of a community when the materials 
to hand are made use of, and in Scandinavia it is 
especially appropriate that the art-workers should seek 
to express themselves in wood and pottery. We find a 
further example of the tendency in Otto Strandman, 
born in Gothenberg, in 1871. His art education was 
obtained at the Academy of Stockholm, and he 
undertook many journeys abroad for the purpose of 
study. He has received several medals at exhibitions, 
for instance, at Petrograd and Buenos Aires. His 
sculptural works are mostly miniature figures in wood, 
bronze, silver, and gold, and very often in combination 
with handicraft. He executed, however, a relief of 
Gustavus Adolphus for the chapel of Liitzen, in 1907, 
and The Weasel at the Place Kungsholms Torg, Stock 
holm, is a fine full-sized fountain figure. Another work 
is The Dance, of 1 909, in the National Museum. The Kiss 
and The Dance in bronze, were both seen at Brighton. 

One of the reliefs on the portal of the Riksdag- 
House at Stockholm was done in 1904 by Erik Lind- 
berg, who, however, works mostly in smaller kind. He 
was born at Stockholm in 1873, and studied at the 



Academy of Art there, and in Germany, France, and 
Italy. He was a pupil of Chaplain in Paris, and is an 
engraver of coins and medals. He has been responsible 
for all the Nobel-medals, and he made the bust of 
Alfred Nobel in the courtyard of the medical insti 
tution, the Karolinska Institute at Stockholm in 1911. 
Lindberghs work was seen at the Panama Exposition. 

Carl J. Eldh was born in 1873 at Film, in the 
province of Upsala. In his boyhood he assisted at the 
restoration of the Cathedral of Upsala. He then went 
to Paris, where he studied at the Acad6mie Colarossi 
during the late nineties. In France he specially 
developed his power of expressing woman's nature in its 
motherly, innocent, playful, as well as sensual aspects. 
In Sweden there exists a frankness in dealing with the 
human figure, and in dealing with the emotions, which 
is less apparent in countries which claim a higher 
standard of taste. Swedish taste is not so trammelled : 
the Swedes know that hypocrisy is not the high road 
to truth, and they care less for outworn sentimentali 
ties than for reality, and Swedish art benefits to that 
extent. It is a virile art and unashamed : it contains no 
prudery and no prurience. Of Eldh's work in this 
direction is the altogether charming group of Boy and 
Girl, an exquisite example of utter insensibility to sex 
which is the sure result of the rational treatment of it. 
This bronze is to be seen in the National Museum at 

A more advanced stage in maidenhood is reached in 
the figure in limestone, called Innocence, which re 
ceived honourable mention at the Salon in 1900. Osten 
sibly it represents the period when knowledge of the 



body and its functions is about to dawn. The dawning 
is, beautifully indicated in the Sitting Girl (modelled 
in 1918), her head slightly to one side, her eyes looking 
into nowhere, her hands and arms thrust slightly back 
wards, supporting the torso, somewhat lax with the 
inertia of approaching maturity. A further stage in 
development is seen in the marble statue of a Girl 
Standing, in a very natural, simple pose, carved in 
1914, in the National Museum, where there is also a 
statuette in bronze of Youth, modelled in 1911. The 
statuette Brita is carved in wood, and a larger version 
of it in marble was made in 1907. This piece repre 
sents a woman in peasant costume, with hands crossed 
on her bosom. The marble group, Maternal Sorrow, 
was seen at the Salon in 1902. 

Eldh is, however, by no means absorbed in woman- 
nature. His robust mind is well seen at work in the 
forceful colossal statue of August Strindberg, ex 
hibited at Stockholm in 1916, the thinker, dramatist 
and iconoclast. It is symbolic, and the poet is repre 
sented in an attitude of fearful endeavour, his hands 
clenched and pressed hard upon the unyielding, un 
sympathetic rock, his feet, too, pressed painfully upon 
the same. The statue, the face of it especially, expresses 
a vast puzzlement with the world, and a desperate, 
half -sulky attempt to abandon the riddle ; not the 
super-human scorn, at once weak and strong, of 
Nietzsche, but the almost helpless struggle of a mere 
human with a too-acute understanding, against the 
overwhelming facts of existence. There is no peevish 
ness about Eldh's bust of Strindberg : in it his 
masterpiece in this direction the sculptor has set 



forth the seer and prophet, rather than the straggler 
after the realities. It is a strong head, full of prophecy, 
and denoting endeavour, and there is some slight 
cynicism, too, regarding humanity in the slightly curved 
bronze lips and the thin moustache, while the strong 
hair brushed back from the strange forehead is in 
dicative of strength as well as of bewilderment. The 
work, sculptured in 1905, maybe seen in the National 

In the Museum at Gothenberg are busts of Richard 
Bergh, and the Swedish poet, Gustav Eroding ; Eldh 
has also done a bust in granite in 1912 of Karl Nord 
strom, the artist, and of Karl Staaff, the liberal 
political leader in the Riksdag-House. Another statue 
is that of Gunnar Wennerberg, a student type of 1860, 
erected at Minneapolis in 1915, and at Stockholm in 
the Djurgarden the same year. Eldh was chosen to 
decorate the main entrance to the Northern Museum 
at Stockholm ; there is a relief of his called Study in 
the School of Kungsholmen (1904) ; a relief in granite 
of playing and bathing boys at the new secondary 
school of Ostermalm (1907), and a relief in limestone 
at the Bank house of Skandinaviska Kredit-aktieholaget 
in Stockholm of 1918. In these works, Eldh has gone 
back to the methods of sculptors of earlier times ; to 
the practice which obtained the effect of distance by 
varying the amount of relief, 

David Edstrom was born in the province of Smaland 
in 1873. When seven years old he followed his parents 
to America, where he had a hard life. He returned to 
Sweden at the age of 21 ; studied at the Academy of 
Stockholm, and got his further artistic education in 



Italy, France, and Germany. He had a sculpture school 
of his own in Paris during 1908-1909. His principal 
works are Fiat Lux, Rhapsodie, Sphinx, Two Souls, 
and several characteristic portrait sculptures. Many of 
his works are to be seen in the National Museum of 
Stockholm, the Museum of Gothenberg, and in the 
private galleries of Ernest Thiel and Fahmeus, Stock 
holm. One of the portraits is that of Mr, Ernest Thiel, 
and one of his finest busts is that of the Swedish 
Minister, Erik von Trolle, and this and the bust of Her 
Excellency, Countess von Trolle, in bronze, was seen 
at Brighton, as also his bust of Dr. Frederic van Eeden, 
and his Rhapsodie. On his return to America Edstrom 
made a bust of President Wilson. 

As is the case with other Swedish sculptors, Edstrom 
is desirous of doing work on a big scale ; he is very 
ambitious, and he manages to secure a monumental 
feeling even in his smaller pieces. He has been ranked 
with Milles and Eriksson, and deserves the compli 
ment. Edstrom's work has been favourably known 
in America for some considerable time, and in England 
since the International Society of Sculptors, Painters, 
and Gravers, at their Exhibition in 1913, exhibited 
eight of his pieces, including busts of the Crown Prince 
of Sweden and the Princess Patricia of Connaught, in 
plaster, A Baby's Head, and An Old Man's Head, Two 
Souls, and Hermaphrodite, all in bronze. 

As indicating the really vital interest taken in sculp 
ture in Sweden, the Government reading-books for the 
State schools have illustrated biographies of the lead 
ing sculptors among their contents, and the pictures of 
sculpture of every description lead the young minds 



of the school -children to an appreciation of bodily 
form as being the essence of beauty and strength ; a 
culture which is afterwards developed in the sports 
and athletic exercises in which the youth of Sweden, 
male and female, excels. 

One such illustrated biographical sketch is concerned 
with Carl Milles, of whose sculpture Sweden is 
very justly proud. This fine artist was born at Lagga, 
in the province of Stockholm, in 1875, and he is the 
brother of Ruth Milles. He studied at the Technical 
School of Stockholm, and got his further artistic 
education at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris ; in 
Munich and in Italy. At first influenced by French 
impressionism, he later on found his own way : a 
monumental, decorative style, combined with geniality, 
deep sentiment, and an abundance of ideas. 

His principal work is the Battle of Brunkeberg, 1471 ; 
the monument to Sten Sture, the Swedish national 
hero and liberator, on which Milles commenced work 
in 1901. The first sketch of this was exhibited in Stock 
holm, Paris and Munich in 1903, and was worked on 
again several times, and the final sketch dates from 
1910. Milles did not get the offered prize in the com 
petition, but his sketch was considered so excellent 
that it was decided to carry it out in granite. There was 
much discussion as to where it should be placed, in 
Stockholm, or Upsala, or on a lonely hill outside the 
latter city. Julius Kronberg and Richard Bergh, the 
painters, strongly supported Milles's sketch, and with 
the help of the art patron, Hjalmar Wijk of Gothen- 
berg, a large sum for its carrying out was collected. 
Altogether Milles worked for fifteen years upon the 



Brtmkeberg memorial. Sten Sture lived in the fifteenth 
century when Sweden's affairs were in the melting pot, 
but he secured the affection of the peasantry and guided 
them firmly. Milles has depicted his character well, 
and in the memorial he is seen with a company of his 
peasant soldiers, forming a fine picture of the time. 

His sketch for the memorial fountain in front of the 
Technical Institute at Stockholm, dedicated to Industry 
and symbolising industrial power, is a great work with 
figures in the style of Michelangelo, modified by the 
teachings of Rodin. Over a huge basin water runs, 
significant of natural power. Three large figures sit in 
the shadow of the basin, one is of Invention, another 
of Manual Labour, both of them male ; the third figure 
is a stately woman with the fruits of ingenuity and 

In the centre of the fa9ade of the Royal Dramatic 
Theatre at Stockholm, Milles has carved the Royal 
Coat of Arms, and two sitting and three standing female 
figures, and the Dancing Children on the columns 
of the loggia. Milles has, further, made several animal 
groups of a prehistoric and mythological character. 
At the entrance of the Park of Berzelius, Stockholm, 
named after the great Swedish chemist, he has two 
groups of Bears in granite, and the National Museum of 
Stockholm has bought his group of Playing Elephants. 
Other important works are a monument of the Swedish 
poet, Franz^n, with two of the author's poetical 
figures, Selma and Fanny, at the base of the monument, 
which was erected in 1910, in the city of Harnosand, 
Sweden, where Franz6n held the bishopric ; a monu 
ment of the Swedish scientist Sch6ele, 1912, in the 



town of Koping ; a monument in wood of the Swedish 
King, Gustavus Vasa, in the entrance hall of the 
Northern Museum, Stockholm, and another work in 
wood is a bust of Oscar Levertin, the Swedish writer. 
There is an antique group of Women Dancers in the 
Copenhagen Glyptotek ; Wings, a Ganymede figure 
of 1908, in the National Museum, Stockholm, and a 
pair of Eagles are in the gardens of Prince Eugen's 

Carl Milles lives a life devoted to his art, but modi 
fied by his love of science. He has built himself a house 
on an island near Stockholm, and here he has installed 
an astronomical observatory. In 1897 he was about to 
go to Chili as a gymnast, but happening to win a scholar 
ship of about 20 in value, offered by the Slojd Society, 
he arrived in Paris instead, where he made and sold 
figurines in wood for a living. In Paris, about 1900, he 
started his marble group of The Fight for Existence. 

At the Exhibition of Swedish Art at Brighton, in 
1911 there were eleven examples of the art of Carl 
Milles, including the elephant group in marble called 
In the Jungle, of about three feet in height, and the 
marble A la belle 6toile. Among the bronzes were 
busts of Gustav Stridsberg, the Swedish journalist, 
and F. Boherg ; a number of Dutch studies in silver 
and bronze, and some other peasant and animal subjects 
in bronze. 

Some of the finest sculpture in the splendid public 
buildings of Stockholm is the work of the younger 
Swedish artists. Gustave Sandberg is one of them : he 
was born in 1876, in the country-parish of Grenna, 
and studied at the school of Konstnarsforbundet at 



Stockholm, and in Paris during three years. He has . 
made several reliefs, including those on the new Law 
Courts of Stockholm, and among others The Seven 
Deadly Sins, of 1915, and he is now occupied with 
sculptures for the new Town Hall building, which will 
be completed soon. 

Another young artist is Ivan Johnson, who comes 
from Vittskovle, in the province of Skane, where he 
was born in 1885. He studied at the Industrial School 
of Art, Stockholm, and at the Academy there, and in 
Paris, Italy and Denmark. His principal work is the 
sculpture on the new Technical University of Stock 
holm, 1919, and the nude fountain statue The Con- 
queress, in the Kungsparken, Gothenberg. 

Still one other architectural sculptor is Sidney 
Gibson, born in 1877 at Jonsered, in the province of 
Gothenberg. He has studied at the Academy of Art, 
Stockholm, and in Paris, and his principal works are 
the Portal figures on the house of the insurance-com 
pany Svenska Loyd, Kungsgatan, Stockholm, 1917, 
and sculptures on the Skandinaviska banken, Stock 
holm, 1919. Several portrait busts are also to his credit. 
He exhibited at the Salon in 1909. 

Herman Neujd is a craftsman as well as sculptor, 
and was born in the province of Jonkoping in 1872, 
and after being at the Technical School, he studied at 
the Academy of Arts, Stockholm, and in Paris at 
Colarossi's, under Injalbert. He is now headmaster of 
the Technical SchooL He has received medals at Paris, 
St. Louis and San Francisco (1915), and has also ex 
hibited at Budapest, Berlin and Munich. In the Stock 
holm National Museum is his charming marble bust, 



Stina, as well as Before the Bath, a statuette in wood. 
A replica of Stina was bought by the Hungarian Gov 
ernment, and it was exhibited, together with The 
Picture Book, at Brighton, where an example of his art 
in porcelain was seen : he has made a number of statu 
ettes in faience and other materials. The Picture Book 
is now in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. Other 
works are Suzanna, In the Spring of Youth, The Kiss, 
Eva, Chrysanthemum, and a charming bust of a young 
girl, her hair dressed curiously into two plaits on either 
side of her forehead, Fjorton Varar. 

A few years younger than Neujd, is Gerard Heming, 
who works much on the same lines. He exhibited at 
the Venice International Exhibition of 1920, half-a- 
dozen pieces of Copenhagen porcelain, all figure sub 
jects and all very charming. The Adventure, a kneeling, 
naked girl-child, and a figure of a woman in elaborate 
dress and with a fan, and the Young Girl with a Mirror, 
another nude study of a kneeling girl, are attractive. 
Heming, who was born in 1880, and studied at the 
Academy of Art at Stockholm, as well as abroad, is 
very much influenced by the rococo and Chinese, and 
these styles, together with his work from the life, con 
stitute the excellence of his productions by the Royal 
Danish Porcelain Factory at Copenhagen, where he 
now lives and works. 

Carl Fagerberg was born on the island of Dalaro, in 
the neighbourhood of Stockholm, in 1878. He studied 
at the Academy of Art, Stockholm, and in Paris and 
Rome, made journeys to Denmark, Germany, Austria, 
Italy, Switzerland, Portugal, Holland, Belgium, Russia 
and Finland, for the purpose of further study. He took 



facing p. 284 



facing p. 285 


part in the exhibition at Buenos Aires, where he got a 
silver medal. His principal works are sculptures on 
official buildings, for instance, the Stadion, and the 
home of old people at Danviken, Stockholm. For the 
entrance to the new Riksmuseum, Stockholm, and the 
primary school of Johannes, Stockholm, he has sculp 
tured animal groups in stone, and has also made many 
bronze statuettes for sporting prizes. Two bronzes, a 
She-Bear, and Skating with the Wind, were displayed 
at Brighton in 1911. Another Skater, exhibiting a fine, 
poise and successful rapid movement, was finished in 
1921 . A Fountain at Wisby and a portrait-bust of Anders 
Zorn made from life in 1920, are notable works. 

Another sculptor-portraitist is Gottfried Larsson, a 
native of Narveryd, in the province of Ostergotland, 
where he was born in 1875. He studied at the Academy 
Colarossi, in Paris, at Munich, in Italy, France, Eng 
land and Holland. Apart from his portrait busts, he 
has sculptured groups on the Courthouse of Norr- 
koping, and has tried to introduce the working classes 
into his art. He has been successful in this respect with 
his monument Labourers, which in 1917 was exposed 
in the Vasaparken at Stockholm. In the Panama Ex 
position Larsson J s sculpture was also seen. 

Olaf Ohlgren, who was born a year after Larsson, is 
also a maker of busts, but his best sculpture is perhaps 
the tomb of the Swedish artist, Alf Wallander, in black 
granite, on a plain low pedestal, to be seen in the ceme 
tery of Solna, Stockholm. Still another maker of busts 
is Eric Rafael Radberg, who was born at Kristinehamn, 
in 1881, and studied at the Academy at Stockholm. He 
has modelled several characteristic portrait heads in 



bronze, marble and granite, for instance, that of the 
sculptor Gustaf Sandberg ; of Gunilla Clason, in the 
National Museum of Stockholm, of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Laurin, of Dr. Gregor Paulson and others. Anders 
Jonsson is a quite young sculptor, born in 1884 * n the 
neighbourhood of Malmo, in the province of Skane, 
and at present living in Paris, extending his studies 
before he returns to Sweden. He studied also in Flor 
ence, and has been a pupil of Carl Milles, Children 
and cats have largely occupied his talent. 

Still other of the younger sculptors are Anders 
Olson, born at Christianstad, Edward Waller, born at 
Stockholm, and Carl Ro, who have all exhibited at 
the Salons of Paris ; there are also Nils Sjorgren, born 
in Stockholm in 1894, Anders Wirsler and Olaf Ahl- 
berg, all of whom are expected to carry on the splendid 
tradition of the Swedish school. In the Autumn Salon, 
Paris, 1920, John Lundqvist, who was born at Stock 
holm, exhibited a statue of Eve, a statuette, Ravish 
ment, a statuette, Night, and a head, all in plaster. 

Carl Ro was born in Stockholm, but lives at Chantilly, 
where he designs in painted plaster fountain groups 
and other works on a large scale for reproduction in 

There are a number of women sculptors in Sweden, 
as in all the countries where the art is cultivated : Agnes 
Frumerie, Emma Blomberg, and Ruth Milles, the 
sister, and by two years the senior, of Carl Milles* 
Ruth Milles was born at Ballsta, Wallentuna, in the 
province of Stockholm, in 1873, anc * studied at the 
Royal Academy in the capital city. She has received 
silver medals at Munich, San Francisco and St. Louis, 



and she has also exhibited at Buenos Aires, at the Inter 
national Society in London in 1911, and of course, 
largely in Sweden. Her work consists mainly of studies 
of the peasantry of her own country, and the Peasant 
Woman with a bucket, sometimes called The House 
maid, is typical. Other examples are, After Waiting on 
the Seashore, a work in high relief, bought by the State 
and exhibited at the Salon, The Little Cripple, The 
Busy Girl, and The Sailor's Lass, Windy Weather, 
and Lisa in the collection of Mr. Ernest Thiel of Stock 
holm. Le Chanson Rustique is a charming girl's head 
in relief. At the Brighton Exhibition in 1911, a Dutch 
Girl, and The Little Cripple were included. 



DANISH art, by direct representation, is prob 
ably better known in England than in most 
of the northern continental countries by 
reason of the facts that in 1907 an Exhibition was held 
at the Guildhall which was largely retrospective, and 
that in 1912, Mr. Henry D. Roberts, the Director of 
the Brighton Art Gallery, organised a show of modern 
work, which numbered nearly three hundred items, no 
less than fifty being pieces of sculpture, and sixty ex 
amples of porcelain from the Royal, and Bing and 
Grondahl's potteries. This latter exhibition was a real 
boon to students of continental art, and especially 
Danish art, for Danish artists are not in the habit of 
exposing their works at the Salons of the continent. 
Ever since the eighteenth century, when Danish sculp 
ture was in point of fact French sculpture, Danish 
artists have striven to be free and national. Johannes 
Wiedewelt, who lived in the beginning of the nine 
teenth century, was the first to break away from the 
old tradition. Classicism took its place for a time, for 
Bertel Thorvaldsen, the Icelander who became a Dane 
but lived in Italy, was too great an artist to be with 
stood, and his influence was supreme for long after his 
death in 1844. Painting in Denmark changed from 
classicism to nationalism at an earlier period than 
sculpture, but the phase passed sooner too, and in 




facing p. 288 


facing p, 239 


1878 Lauritz Tuxen, who was born in 1853, at Copen 
hagen, went to Paris, and a new era in Danish art began. 
He studied at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts there, 
and in Paris under Bonnat. His chief work of propor 
tions is the statuary group of the two Danish painters, 
P. S. Kroyer and Michael Ancher, in bronze, ex 
hibited in Rome at the International of 1911, with busts 
in marble of his wife and other subjects. He is primarily 
a painter, and lays no claim for consideration in the 
sister art, but his sculpture is good, and has had a good 
influence on the school. The bust of his brother was 
shewn at Brighton. 

The greatest rebel in the Danish School was Stephan 
Sinding, the impressionist sculptor, whose Mother 
Earth, and the Valkyrie, are in the Copenhagen 
Museum. Other Danish sculptors of promise went to 
America and worked there, the principal being Carl 
Rohl-Smith, Jacob Fjelde, and John Gelert. 

In Denmark, as elsewhere, there has been a seces 
sion : it took place in 1890, when a body, mostly 
painters, broke away from the official Royal Academy 
in Copenhagen and formed the Free Exhibition, and 
this has had a salutary effect generally, even if it has 
not resulted in a more general knowledge and recog 
nition of Danish art abroad, or a too-ready acceptance 
of ideas from France and Germany. Sculpture in Copen 
hagen is still a little conservative, and with Thorvald- 
sen's mausoleum in the Museum, and the ancient 
sculpture in the Ny-Carlsberg collection made by Carl 
Jacobsen, and presented by him to the Stdte, it is not 
surprising, nor is it to be deplored. Danish sculpture 
from Thorvaldsen's time was continued by A. W. 

289 u 


Saabye, born twenty years before Thorvaldsen's death, 
and ready therefore, to carry on the work ; his successor, 
L. Hasselriis, born the year of Thorvaldsen's death, and 
Rohl-Smith, born in 1848 and dying in 1899, This was 
the older generation, the newer one begins at about the 
same period in Denmark as in most of the other 
countries of Europe and America, when men were born 
who were able to take up the work at the middle of the 
century on arriving at maturity, many of them having 
had the benefit of the teaching of the early masters. 

In Denmark these men (and women) began to be 
born at the beginning of the sixties, and continued to 
1875. Of the eighteen-sixty men, the eldest is Ludvig 
Brandstrup, a native of Langeland, where he was born 
in the first year of the decade. He was trained in art at 
the Academy at Copenhagen, and has made many 
memorials and statues and a splendid series of portrait 
busts, including Georg Brandos, in marble, some of 
which were seen at Brighton, together with the statu 
ette, David, and a woman's head in bronze. At the 
International Exhibition at Rome in 1911, he had 
bronze busts of his wife and daughter, His fountain 
group Spring, is a delightful work, and his statues of 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl Jacobsen are the best known pieces 
of sculpture in the city. Carl Jacobsen was the rich 
owner of the great brewery of Carlsberg, who gave the 
whole of his splendid art collection to the Danish nation 
on condition that a proper home for it was provided* 
The result was the celebrated Copenhagen Glyptotek, 
Jacobsen also left his fortune to the State to be applied 
to the maintenance and propagation of art. The sculp 
ture with which Brandstrup has adorned the building 



and the vicinity includes the groups of Sunrise and 
Noon, those of Afternoon and Night, and statues of 
Georg Zocyar and Ole Romer, the Danish mathematician 
of the seventeenth century, this latter work standing be 
fore the Engineering School of the University. He has 
made three separate equestrian statues of King Christian 
IX, one of which is in Esbjerg and another at Slagelse. 

To the same year belongs N. Hansen-Jacobsen, of 
Copenhagen, who shewed a bust of earthenware and 
wood at Brighton, and The Death of the Mother, in 
bronze, at Rome. He specialises in animals, a taste 
which is shared by several of the Danish sculptors, 
including Carl Bonnesen, who was born in 1868. Both 
these sculptors exhibited animal studies at Brighton, 
the latter including in bronze an Elephant and its 
Young One, two Hippopotami and, in addition, an 
equestrian statue of the Crown Prince Christian, while 
Anne Marie Carl-Nielsen was represented by a Bull, a 
Young Centaur, a Skye Terrier, a Calf and a Sea Gull. 
She displayed ten works at Rome in 1911, half of 
which were in bronze. 

Anne Marie Carl-Nielsen was educated in art at 
Copenhagen, Paris and Rome. She lives and works in 
Copenhagen, and has carried out large and important 
monuments, one of which is the Queen Dagmar statue 
at Ribe, inaugurated in 1913. The Queen stands in the 
prow of a boat, holding a piece of drapery around her 
shoulders, which is blown by the wind into graceful 
folds, as is also the heavy skirt. Her left hand is held to 
her breast, and her right shades her eyes as she gazes 
ahead of the boat which forges through the waves, 
carrying her from her home in Bohemia to Denmark 



to become the bride of King Waldemar the Victorious 
of eight centuries since. The forward half of the boat 
only is sculptured, the hinder portion of the monument 
consisting of a socle bearing a large relief, the subject 
of which is the death of Dagmar. Having fallen ill in 
the absence of Waldemar, to the grief of her attend 
ants the Queen dies before the King arrives, riding so 
quickly that he leaves his forty attendant knights far 
behind. So great is his love, however, that it is power 
ful enough to bring back from death his wife for a few 
moments to speak whispered words of farewell to him, 
On the front of the monument the folk-story is lettered* 
Other historical and legendary subjects have been 
treated by the sculptor, such as Thor Fishing, Egil 
Skallergrimsson carrying the body of his drowned son, 
from the Icelandic Saga, an equestrian statue of Queen 
Margaret, of the fifteenth century, Frederick III and his 
Queen, and she has also made the equestrian statue of 
Christian IX for the New Royal Palace at Copenhagen. 
The Queen Dagmar monument is isolated in a wide 
field adjacent to the ancient cathedral of Ribe, with its 
plain, dignified square tower, and the sculptor added, 
in 1904, greatly to the beauty of the cathedral with her 
three great bronze doors at the main and north entrances 
and the Cat's Head (after an old legend) entrance. The 
doors are all divided into square panels, many of which 
contain sculptured reliefs, the principal representing 
Christ entering Jerusalem on an ass, the Kiss of Judas, 
and Mary Magdalene washing Christ's feet. Others 
are purely decorative motives used in an unusual way* 
They consist of cherubs, lions, eagles, bulls, arid other 
objects from animal life. 



An important relief is at Alesund, in Norway, repre 
senting a woman in flowing classical draperies, with 
draped head, carrying in her left hand a lyre, and her 
right hand held by a mysterious guiding hand, which 
emerges upon the top of the relief from a cloud. This 
is a grave memorial, and is symbolic of the entrance to 
the life beyond the tomb, and was made in 1911. 

In the Albert Museum at Dresden, is the Infant 
Bacchus, a sturdy babe in bronze, nude, full of laughter, 
holding bunches of grapes in both hands and trampling 
others under his chubby feet. It is a fine specimen of 
modelling done in 1912, and a very attractive piece of 
sculpture. A bronze Boy Centaur was shewn at the 
International Society's Exhibition in London in 1911, 
and again at Brighton the next year. The sculptor's 
actualistic animal studies are well known, a fine ex 
ample being the Wolf-hound, modelled in 1911. The 
artist's latest work is a strange sea-denizen, half-fish 
with fins, a young girl's body and arms and a face, the 
nose, eyes and mouth of which are half-human, half- 
piscine. The little mermaid's face and attitude express 
wonder and astonishment at the upper world, which 
she now views for the first time. 

An interesting work on a very large scale occasioned 
a prolonged sojourn in Athens. It was to copy a colossal 
limestone group of the sixth century B.C., with poly 
chrome additions. It represents a great winged dragon 
with three men's heads and three serpents' tails, but 
no more details of the work, which is a national com 
mission, are available, 

Anne Marie Carl-Nielsen was the daughter of a 
yeoman-farmer named Brodersen, and in 1891 she 


married the Danish composer whose name she bears. 
She was born in 1 863 . 

Anders Bungaard was born the year after. His work 
is of a more imaginative character than that of the 
others of his generation : the Heath in granite and the 
Wandering Jew in bronze were his contributions to 
the exhibition at Brighton, and to the Rome Inter 
national he sent another work in hard stone. 

Johannes Kragh was born in Holsteinborg in 1870, 
and studied at the Royal Academy, Copenhagen, as a 
pupil of Kroyer, later under Professor Joachim Skov- 
gaard, for decorative work, and then in the studio of 
S6goffin. He exhibited at first with the Free Artists 
from 1905 with a marble bust, and in 1908 with a bronze 
bust of C. Lavaek. The following year he made a crucifix 
in bronze, and the year after a model for a sarcophagus 
to the late King Christian IX and Queen Louisa. The 
fine bronze bust of the Shipbuilder, The. Bredsdorff, 
is dated 1911, and soon after this he exhibited at 
Charlottenborg, Admiral de Richelieu, Mrs, Carl, on 
horseback, a marble bust of Mrs. Hedsmann, and Kai 
Nielsen, the sculptor, in granite. His principal monu 
ment is of Henrik Gesner, in granite, erected ia the 
Market Place of Birkerad in 1912. Kragh is distin 
guished by the faithfulness of his portraits, which he 
paints as well as models, and he is a painter in water- 
colour, of good observation, and examples of his work 
in the three sections were seen at Brighton, the sculp 
ture including a Pointer Asleep, and a bust of Ysaye, 
both in bronze, the Ysaye being a very excellent and 
characteristic piece. 

Rudolf Tegner is the son of a bank director and 



was born at Copenhagen in 1873. He entered the Royal 
Academy of his native city, and spent four years in 
Paris, from 1893 onwards, where he exhibited and 
studied. His first exhibit at Copenhagen was in 1892. 
He was one of the original founders of the Free Sculp 
tors' Society in Denmark in 1905. His most celebrated 
work is the five times life-size group forming the monu 
ment to Finsen, of the Finsen Light fame, outside the 
new State Hospital the Rigshospitalet in the capital 
This huge group represents a nude man standing erect, 
his eyes searching for the longed-for sensation of 
sight, his head upturned to the sun, and two nude 
kneeling women likewise aspiring. It is one of the great 
realistic monuments of the time, and its title is Towards 
the Light. Other works are An Episode of the Flood, 
in the Museum at Maribo, the Tomb for a Mother in 
the Museum, and Glyptotek at Copenhagen and at 
Trieste, as well as its original situation in the cemetery 
at Elsinore. In the Kling's Park in the capital is the 
Dancers Fountain, commemorating the Danish Ballet, 
while other works are a Faun, Eve and Abel, The 
Present and The Future, Luck, -ffidipus and Antigone, 
a Group of Children and a relief of Spring. 

Somewhat younger are Siegfried Wagner (1874), 
who shewed at Brighton a Young Jewess in gilded 
bronze, a Cairo Water Carrier in bronze, and The 
Orient, a figure carved in wood, and Olga Wagner, 
whose work was exemplified by a bronze called At the 
Sea Shore, a charming statuette of a girl with out 
stretched hands, and a Dancer. At Rome she exhibited 
a bust in Verona marble and onyx. 

Edith Willumsen's Spanish gypsy- wo man is an 


effective work exhibited at Rome, where was also a 
bust in coloured wax, a form of sculpture that is un 
common although practised by Viggo Jarl, and in 
England by Derwent Wood, Colton and Havard 
Thomas, the source of inspiration being the wax 
modelling of the Italian Renaissance. 

Olivia Holm-Holler, like Edith Willumsen, was 
born in 1875. She is a painter and a maker of drawings 
which resemble sculptured low reliefs, and has been 
influenced by the work of Gauguin and Van Gogh. She 
exhibited a portrait relief at Rome, and other works 
are a very naturalistic study of a laughing baby, in the 
round. A grave-memorial of a Mother and Two Child 
ren is a strange, uncouth piece of work, and her Adam 
and Eve, standing beneath the tree around which the 
serpent clings, Adam taking the apple from Eve's hand, 
is a picture in relief, treated with the modified realism 
due to Van Gogh. 

Viggo Jarl is a native of Copenhagen, and was born 
in 1879. He studied sculpture having won the Prix 
de Rome with Victor S6goffin at the French Academy 
at Rome, and in the School of Anatomy of the Ecole 
des Beaux- Arts at Paris in 1903. He has travelled in 
Greece and the East, and from 1917 to 1919 lived in 
London, having a studio near the South Kensington 
Museum. He has been a constant exhibitor at the 
Salons of the Socit6 des Artistes Fran^ais, and his 
works have also been seen in Rome, Munich and 
Copenhagen, and have been purchased by the Danish 
Government. His great success was made in 1920 at 
the Salon with his group in stone, Le Coureur de 
Marathon. This fine work represents three male figures 



in the nude, the central one is that of the winner in the 

great race, at the moment it has concluded, when, tired 

and exhausted he is supported on either side by his 

friends who are leading him away from the scene of 

his triumph. The treatment of the figures is entirely 

realistic, and the whole work is full of life and beauty. 

The matrix of stone is retained and supports the lower 

limbs of the figures, which appear in high relief, from 

the middle upwards the statuary method is adopted. 

JarPs first work of importance was Agony, a bronze 

statue in the Paris Salon of 1902, and now in the 

Academy at Copenhagen, In the following year Le 

Secret Fatal, also a bronze statue, was seen at the Salon 

and acquired for the Copenhagen National Museum, 

and the same museum also possesses the bronze statue, 

Evil Thoughts, which appeared at the Salon in 1905. 

In the following year the sculptor produced, besides 

other works, the group, in marble, called La Folie de 

PAbime, and in the Salon of 1910 his Statue Path6tique 

and in that of 1911, The Boxer, were exhibited, He 

has made monuments at Copenhagen to Regten and 

Finsen and has modelled numerous busts and statu- 

ttes. At Brighton his works included a study of a 

Child's Head, in bronze, and a statuette of Narcissus 

& wax. At Rome, in 1911, were displayed Evil Thoughts 

|d The Fatal Secret. Jarl lives in Paris. 

|A younger artist is Kai Nielsen, who before he be- 

Jme a sculptor was a house-painter. He was the son 

1 a watchmaker, and was born at Svendborg in 1882, 

I became a student of the Royal Academy from 

te to 1905. He exhibited at the Free Sculptors' 

jciety from 1907 onwards, and his important work is 



associated with the Kunstmusset, outside which is his 
monument to Bindestoll, the nineteenth century sculp 
tor. Inside the Museum are his smaller works a Nude, 
Erik, Eve, Leda, and a smaller Leda, and Cinderella, 
and in the Glyptotek are his Creation of Eve, and the 
Blind Girl. On the beautiful promenade by the docks 
of the city is the huge memorial in stone to the three 
Danish Arctic explorers Erichsen, Hagcn and Knud- 
sen, and the Blaagaards Place is decorated by his 
sculpture on a large scale. At Faaborg is a Fountain, a 
portrait statue of State-Councillor Rasmusson who 
founded the Museum there, and within, a Little Girl 
and the Adventurer. A further study of the nude is 
that of a reclining woman, her left arm supporting the 
torso, her right arm raised and the hand pressing upon 
the head. The model is of full figure, muscular and not 
graceful, and the work is designed as an object lesson 
in truth to nature, and is quite uncompromising. 

Svend Rathsack was bom in 1883 at Fredericia, and 
passed through the Royal Danish School for Painters 
in 1908, obtaining a Gold Medal for a picture in 1910. 
He is a prominent personality in the Danish Secession, 
and his work serves to link up that of the generation 
just preceding, and the entirely modern production of 
those coming just after. It has definite modern feeling, 
which makes its appearance in the statue of Adam> 
exhibited in plaster in 1914 at Copenhagen, and Char- 
lottenborg, and in the following year, in bronze, at the 
Free Exhibition, and is now in the museum of Aarhus, 
It is a sincere life-study with an added imaginative 
sensibility which removes it apart from a mere study 
from the life-model. The Man is a bronze statue shewn 



at the Free Exhibition in Copenhagen in 1920, and is 
now in the Danish State Museum. Like the Adam, it is 
a male nude, somewhat more obviously a study, but 
very accomplished at that, the attitude with the arms 
upraised is an accommodation for the display of 
Rathsack's knowledge of the figure and technique, but 
the statue has a further appeal and is typical of the 
generalisation of its title. Rathsack's artistic career has 
been equally divided between the sister-arts of painting 
and sculpture, and his work in the former is no less 
distinguished than in the latter. 

Johannes Bjerg was born at Odis by Kolding in 
Jutland, in 1886, of parents who lived as peasants, and 
from the beginning of his youth he worked at wood- 
carving. He had a vocation for sculpture, and, going to 
Copenhagen, he studied laboriously on his own account 
from 1909 to 1911, from which time he studied and 
lived in Paris. For so young a man, his output has been 
extraordinary, and his early style is quite original. He 
first exhibited in 1909 at Charlottenborg, the work 
being The Abyssinian, in bronze, now in the State 
Museum at Copenhagen- It is a life-size statue of fine 
accomplishment in modelling, and is a wonderful work 
for a man of twenty-three. It has been followed by a 
series of about one statue or statuette for each year since 
the date of its first exposition, and the subsequent 
works shew equal distinction, although it may be that 
those made after Bjerg went to Paris are modified a 
little in their originality by the influence of Joseph 
Bernard, This is the case particularly with The Bride, 
I think, and possibly also with Salom6, both bronze 
statuettes of charm, if also of eccentricity. In these the 



naturalistic modelling has been modified in the Bernard 
manner, which, however, is not discernible in the 
striking gilt-bronze statue of The Dancer, where the 
sculptor has frankly accepted an early Egyptian formula 
of which he has made an interesting variant. There is, 
to a smaller degree, an indication of this also in the 
Salome, where the dancer is represented with her right 
foot upon the head of John, her right hand on her knee, 
while her left is pressed to the left breast, and the hair 
is treated somewhat as is the case in The Dancer. In 
The Bride, and in another statuette called Lucretia, a 
different style is adopted, in both cases it is drawn 
back from the forehead into a high knot very simply 
treated. Lucretia provides a small piece of drapery 
which is introduced with equal simplicity and effect. 
Primavera is a group in gilt-bronze on a socle of dark 
marble, including a principal figure of a nude mother 
holding in her left arm a child, while by her side, at 
the right, a young goat frisks* This is in a different 
style from the works I have just described, and is 
entirely realistic, having less of the peculiar secret of 
Bjerg's style, and more in accord with the statuette of 
Pan, which is a charming figure, naturalist! cally treated, 
with the addition of two small antlers to the head. The 
small equestrian Conquering Hero is a quaint work 
treated frankly in the Indian style with the addition of 
certain natural touches, which give it a charm. The 
granite figure of Woman, over two metres in height, 
is a symbolic representation necessarily sacrificing 
subtle modelling on account of its material, but ex 
hibiting, all the same, its author's definite adherence 
to the truth of nature. 




facing p, 300 


facing p. 301 


Hans W. Larsen was also born in 1886, at Copen 
hagen, and studied at the Academy of Fine Arts there 
and in Paris. He won, too, Queen Alexandra's Student 
ship in Great Britain, and the Kaufmann Studentship, 
and was rewarded for a sketch for a bas-relief for the 
King's Stairs at Christiansborg Castle in 1912, the 
subject being the Death of Odin. His designs and 
drawings from the life are excellent, and so are his 
modelled studies : The Woman after the Bath, ex 
hibited at Charlottenborg in 1918, in bronze, is a clever 
nude in an unusual and difficult pose that of stand 
ing on one foot with the left in her hands, in the act of 
drying it. It is quite successfully done, and the poise 
is admirable from all points of view. The hair is not 
treated naturalistically, but somewhat in the same 
style as Rathsack and Utzon-Frank, which is the case 
in all Larson's work, even in his portraits, and it has 
its charm. Theseus finding his Father's Sword, which 
was finished in 1921, is a nude figure of considerable 
beauty, and the modelling of the arms is seen to ad 
vantage by the adoption of the action of lifting the 
sword by hilt and point as Theseus regards it with 
curiosity. Larsen has accomplished, for his age, a con 
siderable number of portraits, including that of a clean 
shaven man with fine aquiline nose, finished in 1920, 
one of his own child exhibited in Copenhagen in 1919, 
and another child's portrait-bust of the same year, A 
bust of a man in bronze of 1918 is life-like , and another 
man in marble on an excessively long shaft of 1917, 
is a typical work. He has made a fine bust of his father 
in bronze, which was seen at Copenhagen in 1914, and 
the year after one of his mother in marble, both 



distinguished works, while the plaquette of the two is 
interesting, and was exhibited at Charlottenborg in 
1918. A historical statue in which the sculptor has 
caught the mediaeval spirit is that of King Valdemar 
(A.D. 1350, circa), and a quaint series of reliefs in blue 
marble are The Light of Antiquity, The Church as 
the Light of the Middle Ages, The Light of the Present 
and The Light of the Future. The four panels form a 
very intriguing series, done in a purposeful primitive,, 
crude fashion, which has more than a touch of humour 
in it. 

Humour is not often met with in sculpture. Some of the 
American sculptors manage to accomplish it, and sorrie 
of the Swedish and Dutch. It is, however, generally 
found in smaller works, sometimes in fountain groups, 
rarely in larger single pieces, and a fine example 
is The Bogey of Egide Rombaux, which is a really im 
portant humorous figure. Somewhat allied to the work 
of Nancy Coonsman and Edith Barrett Parsons in 
America, is Larsen's Amor Awakening, an entirely 
delightful study of a baby boy, stretching after sleep, 
kneeling on the right knee, chubby arms doubled, and 
eyes still sealed. Slightly less humorous is the stone 
figure of a Child Sitting, which was shewn at Christ- 
iania in 1919, and Copenhagen in 1920. In this year 
Larsen's monument to Admiral Olfert Fischer, the 
defender of Copenhagen in 1801, was erected. 

Einar Utzon-Frank is the protagonist of the modern 
movement in Danish sculpture. He was born in 1888, 
at Copenhagen, and is now the professor of sculpture 
at the Royal Academy there, so that by the vigour of 
his young manhood and his position, he wields a great 



influence on the present generation of artists, and this 
is further increased by the European reputation pos 
sessed by his fine sculpture. At Brighton he exhibited 
in bronze a portrait of the painter N. P. Bolt, a Girl in 
a Nightdress, a bust of a Child Crying (also exhibited 
at Rome in 1911), a Dancer, and a Girl Sitting, all 
works of a high standard, and he was also represented 
in the ceramic section. In the permanent collection of 
the Art Gallery at Brighton is a copy of the Girl Sitting, 
and other pieces are in the State Museums at Copen 
hagen of Fine Arts, and of Applied Arts, at the National 
Galleries at Stockholm and Christiania, and in the City 
Museum of Bergen. He first exhibited in 1907 at the 
Royal Academy of Copenhagen, a figure of a Coal- 
Porter, so that his career opened at an early age. He 
encourages his students to work not only in marble 
and bronze, but in clay and plaster, terra-cotta and 
ceramics, in wood and other materials. An example of 
his own work in wood is the Archangel Michael, upon 
a Swedish church. Although somewhat spare and 
elongated as to the lower limbs, the nude figure is 
impressive. The upward spring of the wings, and the 
extraordinary length and thinness of the sword partly 
withdrawn from the narrow scabbard, all add to the 
length of the strange figure. The head is simple, 
although the hair is treated in long, wavy ringlets, and 
the face has a sweet, dreamy expression. In contrast 
to this is the very naturalistic treatment of the statue 
in bronze of The Woman with a Mirror. In this, how 
ever, there is also the queer hair formation, four little 
perfect spirals descending on the cheeks, while the rest 
is gathered up at the back. This is not an affectation, 



for it is quite in keeping with the general feeling of the 
work. The woman has a charming face, and the hand 
holding the mirror over the left shoulder and the right 
held up, too, with the index finger raised, have great 
delicacy of posture. The torso is beautifully modelled 
as are also the lower limbs, and these are rather on the 
solid than the slight side. The pose is very simple, and 
the figure is full of easy grace. 

These are the young men of Denmark who, during 
the last ten years, have raised the sculptural art of their 
country into one of the important schools of Europe, 
To them others are joined J F. Willumsen, Niels 
Skovgaard, Jean Gauguin, Chesten Skikkild, Georg 
Thylstrup, and Max Meden. Among the artists whose 
work is known to some extent in England is J. P. 
Dahl- Jensen, another sculptor devoted to animal forms, 
and he exhibited at Brighton in bronze, a Bear, a Lynx 
and a Monkey, and in porcelain, a number of other 
examples, and at Rome, a Panther, a Puma and a 
Turkey Cock, in bronze. Axel Locher is an artist who 
works in the ceramic as well as other forms of sculp 
ture, and he shewed the Three Goblins with one Eye, 
and a number of fine figure pieces in porcelain. Holger 
Wederkinch-Madsen and Carl Martin Hansen are 
recognised as good portrait sculptors, the former dis 
playing a bronze equestrian statue of the Crown Prince 
Olaf of Norway and the latter busts in Royal Copen 
hagen Porcelain of the King and Queen of Denmark, 
The latter also exhibited eight porcelain figures, both 
male and female, and a similar exhibit was made of 
work by Hans Tegner, another teacher of modelling, 
Jens Lund provided a bust of a Boy in stone, and in 



stone also was Willie Wulff's Blind Girl, this sculptor 
exposing also a statuette and Despair, in bronze, and 
two works at the Rome International Exhibition in 
1911, where Danish sculpture was well represented, 
some twenty artists contributing. A good deal of porce 
lain was shewn, but less than at Brighton, and this was 
the case also at Venice in 1920, when, in addition to 
those named, the following artists shewed works : R, 
Bocker, V. Fischer, P. Nordstrom, G. Rode, Rasmus 
Harboe, and Chr. Joachim; Joakim Skovgaard had a 
bronze piece called Una Fortuna, and Carl Mortensen, 
Gyde Petersen and C. L Donnesen also exhibited. 

Norwegian art synchronises with Norwegian nation 
ality : it began in 1814, and has grown steadily, pro 
ducing fine painters and sculptors of merit. The 
sculpture was based, satisfactorily, on the wood-carving, 
which, as is well known, was a part of Norwegian life, 
a feature of which is a desire for decoration, seen in the 
household utensils and costumes of the country people, 
Hans Michelsen was the first real sculptor, and he was 
a pupil of Thorvaldsen and therefore able to introduce 
into Norway a sculpture-culture of its kind fully 
developed. He died in 1859, an ^ was succeeded by Chr. 
Borch, who lived until 1896, and his contemporary was 
Julius Middlethun, a greater and more cultured artist 
who predeceased him, however, by ten years. Co 
existent with these was Bergslieus who made himself 
v^ry popular by his humour, and who died in 1898* 
Less popular but more distinguished work came from 
Lexow-Hansen, All these men's reputations were con 
fined to Norway, and the sculptors who achieved a 
wider fame were Skeibrok and a little later, VisdaL 

305 v 


Norwegian sculpture is represented in the Luxem 
bourg by a small bronze bust of Silenus by Hans 
Holtenberg-Lerche, a Norwegian, born in Diisseldorf 
and living in Paris, and exhibiting at the Salon mostly 
bibelots, as in 1909, when a case containing statuette 
bronzes of The Troll's Secret, Socrates, Bacchus, and 
The Calf was seen. At Brighton, in 1913, at the ex 
hibition of Norwegian art, only seven pieces of sculp 
ture were shewn, and three of these were by Ingebrigt 
Vik, who lives at Hardanger, and was born in 1867. 
These pieces were a young girl in bronze, and another 
in marble and a marble head of a child. At Venice, in 
1914, these works were also seen, and in addition his 
sketch in bronze of Grieg and a bronze called Toilette. 
Vik has a simple, effortless, but impressive style of 
modelling, and his work conveys a fine sense of serenity- 
Anders Svor of Alfheim was born in 1864, and his 
parents were peasants. A passion for art seized him 
early in life, and at the age of seventeen he began his 
training as a sculptor at Christiania, studying what 
pieces of the antique he could find there. Having ex 
hausted those facilities, he spent some years in Copen 
hagen, still faithful to the ancient schools. With a 
scholarship, he then went to Paris and completed his 
apprenticeship to his art at the end of two years there, 
He then made a study of Renaissance work, and in all 
his pieces he has striven to emulate the spirit which he 
found in the sculpture of Greece and Italy, He returned 
to Christiania and settled down to the production of 
the beautiful works which are now to be seen m that 
city. At the exhibition at Brighton, he was represented 
by a bust of Frithjof Nansen, now in the National 



Museum at Christiania, and a study in plaster called 
Sorrow, There is a vague sense of sorrow and regret 
in several of his works, notably in his fine group of 
Adam and Eve, his latest and most important work. 
Adam sits brooding, his head on his hand, while Eve 
stands a* little to the side behind his left shoulder, her 
hand held to her breast in apprehension. Repentance, 
a bronze statuette of a nude girl, conveys a similar sad 
ness. Her hands cover her face, her body is slightly 
bending, the right leg is a little bent and, touching the 
left at the knee, is poised on the toes. It is a tender piece 
of work and beautifully modelled. After the Bath is a 
bronze statue in one of the Christiania parks of a vigor 
ous young man using a towel and standing in an easy 
pose, the left arm raised, the legs apart, and this, as 
well as Repentance, shews the exquisite surface which 
Svor is able to impart to his bronzes. In another of the 
parks is the fountain called The Wave. A group in 
bronze of a youth, hardly more than a boy, thin and 
nervous, against whose body the waves have brought 
a mermaid who, her arms striving to encircle the boy, 
is entreating him to come away to the depths of the 
sea with her. He shrinks from her, his hands with 
drawn as he looks down at her apprehensively. The 
group is simple and plain, and there is no other decor 
ation to the fountain, for the group stands in the centre 
of a simple circular basin. A well-known work from the 
life is the bust of the Norwegian Prime Minister, Mr- 
A. Michelsen who, in 1905, completed his great task 
of securing the national political independence of the 
nation : it is a striking representation of determination 
allied with vision. 


Lars Utne exhibited in the same year at Brighton 
his bas-reliefs, in bronze, of the Valkyries, and a 
portrait of a boy. Lars Utne is a teacher of modelling 
at the Industrial Art School, Christiania, and was 
born in 1862. Valentin Kielland is another teacher of 
sculpture in Christiania who shewed at Brighton a 
bronze of Mother and Son and a Case of Jewellery, 
Gunnar Utsond is the professor of sculpture at the 
Christiania Academy of Aits, and he was born in 1864, 
so that all the official recognised sculptors in Norway 
are of the same generation to which Munthe-Svend- 
sen, also of Christiania, belongs. Of a later date are 
Wilhelm Rasmussen of Trondhjem, born in 1879, 
and Andreas Enderlie of Christiania, who exhibited 
at Brighton a marble mask of Bjornstjerne Bjornson, 
Among the sculptors who work in pottery is Anders 
Schneider, who had a case of his pieces at Brighton* 

Borghilde Arnesen, who was born at Christiania, 
exhibited at the Autumn Salon, in 1920, a copper panel 
of Elephants in the Jungle and other work, and Thorliev 
Agdestein, Salbjorn Buttedahl, Mirs Sign Heiberg, 
C, L. Jacobsen, and Oscar Poulsen were born in the 
capital. Carl-Edouard Paulsen is also a native of 
Christiania, and he shewed at the Salon a single work, 
a portrait bust. Other Christiania sculptors are Thorb- 
jorn, Alfsaaker, Karl Skalstad, Trygve Thorsen, Trygve 
Thorberg, Magnus Vigrestad and Arnold Zimmer 
man. Norwegian women sculptors are Betzy Gude 
and Ambrosia Tonnesen. 

In May 1921, Johannes Kragh had a u one-man 1 * 
show at the Dorien Leigh Galleries in London, ia which 
fifty of Jbds water-colours and bronzes were seen. 



The latter numbered fifteen, half-a-dozen of them 
being animal pieces, including a delightfully naturalistic 
study of a Filly, and a Hunter jumping a Hurdle which 
is full of vigorous action. Well-studied busts were also 
shewn, including the small Ysaye, and there were a 
number of small ideal works, some of them in gilt- 
bronze, and all very charming. Kragh has given much 
attention to surface-finish and the patina on several 
examples was notably successful. 

The last of the northern nations, Finland, is quite 
noted for its sculpture, for her three principal artists 
are men of excellent talent. Finland's sculpture is repre 
sented in the Luxembourg by a bronze figurine, Misery, 
by Vil6 Vallgren, who was a native, but became natural 
ised in France. Baron Emile Herman Cedercreutz, who 
was born at Helsingfors, is a Finnish sculptor who 
exhibits in Paris where a good many of his works in 
terra-cotta, plaster and other materials have been seen 
from time to time. Sigrid Forselles is known by his 
funeral monuments, and other works in bronze and 

I have called Finland the last of the northern nations, 
but as a last word, it must not be forgotten that it 
was Iceland that gave to Europe and the world 




ABRUZZO, 206-7 
Abstractions, 180 
Academies, 5, 13 et *<?<?., 17, 
34- 6 > 47) 5> 60, 93, 99, no, 114* 
117-8, 121-2, 125, 131, 140, 163, 
180, 187, 191, 197, 296-7, 301-2, 
308 j see also National Academ 
ies, New York, Pennsylvania ; 
Royal Academies, Amsterdam, 
Brussels, London, Rome 

Action^ 248, 258-9, 263 

Actuality, 136 

Adsuara, Juan, 38 

Advancement, 8 7 1 1 

Africa, Central, 263 

Agdestein, Thorliev, 308 

Ahlberg-, Olaf, 286 

Albert Museum, Dresden, 125, 293 

Albiker, Karl, 160 

Albisetti, Natalie, 91 

Aleu, Andres, 17, 29 

Alfsaaker, 308 

Algiers, 8 1 

Allar, A. J., 83 

Allegory, 31, 45, 48, 53-4, 138, 179, 
187-8, 229 

AUward, W, S., 56 

Alonso, F. M,, 39 

Alsace, 80- 1 

Altorf, J. C M 7, 139 

America, 1-2, 4, 6-7, IT, 13, 15, 46, 
49, 56, 109, 160, 224, 237, 239, 
256, 278-9, 290, 302 

Amiens, 30 

Amsterdam, 19, n8, X2t, 123, 130- 
J44 1 68 

Amsterdam Academy, 132-3, 135, 
139, 140, 144 

Amsterdam, Ryka Museum, 130, 140 

Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, 131, 

Amsterdam, Suasso Museum, 133, 


Anatomy, ax, 60, 68, 88, 96, 136 
Andrajew, Nicholas, 264 
An#t, Curl A,, IJlus. 85 ; 87 
Animal Sculpture, 38, 60, 65, 105, 
1 15;, 117, 128, 134, 138-9, 150, 
159, x8i, 184, 223, 226, 244, 246, 
265-6, 274, 281-2, 285-6, 291-3, 

304*. 308"9 
Ansigom, 3L, 210 

Antokolsky, Marc, 255 

Antonio, Julio, 27 

Antwerp, 24, 100-4, 107-8, no-ii, 

U4-5 118, 123-4, 126, 128, 131, 

165, 205 

Antwerp Academies ; see Academies 
Antwerp Zoological Gardens, 1 15 
Apartog-lus, Athanase, 267 
Apolloni, Adolfo, 187 ; Illus. 192 
Apresani, Lina, 210 
Archaism, 243, 250 
Archipenko, Alexandre, 248-9, 252, 

258-62 ; Illus. 264 
Architectural setting's, 46, 49, 130, 


Architecture, 46, 49, 55-6, 69, 72, 85, 
102, 127, 130, 134-5, 137-8, 155, 

l6l, 174, 184, 22O-I, 228, 282-3, 


Architecture, Theory of; see Sculp 
ture, Theory of 

Argentine, 54, 189 

Arnesen, Borghilde, 308 

Aronson, Naoum, 258 

Art, definition and principle of, 58, 
170, 238, 258 

Art Journals, 25, 53, 64, 77, 148, 189 

Athens, 293 

Athletics, 280, 282 

Augier, 42 

Austria, 163-4, 2 3^> 2 ^4 

Austrian Exhibition, London, 213, 

Austrian National Gallery, 154 

BACQUE, Daniel, 75 ; Illus. 76 
Baetes, Jules, 107 
Balbuena, R. F,, 32 
Balkans, 211 
Balzac, 41, 45, 113 
Banyuls-sur-Mer, 35, 57, 59 
Bauer, Franz, 163 

Barcelona, 6-7, 12, 15, 17-18, 20, 25, 
28, 31, 37, 118, 121, 123-4, J 33> 
143-4, 205 

Bardey, Jeanne, 74 
Barlach, Ernst, 150-1 ; Illus. 152 
Barnard, G. G., 14 
Barrias, Ernest, 40, 42, 68, 122, 157 
Bartels, Werd von, i6x 
Bartholom^, Albert, 41, 45, 47, 128 


Bartlett, P. W., 14 

Earwig", Franz, 158-9 

Barye, 40, 42, r8i 

Bashkirtseff, Marie, 255, 257 

Basle, 89, 91 

Bass, Anna, 81 

Bastien-Lepage, 60, 255 

Baudelaire, 78 

Baudrenghien, Joseph, 127 

Bayes, Gilbert, 6 

Bayreuth, 149 

Bazzaro, Ernesto, 181-4 

Beck, Filippo, 7, 165 

Beethoven, 52-3, 145, 147, iol, tQ2 

Begas, Reginald, 145, 147-8, 15 

Beklemishev, 255 

Belgrade, 222 

Begum, Gaston, 91 

Belgium, 6-7, 9, 15, 24,46,49, 50, 92- 

129, 141, 160, 284 
Belotto, Eugenic, 210 
Benczur, 237 
Benes-Machain, 235 
Benlliure, Mariano, 17, 31, 34 tt seq* 
Bergen, 303 
Bergh, Richard, 278*80 
Bergslieus, 305 
Berlin, 88-9, 94, 121, 130* 145-6, 150, 

153-7) 160-2, 168, 262, 264, 283 
Berlin Academy, 147-9 
Berlin National Gallery, 146, 148, 

156, 159 

Bernauer, Franz, 7, xoi 
Bernard, Joseph, 42, 64*7; IUua. 64-5; 

257, 299 

Berne, 85 87, 89, 195 
Bernstamm, Leopold, 257 
Bessarabia, 265 
Biaggi, Auguste, 91 
Biberstem, Alfred, 91 
Bibelots, 114, 306 
Bible, 78, 241 
Biegas, Boleslas, 244 
Bternacki, Jan, 241, 246 
Bilbao, 35, 37 
Bilek, Frantisek, 228 
BUledhuggerforeningen, xa 
Bistolfi, Leonardo, 174-6 ; IUus 176 ; 

177-8, 208 

Bj erg, Johannes, 399-300; Ulus. 300 
Black, Fran9ois 91, 243-4 Wu. 3 45 
Blaikie-Murdoch, W, G,, 274 
Blankenberghe, 108 
Blay, Miquel, 3* 
Bloch-Lucy, Eleonore, 264 
Blomberg, Emma, 286 
Blomfield, Sir Reginald, 120 

Blondat, Max, 74 
jRocetoni, 180 
Bocker, R M 305 
Bockl'w, 140 

Body, beauty of the, a8o 
Boehm, Edgar, 163, 451 
Boehtn, J. D.> 163 
Bofvll, Antonio, &} 
Bohdanowicz, Xadriga, 346 
Bohemia, 224-5, 2-27, 254, 391 
Bologna, 178, 194-5 
Bonn, *6t 
Bonnat, 62 
Bonnesen, Ctrl, st)i 
Bonnetain, Armand, 127-8 
Borch, Chr., 305 
Borgesson, John, 268-70 
Borghi, Amhrozu), 85, 181 
Borman, Willy, 165 
Bory, Eugemo, 7 
Botsard, Johannes, 155 
Bosscit, Rudolf, 155 
BOvSton, U,S>*A. f tB^ 
Bouchard, Henri, 56, 71-2, 8i 135 
Bouchardon* 27v^ 
Boucher 40 

BourdeUe, Antoine, Illu, frontis 
piece ; 7* 9 iB, 42, 4<) t 50, $8*7, 

Boure, A. K., <?3, 103 

Bradford Art Gallery, 94, at4 220 

Braecke, Ptsrr* na? IUtj$. 116; 126 


Brandstrup, Ludwtgjtlus. aH8 ; 290. 
Brazil, 205 
Breitner, Jofief* 164 
Bremncher, E, J M ia8 
Br^nwn, 14^, 153 
Brescm, 185, 1^7 
j, 157* I<H> 


Brighton, 7> ia 15, a^3a t 55, 37-8, 
99, na, 114-61 07* noiaa f 125^ 
xso 133, 137, I39 H*3 *^5i 
330, 734-5 79 8a 2 4*5* 
a87-B, 390-1, 393-5* 397, 303* 

BrUfh Academy, Rome, 3(4 

British Mufttum* London, 34 

British Prea f a a 

British $tahooS, Rom^ 14 

Brltbh School of Sculpture, 1*3, 
6-7, $**a** ao, 334 t 

British Sculptors, Roy^l Society of, 
8 */ s#y- 

Brittany, 30, 



Brock, Sir Thomas, 8, 14 

Bromberg-, Oscar, 160, 162 

Bruce-Joy, A., 14 

Bruges, 99, no, 112 

Brunin, Charles, 102 

Brunner Gallery, 241 

Brussels, 7, 12, 19, 24, 32, 44, 46, 75, 
92,99, 101-5, 107-10, 112-3, 117-8, 
120-4, 126, 130-2, 143, 147 * 

Brussels Botanical Gardens, 108, 124 

Brussels Cinquantenaire Arch and 
Park, 104, 1 20, 127 

Brussels Ecole des Beaux-Arts, in, 


Brussels Exhibition, 1910, 127 
Brussels Hotel de Ville, 127 
Brussels Palais de Justice, 101 
Brussels Palais des Beaux-Art?;, 

Brussels Royal Academy, 93, 99, 1 18, 

121-2, 125, 131, 140 
Brussels Royal Museum, 46, 98-9, 

101-3, 108, 112, 116-7, IX 9> *22, 

124, 128 

Brussels Royal Palace, 104, 124 
Brussels Sculptors, 112-9 
Brussels Soci^te" Royal des Beaux- 
Arts, 12 
Brussels Spring Salon, MI, 114, 


Brussels: St Gudule, 127 
Bucharest, 54, 265 
Buchs, Johanny, *6o, 163 
Bueno$ Aires, 23, 32, 34-5, 54, 179, 

182, 187, 230, 275, 285, 287 
Budapest, 86, n8 123, 165, 325, 283 
Bugatti, Rembrandt, i8x 
BUhler, H. A., 7, 162 
Bungaard, Anders, 294 
Buoxasi, R., 210 
Burckhardt, Carl, 91 
Burg-hers of Calais, 44, 69 
Buttedahl, Salbjorn, 308 
Buyenwan, L, E, 137 

Cain, 40 
Calcutta, 189 
Calder, A, S,, 56 
Campo-Santp, 173, 195, 199 
Canonica, Pietro, 178 
Canova, xa8, 167, 172*3* 185 
Canto, Ernesto do, 39 
Caput, Jo$4, 36 
Carbaisus, Fn 142 
Cardiff, no 

Cardona, Jos<, 28, 39 

Carducci, Giosue, 178 

Carhaix, 76 

Carl-Nielsen, Anne M., Illus. 289 ; 


Carles, Antonin, 83 
Carlyle, 255, 275 
Carpeaux, 40, 42, 53, 56, 84, 103, 


Carrara, 192 
Casanova-Roy, H., 30 
Casanovas, Enric, 23 ; Illus. 24 ; 25 
Cassel, 150 
Castile, 27, 36 . 

Catalan character, 24, 25-7, 29 
Catalan Library, 23 
Catalan Sculptors, 17, 21-28, 32 
Cataldi, Amleto, 207-8 ; Illus, 208 
Catalonia, 18, 26, 27 
Catalunya, 28 
Cattier, P* A., 92 
Caucasus, 72 
Cavour, 177 

Cedercreutz, Baron Emile, 309 
Cellini, Gaetano, 196-8 ; Illus. 200 
Celtic Races, 268 
Cemeteries, 173-5, 184, 190, 194-5* 

199, 200, 202, 205, 240, 270, 285, 

^ 2 95^ 

Ceret, 26 

Covcnnes, 78 

Ce'zanne, Paul, 59 

Chainaye, Achille, n6 

Chantiliy, 286 

Chantrey Bequest, 50 

Chaplain, 276 

Chapu, 41-2, 165 

Character, 33, 97, 17 

Characteristics, i , 24, 26-7, 29, 36, 43 

Charcot, 42 

Charleroi, 126 

Charlottenborg, 294, 299, 301-2 

Charpentier, Alexandre, 98 

Charlier, Guillaume, 104; lllus* 105; 

i 06-8, 127, 141 
Chelsea, 264 
Chicago, 150 
Child Sculpture, 20, 74, 134* 142, 286, 

293) 3 2 
Chili, 21 

Chopin, 237) 2 45"6 _ _ _ 
Christ, 23, 31, 34, 37-8, 40, 40, 02, So, 
86, 149, 157'. * 6 5 78i IQ9 202, 
215, 221, 226, 229, 248, 265, 292 
Christtania, 7, 302*3, 306-8 
Christie's (Sale Rooms, London), 44 
Clara, Jos6, HUis., 216-7 ; 17-22, 29 



Classicism, 17, 20, 24, 26, 31, 38,85-6, 
92, 95, 100, 124, 145, 167, 172, 
183, 199, 204, 207, 225-6, 254, 
268, 288 

Claudel, Camilla, 73 

Coalition of the Arts, 26 

Coinage, 125, 179, 376 

Colarossi's Academy, 132, 141, 276, 
283, 285 

Colard, Charles, 107 

Cole, Ernest, 51 

Colet, Ricardo, 32 

College de France, 42 

Callings, Ernest, 215 

Cologne, 124, 159 

Coloured Sculpture, 80, 89, 169, 
241-3* 253 

Colton, W. Robert, 9, 296 

Come'die Franchise, 80 

Common thing's, Beauty of, 94 

Cong-o Memorial (Belgian), 104, To6 

Coonsman, Nancy, 302 

Contemporary Art Society, England, 


Continental Schools, 1-2, 5 et $eq t 
Copenhagen, 7, 69, 282, 284, 209 et 

sty*, 306, see also Glyptotek 
Coquelin ain, 56 
Coquelin cadet, 56, 257 
Cordonnier, Alphonse Amid^e, 48 
Cordova, 32, 36 
Cosmopolitanism, 49-50 
County Hall, London, 52 
Co urtens, Alfred, 107, 128 
Courtrai, 103, 113 
Coutan, J. A,, 83 
Cracow, 237, 244-7 ; see also Wawel 

Crimea, 192 
Crlstobel, Juan, 37 
Croatia, 212-3, 235 
Cryselepbantine Sculpture, i j7-8 
Cuba, 26 

Cubism, 135-6, 209, 248, 258, 261-3 
Culture, 151-2 
Cuypers, Jean, 102 
Czapek, Stanislas, 235 
Czech National Theatre, Prague, 

Czechoslovak Exhibition, Paris, 229, 

2P 233%*) 
Czechoslovakia, 49, 57, 212, 224-36 

DA COSTA, Mendes, 7, 134, 
136; Illui. 137 
Dadaism* 248 

Dahl- Jensen, J.P M 304 

Dalmatia, 211-3 

Dalou, Jules, 40, 52 

Damian, Emile, 265 

Damko, Ginseppe/7 

Dampt, Jean, 41, 87, 1149 

D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 202 

Dante, 78 

D'Antino, Nicola, 193 ; Illus. 205 


Darde*, Paul, 77-80 
Darmstadt, 155 
Da*to, Maximilian, 160 
David, 68, 71, 140, 149, 290 
David, Fern&tul, #2 
Davidson, Jo, 249 
Dayot, Armand, 77 
Dazzi t Arturo, 193* 210 
Death, 47, 153, 173, 175, 177 
De BenedHti, Miehele, 189 
Deckers, Kdouard, 107 
Decoration, 39, 43, 73-4, 86, <?6 102, 

104, 115, 130* 135-6, 253, 262, 

271, 280, 292, 294, 305 
Degeneration, 5 
De Gietfitfttdorflf, Maria* 163 
De Graaflf, J,, i#>; HUm, 139 
De Groot, Guillw-um^i to2 
De Kwiatkowsk*, Count>5in lz, 247 
Del&croix, 42 
De Lala,inK Count JHC<}U*, 98, 


Delahelga, Al*ftn<!fo t 193 

Delannoy, Pierre, Ho ; lllu*. So 

Delft, 137 

De Musmet* Alfred 41, 78 

Denmark, 7, i a, 283-4, 288-305 

D& Pablos, Alfredo, t 

IV Perinat y TfrrV! Luts* 32 

De Puget, Burort Ludwik, 7, 244*5 

De Rohldo, Alfrtdo, 

55-7, 66, 69 
i| Juiji t 103 
Dcskovic, Branko, aa^ 
Pspmw, 41 8a 
Destr^e, Jules, 97 
De SwUctak! George C*, 241 

lUun* 244 

"De Torre Qutntln, 37 
De Vig PaU 93* 98-9, 102 
Devre, Godefroid f 113 
D'Havaloo$, Marnlx, 106, 137 
Diaac Eva V* 3* 
Dtaz, A. S n 33 
Dieppe, 61 
Dimcultis of exhibition, 10 $t ^* 


Dijon, 71 

Diligent, L. R,, 128 

Dillons, Julien, 100, 116 

Dingli, E. Carnana, 13 

Direct Carving-, 25, 65, 78, So, 91, 

too, 133-4, 158-9' 241, 243, 255, 

264, 275 
Discipline, 5 
Domingo, Gregorio, 31 
Donnesen, C. I., 305 
Dordrecht, 131 
Dor6, Gustave, 60 
Dorien Leigh Galleries, 240, 308 
D'Orsi, Achille, 210 
Drama, 97 
Drawing-, 52, 59, 65-7, 79, 96, 237, 

249) 250, 273 

Drei, Ercole, 194-5 ; Illus. 196 
Dresden, 94, 112, 123-5, *33> *4 6 > 
_ *53-4> *57 160-4, 168 
Droucker, Le*on, 252 ; Illus. 253 
Dublin, 59 

Dubois, Ernest; Illus. 60; 61-3 
Dubois, Paul, 40, 42 
Du Bois, Paul, 113, 122-3; ^ lus ' * 2 4 
Dufy, 248 
Duisberg, 159 
Dumont, 48 

Dunach, Jose", 29 j Illus. 32 
Dunikowski, Xavery, 7, 245 
Dupon, Arthur, 107 
Dupon, Josu, 107, 113-4 
Dupuis, Toon, 7; Illus, 129 ; 131 
Dttsseldorf, 74, ^5, 159, 2 o6, 306 
Dutch Art, see Holland 
Dvorak, Karel, 235 
Dyes, 26, 58 

EBEL, Henri, 8r 
Ecole des Beaux-Arts, see 

Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 48, 57, 
61-2, 68, 77, 88, 90, 107, 122, 223, 
343, 252, 262, 265, 280, 296 

Ecol Nationale (rue Bonaparte, 
Paris), 65, 80 

Edinburgh, 214, 220 

Edstr5m David, 278 

Egypt, 26, 300 

Eichler, Theodore, 162 

Elberfeld, 155 

Eldh, Carl J., 276-8; IHus 276-7 

El Greco, 27 

Elkan, Benno, 157 

Emotions, 47, 93, 276 

Encke, Erdmann, 162 

Enderlie, Andreas, 308 

Engleman, Richard, 149 

England, 1-7, 9, 13, 15, 22, 44, 46, 

49i So- 2 . 56, 94-5 ^Ti ^59? 163, 

213, 218, 224, 234, 240, 258, 272, 


English style, 1,2-4, IIQ 
Environment, 65, 77 
Epimoff, 265 
Epstein, Jacob, 29, 209, 249-50, 258, 


Eriksson, Christian, 2joetsegr. > 279 
Esthonia, 266 
Europe, i, 5, 6, 93, 145, 163, 167, 

239, 290 

Exhibition of Sculpture, 5-7, 13 
Exhibitions : see Free, International 

Exhibitions, Gallei ies, Museums, 

Exposicion Nacional, Madrid, 22, 

29 32-3, 37-8 
Expression, 34, 262 

FABRES, Antonio, 17 
Faculties of Arts, 14 
Fadrusz, Janos, 165 

Fag-erberg, Carl, 284-5 

Falgu&re, 40-2, 45, 52, 61, 95-6, 122 

Fassin, A, F,, 92 

Fayet Collection, c;9 

Ferrer, J. T., 37 

Fine Art Society, London, 10 

Finistere, 75-6 

Finland, 309 

Fischer, V., 305 

Fisherman, 75 

Fjaestad, G. A,, 274 

Fielde, Jacob, 289 

Flanders, Count of, 109, ui 

Flemish Sculpture, 100, 109, 112 
(see Belgium) 

Ftiegend* 3 Hitter, 148 

Florence, 27, 54, 88, 103, 145, 185, 
194, 200, 202, 257, 286 

Foglia, Giuseppe, 90 

Folkwang Museum, Hagen, 122, 169 

Fontain, Gustave, 128 

Fontana, Carlo, 192 

Ford, Onslow, 251 

Form, 232, 237-8, 249, 250, 255 

" Form, Das Problem der," 146 

Forselles, Sigrid, 309 

Fountains, 42, 49, 74, 82, 88-9, 101, 
105, 121, 126, 146-7, 149, 154, 
160-1, 188, 190, 203, 210, 252, 
272, 275, 281, 283, 290, 298, 307 



Fraikin, C. A., 92 

Frampton, Sir George, 6, 8, 14, 157 

France, 6, 13, 18, 24, 41, 50, 81, 109, 

124 160, 224, 276, 279, 285, 309 
France, Anatole, 56, 256 
Franck, Csar, 45 
Franco- British Exhibition, 44, 40, 

48-9, 62, 71-2, 75 
Frankfort, 150, 155-7 
Free Artists' Society, Denmark, 2^9, 

Frei, Hans, 91 
Fremiet, 40, 42 
French, D. C., 11, 56 
French School, The, 40-83 
Frisch, Victor, 163 
Frith, W. S., 8, 190 
Frumerie, Agones, 286 
Furse, J. H. M , 6 
Futurusm, 180-1, 209, 248, 251 

GALLERIES, see Krunner, 
Dorien Leigh, Graf'ton, 
H^brard, Leicester, L(>$ Arts* 

Paterson, Tate, Uffizi 
Gallet, Louis, 90-1 
Galliera Museum, 49 
Ganesco, Constantin, 265 
Garcia, Juan Jose, 31 
Gardecki, Joseph, 244 
Garg-allo, Pau, 28 
Garibaldi, 178, 182, 187 
Gaspar, J, M,, 116-7 
Gaudier-Brzeska, 139* 249-251, 263 
Gaudissart, Emile, 81 
Gauguin, Jean, 304 
Gauguin, Paul, 57, 59, '296 
Gaul, August, Illus. 149 J 5 
Gavarni, 42 

Geefs, Georges, 100, t02 
Geefs, Guillaume, 9*, 102, 190 
Geefs, Jean, 102 
Geefs, Joseph, 102 
Geig-er, Emil, 158 
Gelert, John, 289 
Gemito, Vincenzo, 208 
Geneva, 71, 84-5, 87, 89, 91, 244> 


Genoa, 175, 188 
Geometry, 136 
Germany, 6, 7, 15, 46, 49 S4 *4$-*2, 

213, 225, 262, 276, 279, 284 
German style, 130, 137 
Gerstel, Wilhelm, 159 
Geyger, E. M., 147 
Ghent, 99, tor, no, n6-8, 121*2, 

124, 128, 143*4 

Gibson, Sidney, 283 

Gilbert, Alfred, 96, 251 

GUI, Erie, 250 

Giotto, 77 

Glizenstein, 257 

Glyptotek, Copenhug*ni, 290, 295, 


Gobelins Tapestries, 53, 58 
Godecharl% Gille.s-Lainbcrt, 103 
GodecharJe Prize*, 107, 122, 126 
GodctVoy CVjft, 101 
Goethe, 150 
Goloubm, Anna, ^57 
Gosen, Theodor von, 160 
Gospel of beauty, 5 
Gotheitberg-, 271-2, -74"5 378-9, 280, 


Gothic, 27, 57> 7 K 22K 
(iontcharovn, 248 
Ciovernment, Duty of, 15 
Goya, 35, 15* 

Graf ton Gn-Hcries, no, <)4, 214, 220 
Granada, 37 
(irandmoulin, L^a 
Grand Paluis <\VH 
9, 48, 58, 7M* 4 

Great Britain, 7, *) 3 J 5 a2 * 49) 

109, 301 

Greece, a.V)> ^<*? 3^ 
Greek sculptare, ici, 23, 25-7,54, 

66, 7H 93 4H 17^, 175, 185, 

iH8> 267 
GroU\sqvu% 133, 138, 154, 156, 251, 


Gude, Bct*y, 508 
Guildhall, London, 2BS 
Gu511^um<s t 40, 4 
Giiuzbourg, Hi*, 7^ 2 5S ^64 

HAARLEM, u, 1354 137 
Habanat ^05 
Hmbkh, Ludwig, 15$ 
Ha^en, Falkwanfc Mueum n 23, 169 
Ha^ue, The, 128, 13** X 3 B *9 H 1 * 

144, 168 

Hahn t Ilenniin, 149 
Ham, Tina, 160 
Halier, Hermaw, 89; liltm. 90 
H&lou, A J.,8i 
Hamburg, 14$* *S4-5 *S^ |6 
Hansen, C M. 304 
HHtisen-Jacobsfn, N, 29* 
Harboe, Raf*mu> 305 
Harkavy^, Minnie, a&6 
Harpgnii 61 
HasseTberg* a?a 


HasselriiSj L., 290 

Heaviness, see Mass-Sculpture 

Hebrard Galleries, 234 

Heer, Augusta, 91 

Heiberg, M. S., 308 

Heine, 156 

Hell Gate, 43, 56, 79 

Helsingfors, 309 

Heming, Gerard, 284 

Heng\ August, 90 ; lllus. 91 ; 210 

Heredity, see Persistence of Faculty 

Hernandez, Matco, 37 

Hesselink, Abraham, lllus. 128 ; 


Hiebacher, Herman, 90 
Hierarcbs, 2, 3,41, 45, 243 
Hildebrand, Adolf von, 145-6, 151, 


Hinterscher, Josef, 160-2 
Hochmann, Henri, 7, 244 
Hodler, Ferdinand, 84 
Hoeffier, Josef, 158 
Hoetg-er, Bernard, 155 
Hofer, Alexander, 161 
Hoffman, A., 160 
Holland, 7, u, r3Q-*44 *53 *S9> 

1 68, 284-5, 3 02 
Holm-Moller, Olivia, 296 
H6tel Biron, 41, 43, 45* 
H6tel de Ville, Paris, 42, 48, 76 
Holtenberg-Lerche, Hans, 306 
Hubacber, Herman, 91 
Hudi^ton Collection, 35 
Hudler, August, 149 

Huf, Fritz, 9X 

Hugt>, Victor, 41, 44-5, 252 

Hugue\ Manolo, 26 

Humbert Monument", t86, 195, 205 

Humour, 96, 101, 105, 156, 265, 274-5, 

302, 305 
Httnerwadei, Arnold, lllus, 88-9; 


Hung-ary, 6, 7, 165-6, 284 
Huyg^len, Franz* 107 ; Illns. 108 ; 

Huysmans, J, K,, 59 

ICELAND, to, 288, 292, 309 
Idealism, 96, 173, 237 
Illustrative sculpture, 61, 85, 93, 
97, 109, 186, 198, 227 
Im&nitoff, Nathan, 264 
Impressionism, 24-5, 95, 127, 135, 

169, 170-^ 228, 232, 280, 289 
Indenbaum, L<k>n, 265 

Indian style, 300 
Individuality, 5, 219 

Influences, 17, 23-7, 34, 47, 66, 100, 
218-9, 222, 225, 229, 230, 242, 
246, 297 3o 

Ingres, 52, 56 

Injalbert, 40, 42, 77, 83, 96, 228-9, 

Intelligentsia, 26 

International Exhibitions, 6-7, 18, 

*9> 2 3> 30, 35 53> 59 61, 84-51 
$7> 90, 98, 106, 109, m-2, 116, 

120-2, 127, 131, 140, 142, 147, 

161, 165, 168, 174, 178, 189, 191, 
195, 204-5, 2 9> 2 3 ^44-5 258, 
264, 273, 284, 289, 290, 294, 305 

International Society of Sculptors, 
Painters and Gravers, London, 
8 > 9i 44> 47' 5 1 - 2 * 59. 2, 9^, ior 
127, 131, 150, 178, 257, 266, 279, 
287, 293 

Interpretation, 230,, 260 

Inurria, Mateo, 32 et seg. ; Illus. 33 

Ireland, 10 

Iruberski, Ladislas, 244 

Israels, Joseph, 139 

Istok, Giovanni, 7 

Istria, 211 

Isunza, Pedro, 37 

Italy, 9, 15, 23, 27, 46, 77, 100, 103, 
no, 124, 149, 159, 160-2, 167-211, 
240, 268, 279-80, 283-4-5, 288, 306 

Ixelles, no, 124 

JACOBSEN, Carl, Collection, 69, 
Jacobsen, C. L,, 308 
Ja^g-er, C. S., 14 
Jag-gi, Luciano, 91 
Jarl, Vig'R'O, lllus, 292 ; 296 
Jeanne d'Arc, 42, 48, 74, 79 
Joachim, Chr,, 305 
Jodebski, Cyprian, 237 
Johannesburg 1 , 191 
John, Sir W, Goscombe, 6, 14 
Johnson, Ivan, 283 
Jonsson, Anders, 286 
Jordaens, 101 
Jousaytis, Antoine, 253 
Jovanovic, 212 
Jugoslavia, 49, 211-223, 232, 
Julian's Academy, 155 
Jutland, 299 

KAFKA, Bohumil, 231-5 
Kalloft, Ede, 165 
Kaminska, Sofia, 246 
Kampf, Arthur, 155 
Kaufman, Hugo, 162 


Kautsch, Henri, 236 

Karlsruhe, 91, 147, 157 

Katz, Michael, 258 

Kebsler, Marthe, 81 

Kief, 192, 253, 262 

Kiel, 161 

Kielland, Valentin, 308 

Kisling, Ernest, 90, 248 

Kisling-, Richard, 88 

Kjellberg, 269 

Klein, Alfred, 81 

Klein, Professor, 162 

KHmsch, Professor, 160 

Kling-er, Max, 145, 147 

Klodt, Baron, 255 

Kloncek, Celda, 227 

Koort, Saan, 266 

Kofranek, Ladislas, 235 

Kolbc, Georg, 156; Illus. 156 

Korenkof, 264 

Kosciuszko, 252 

Kossovo Temple, 214, 216 

Koszarek, Theophile, 244 

Kovlovsky, 254 

Kowarik, Hubert, 164 

Kragh, Johannes, 294 ; Illus. 296, 


Kralicek, Francois, 235 
Krefeld, 168 
Krikawa, Karl, 164 
Kring van Beeldhouwers,, see Neder- 


Krop, H. L., 139 
Kuna, Henry k, 246 

LADD, Anna C., 210 
Lagae, Jules, 104, 116-7 
u La Grande Chaumiere," 49 
Lamarck, 78 

Lambeaux, Jef, 93, IOT, 116 
Lamourdedleu, Raoul, 82 
Landowski, Paul, 42, 67 ; Illu$* 68-9 ; 

69-71, 249 

Lange, Max, 160, 163 
Langer, Richard, 158 
Langewiesche, K. R, 146 
Lanteri, Edouard, 45, 250 
Larche, Raoul, 83 
La Revista.) 25 
Larroque, 52 

Larsen, Hans W, 301 ; Illus, 301 
Larson, Gottfried, 285 
Art, 77 

L'Art Nouveau, 94, 163 
"L' Art Tcheque Contemporain/' 224 
Laurencin, Marie, 89 ; Portrait of, 90 

Lausanne, 60, 91, 244 

Lay members* of sculpture societies, 


Lazar, B^la, 165 
Le Clcrq, Tom, 139 
Lecomte, Geoi je> 95 97 
Ledel, Dolf, i^H 
Lederer, Hugo, 154 
Ledward, Gilbert, 14 
Lee, T. Stirling, 8 
Legion of Honour, 22, 46, 48, 61, 67, 

7St 87, 185 

Legros, Aiphonscs 45, 250 
Lehmbruck, Wiihalm, IHus, 157 ; 159, 


Lehrer, 160 

Leicester Galleries, London, 59, 60 
Leiden, 131 

Leigh ton, Lord, 2, 251 
Leipzig, 145-6, 153, x6o, 168 
Le Mans, 30, 70 
Lernberg 1 , 240 
Lkn, Robert, 164 
Lepage, GSlme, 7 I Hlus** 72-3 ; 135, 


Le Roy, Hippolyte, xaa 

L$$ Art$i 64-5 

Le Verrier, 42 

Lewin-Fimckc, A,, 7, x6i 

Lexow-Han.sen, 305 

Licutii*, Orest, 209 10 

Li%, u6, J223, 125-6 

Lig-eti, Miklos, 165 

Light, 170-1 

Lille, 48, 73 

Lin d berg, Krik, 269, 275 

Lipchytz, Moryc, 347-9 ; IHus. 248 

Lithuania, 224, 251-4 

Llimona, Josep, 22 

Liverpool, 284 

Lobach, Walter, 1163 

Locher, Axel, 304 

Lodeve, 779 

LoefFer, 237 

Lombardy, 180*5 

London, 7, 9-10, 13, 15* as, 24, s*8, 
29, 32-7, 44, 47> ^ &%> 94 ^ 
no, 117, 130, 133, x6$ au, 
220, 238, 240, 349, as 8 ^ 364, 
273, 293, 296, 308; ii6s County 
Hall, Donen Ldgh GallHes, 
Graft on Galleries, GuUdhmU, 
Society, Leicester 
Paterson Gallery, 
Royal Academy, Royal College 
of Art, Royal Commbskm of 
1851, Royal Institute of !Vmtra, 



Royal Society of British Sculp 
tors, Slade School, Tate Gallery, 
Victoria and Albert Museum, 
Whitechapel Art Gallery 

Lopez, Alfonso, 29 

Lopez-Gomez, I., 38 

Lopez-Salazar, J., 38 

Louvain, 93, 112 

Louvre, 42, 62, 69, 71, 77, 228 

Lu'beck, 160 

Lucerne, 91 

Luetkins, Hans, 150 

Lugano, 85-6 

Lund, Jens, 304 

Lundberg, Theo, 269-70 

Lundqvist, John, 286 

Luther, 140 

Luxembourg Museum, 15, 18, 20, 
35, 42-3, 46, 48, 53," 61-2, 64, 
71-5, 98-9, loi, 108, 122, 125, 

156-7, l8l, 192, 202, 208, 235, 

245, 255, 257, 306, 309 

Luxembourg Gardens, 42, 48 
Lynn-Jenkins, F, T 8 
Lyons, 64 

MACCAGKANI, Eugenic*, 
rilus., 185 ; 185-7, 190 
Maekonnal, Sir Bertram, 14 
MacMonnies, Frederick, 56 
Madjcski, Antoni, 241 
Madrid, 7, 18, 19, 22-3, 29 et s?q* 
Madrid, Alba Palace, 35 
Madrid, Mxtseum of Modern Art, 33 
Madrid, Royal Palace, 35 
Maeterlinck, Maurice, 121 
Magdeburg, 155 
Maillot, Aristicie, 9, 26, 42, 57-9, 63, 

156, 159, 160/164, 182, 250 
M alines, 102, uo-u 
Malmd, 270, 286 
Malta, 191-2' 
Manes, Joseph, 225 . 
Manet, 169 
Mannheim, 159 
Manzel, Ludwig, 7, 162 
Maratka, Joset, 230, 233, 235 
Marcel-Jacques, A., 82, Rudolf, 162 
Mar6, Federico, 38 
Marm, Jacques, 126 
Marinetti, 180 
Markup, Bela, 7 
Marquehte, 40, 42, 83 
Martinez, J. B> 37 
Martos, 2c}5 
Marasolff, Alfred, 8t 

Massa, Oscar, 32 
Mass-impression, 21 q. 
Mass-sculpture, 46, 54, 146, 151, 

i$i. 164, 183, 195, 216, 279, 295, 
Matejcek, Antoine, 224, 232 
Materials, 52, 56-9, 65-9, 73-4, 79, 87, 

91, 104, 1 08, 133, 139, 157-8, 213, 

221, 229, 248, 259, 262, 274-5 
Matisse, Henri, 59, 218, 248 
Matrix, 19, 23, 25, 86, 105, 117-9, 

164, 210 

Mauder, Josef, 226 
Max, Emanuel von, 163, 225 
Max, Joseph, 163, 221: 
McGill, D., 8 
Medals, 31-3, 49, Si, 91, 104, 107, 

113-4, 123, 125, 127, 146, 150, 

155, 157, 1 60, 163, 179, 196, 276 
Meden, Max, i 2, 304 
Medievalism, 246 
Melot, Egide, 102 
Memorials, 70, 76, 100, 106, 108, 115, 

120, 123, 146, 153, 161, 163, 195, 

207, 225, 281 
Mengual, J* V,, 37 
Menser, Karl, 161 
Menxel, 147 
Mercit$ T 41-2, 83, 149 
Meissonier, 42 
Mestchaninoff, Oscar, 257 
Mestrovic, Ivan, 53, 91, 135, 153, 

164; UhlS. 212; 212-20, 232, 250 

Mestrovic, Ruza, 212 

Metal-work, 28, 31, 139, 271 

Metchinlkoff, Olga, 264 

Metsys, QueiUin, ioj 

Mettler, Walter, 91 

Metz, 7t 

Metzner, Franz, 153-4 

Meudpn, 43, 230 

Meunier, Constantin, 23-4, 35, 41, 

46, 92 etscg., 109, 116, 119, 182, 

20 x, 230 

Meyer, Adolf, 91 
Michelangelo, 17, 75, 168, 174, 260, 


Michelsen, Hans, 305 
Mickiewicz, Adam, 54, 237, 246, 252 
Middlethun, Julius, 305 
Milan, 85, 112, 118, 123, 167-8, 174, 

179/180-2, 184, 194, 203-4, 2 8 

Milles, Carl, 269, 372, 279-80-82, 


"MUle, Ruth, 280; Illus. 285; 286 
MinUtry of Fine Arts, Poland, 247 
Mingo, Carlos, 38 




Minne, Georges, 7, 106, 116-7, 121-2, 

Minneapolis, 278 

Mibsfeldt, Heinrich, 161 

Mitkovicer, Pierre, 264 

" Moderne Plastik," 146 

Monegal, Josep, 26 

Monet, 1 68 

Montauban, 52, 56 

Monte Carlo, 18 

Monteverde, Giulio, 204 

Montevideo, 23, 31, 175 

Montmartre, 49, 200 

Montpellier, 77, 79 ^ 

Montserrat, Job, 28 

Monument aux Morts, 47 

Monuments, 34-5, 45-6, 48-9, 54-6, 64, 
70-1 73-5 ^4-5,98, 104, 106, 108, 
112, 115, 124-7, 138, 146, 153, 163, 
165, 173-7. 180-3, 190-1, 194-5, 
205-6, 226, 228-9, 246, 252, 280-1, 
291, 294-5, 297 

Mora, 272-3 

Moravia, 224, 236 

Mortensen, Carl, 305 

Moscow, 247, 264-5 

Mostra Individuate, 53, 213, 230, 258 

Mozart, 45, :6o 

Munich, 6, 28, 87-9,91,112, 118, 123-4* 
133, 143, 146-9* *5i *S5~ 6 > #t 
160, 182, 189, 195.227, 233, 237* 
280, 283, 285-6, 296 
Munthe-Svendsen, 308 
Muse"e Galli era, Paris, 49 
Muse"e Rodin, Paris, 43 
Museo National, Madrid, 33 
Museums, 33, 46, 98-9, 101-3, 108-10, 

II 2> Il6,119, 122,124, 128, 130-3, 

140, 143, 182, 271, 275-9, 281-6, 
289, 293, 295-9, 33 c &lfiO 
Albert, Boymans, Galliera, 
H6tel Biron. Luxembourg-, Ryka, 
Stedelijk, Suasso, Uflflzi, Vic 
toria and Albert ; see also under 
names of cities 

Museums of Modern Art : see under 
names of cities 

Mylsbek, J. W., 225, 231-2, 234 

Mysticism, 70, 229 

Mythology, 45, 281 

NADELMAN, Eli, 237-9, 4 
Nantes, 76 
Naples, 7, 206*209 
National Academy of Design, New 
York, 253 

National Art Collections Fund, Eng 

land, 50 
National Gallery of Modem British 

Art, see Tate Gallery 
National Portrait Society, London, 

National Sculpture Society, America, 

i j 
National Society of Pine Arts, Paris, 

ee $oci<t<5 Nationale 
Natorp collection, 44 
Naturalism, 38, 48, 66-7, 75, 85-6, 

t)2, 96, 98, 1 15, 136, 164, 207, 234, 

237-9, 2 4 2 ' 2f'9 2 7* 
Nature, a, 5, 78-9, 96, 360 
Navarro, Vincentis 37 
Nederland in dtsm Vreemde, 12 
Nederlaml Kritig 1 van Beekihouwers, 

12, 134, 141-2 
Neglect of Sculpture, 5 
Negro Sculpture, 263*4^ 266 
Netherlands see Holland 
Neujd, Herman, a6<), 283 ; IHu. 284 
New Guinea, 163 

New Sculpture Society, Denmark, 12 
New York, 7, 35, 113, ^49, 252-3, 

256, 261, 469 
New Zealand, 4^4 
Niadey.skii Antoni, 346 
Nicoiaut Juan B.,^9 
Nicolini. Giovanni, 204-6 ; lllus, 204 
Niederhliusen, AtiKiHt de Rodo, 84-5 
Niehetti Kai, IHuft. 293 t 294, 297 
Nietzsche* 147, ^77 
Nieuport, it 12-3 
Nobel, Alfred, 276 
Noblet cotlectton* 169 
Noc&nl collr ctlon 66 
Nordstrom, P,, 305 
Norway, 6-7, 269, 305-9 

Ny-Cwrlsbad coltectu>n y 289 

BIOLS f Gustavo, 30 
Obrovnky, Jacob, 235 
A, W. Mn MO 


Odessa, ?a 

Oenten, ral 7, 147 

Ohlgrw* Olaf, 285 

Olson, An4erst a86 

^Otte-man 1 * shows, 53, 64, 8a, 83, 

au4 330, aup, a$6 
OobHnjfer, Ferdmana, 165 

Opitz, Ferdinand, 
Orengo, Gigs, 174 
Origo, Ckmenta, 210 



Orms, Manuel, 17 
Ortells, Jose\ 38 
Osl<, Luciano, 30 
Osl6, Miguel, 30 
Osswald, Paul, qi 
Ostrowski, Stanislas, 240-1 
Otero, Jaime, 38 

PAGELS, J. H., 161 
PagTiani, Antionetta, 210 
Pailes, Isaac, 253 
Painter- sculptors, see Sculptor - 

Pajou, 128 

Palermo, 178, 182, 205-6 
Panama, 7, 276, 285 
Pander, Pier, 140 
Pantheon, Paris, 45, 6z, 70 
Pantot, C. C., 82 

Paris, i, 5, 7, 12, 18, 23, 26, 28-31, 
35-6, 40-91, 98, 1 12, u 8, 121-4, 

13) *3 2 -3> i4<>-* H7 H9i 150. 
155-6, 159, 161-2, 165, 168, 178, 

187, 189, 193, 202, 207, 209, 213, 

223, 227-8, 231-5, 237-8, 240-6, 
252-3, 256-8, 262, 265, 269, 271-2, 
274, 283-6, 289, 295-7, 2 99i 306, 
309 ; also see Kcole des Beaux- 
Arts, Ecole Nationale, Grand 
Palais, Luxembourg, Pantheon, 
P&re Lachaise, Petit Palais, 
Salons, Soct5t des Artistes 
Francois, Society Nationale des 
Beaux - Arts, Th&Ure des 

Parsons, Edith Rarrett, 302 

Patina, 309 

Patleg-ean, Nuttm, 265; Illus. 265 

Paulin collection, 44 

Pattlin, Paul, 82 

Paulsen, C, E. 308 

Peasant origins, 75, 77-8, 159, 213, 
254, 268, 270, 274, 299, 305-6 

PechMein, Max, 264 

PjH8UNandthe MuvSa, Frontispiece; 

Pennsylvania Academy, 253 
P&re Lacbaise, 47* 62 
Penutmbuco, 205 
Perez- Parex, J., 29 
Perlemang-e, Vladimir, 264 
Persistence of sculptural faculty, 

xoi-2, 190, 207, 240 
Personality, 40, 49, 219 

Pessina, Apollonio, 90 

Peterich, Paul, 148 

Petersen, Gyde, 305 

Petit Palais des Chatnps-Elysees, 

<>9> ?6, 235 

Petrog-rad, 121, 192, 245-6, 258, 275 
Petry, Marg-uerite, 81 
Pettersen, Axel, 15, 274 
Phidias, 17 
Photography, 170 
Picasso, Pablo, 248 
Pictorial sculpture, 85, 95, 281 
Pie, Jean, 27 
Piedmont, 167-179 
Pinazo- Martinez, Ignacio, 36-7 
Pinazo-Martinez, Jos, 36 
Piot, C. F. L., 128 
Pisa, 173 

Pissarro, Camille, 168 
Pittsburg, 7-8 
Pla, Josep, 25 
Plaezek, Otto, 161 
" Plastik, Moderne/ 1 146 
Poland, 6, 49, 54, 68, 91, 212, 224, 

232, 237-51, 254 
Polasek, Albin, 236 
Polychrome sculpture, 37, So, 14^, 

'147, 149, 157, 241, 243 
Pomeroy, Fredk. W., 6, 14 
Pontiffs, 2, 3, 41, 45 
Popineau, F. K., 82 
Poplawski, 241 
Porte de T Enter, 43, 56, 79 
Portuguese sculpture, 39 
Post-impressionihm, 248 
Potsdam, 162 
Pottery, 136, 142, 155-6, 162, 165, 

203, 253, 256-7, 275, 284, 286, 

288, 291, 304, 308 
Poulsen, Oscar, 308 
Poupelet, Jeanne, 74 
Prag-ue, 123, 163, 225-8, 230-1, 235-6 
Pratt, Bela L., IT 
Preiser, Edouard, 81 
Pre-Raphaelite Brothers, 173 
Presentation of sculpture, 1-16, 41 
Prices, 12, 44 
Primitive feeling, 302 
Primitive sculpture, 72, 135 
Principles, 40, 58, 69 
Prix de Rome, 42, 62, 68, 107, no, 

118, 126, 132, 191, 296 
Prou, 35 

Puech, 41-2, 8r, 83 
Purchase of works of art, 50 
Puttermans, Auguste, 128 
Puvia de Chavannes, 45, 103 



Queen Alexandra Student 
ship, 301 
Querol, Augustin, 37 
euJHIvic, Rene,, 75-7 ; Hlus* 77 
uimper, 76 
Quinn collection, -50 

RAD BERG, E. R., 285 
Radenburg. William, 146 
Rapallo, 2ii 

Ra-smussen, Wilhelm, 308 
Rastrelli, Count, 254 
Rathsaek, Svend, lllus. 297 ; 298, 


Rauch, Christian, 145 
Ravenna, 197, 198 
Realism, 19, 21, 23-4, 26-7, 31-4, t>C>> 

70, 85-6, 94-5, 105, 135-6, jsoJ, 

226, 270, 273, 295-7 
Rechberg, Arnold, 163 
Relief, principle of, 278 
Religion, 78, 243, 260 
Rembrandt, 131, 142, 146 
Remicns, A., 133; Illus. 133 
Renaissance, 17, 63, 78, 99, 100, 172, 

185, 200, 218, 235, 268, -196) 306 
Renoir, Auguste, 168 
Repouss<, 28, 31 
Revelation, 1-2 
JRevue de Fra-nct^ 53 
Reynolds-Stephens, W., 8-9 
Ribera, 35 
Richter, Otto, 160 
Rietschel, Ernst, 145 
Riga, 150 
Ro, Carl, 286 
Roberts, Henry D,, 7, 288 
Roche, Pierre, 48 
Rod, Edoward, SB 
Rode, G-, 305 
Rodin, August e, 7-9, 15, 17, 20, 40-4, 

47> 49' 52-3> S6 6 3 &$> 79 ^ 
87, loo, 109, n^ 121, 133, 
128, 154-7, 164, 168^9, l l*> 74t 
201, 209, 217-8, 230, 233-4, ^50, 
256-8, 264, 281 

Roelrink, Willie, 137; lllus, 141; 

Rohl-Smitb, Carl, 289-90 

Roksandic, Simo, 212 

Romantic spirit, 97, 199 

Romagnoli, Giuseppe, 195; Iltus. 

J 97 
Rom; m art in France, 73 

Roman art in the North, -26^ 
Rombaux, Kgivlc, 7, 15, to6, 

lllus, 117; 119, Hlus, 120; 127, 

Rome, i, 6-7, 13-14, 34, 36, (a, 69, 

77, 87, 89, in, UJ-A 130, 133, 

4J-5. r 47) *5o 5>-7 J 77 *7<)> 

1 80, t8i 185, 196, -H>I--J, 20 1-8, 
2U-3, 220, ^50-7, 274, 284, ^89, 
290, 294-7, 303, 305 

Rome; Gallery of Movicrn Art, 187, 

189, iq6, aoi*-2 205-6 
Rome : Houses of Pariianumt, 202-3 
Rome; National C**UU*ry t iSj, 192 
Rome: Municipjil Museum, 206 
Ronu*, wee i*rix dc* 
Rome, see Victor Kmanucl II Monu 


Rome ; Victor Kmanuel Bridge, 205 
Ronczewski, Cotistuntifi, j<>4 
Rosandic, Tomn, Jit5 ltlu,s, 220; 

2 * 0-3 

Rotteoff, 76 

Rosso, Medardo, ^3-5* 4** 53* <)5 *& 

123, 1(14, U>7-73/ i tK> ^>3 -$8 
Rotterdam, 132, 137, 140*1, 168 
Rotterdam : A etui? my* 140 
Rotterdam: BoymaiH Museum, 133 
Koubaix, 48 

1 14, 1 16 
49, 54, J<>5 
Rouhs*HuVU*tor 7, HJ<>| u 

IlhlS, 12 1 J 117 

Royal Academy of Arln, London, 2^ 
8, no, 13-4, 47, 50, 60* 117, iat, 

Royal Academy, BHIHH^IH, see 

Royal College of Art, London* 55 
Royal Contmtsftion lor the London 

1851 Exhibition, 14 
Royal institute of l*nhiU*rN, London^ 

8, 10 

Royal Museum, Br?iHe!s*t<*e Br tinnelf* 
Royal Patac^ Bru.HHei**, n<<* Hrusit*lt 
Roynl Society of Britttttt Sculptors, 

8 tt seq.t 

t 178-9 



, an, ^^4, 354*367, 
<^ Amsterdam 

Rude, 40, ia8 i 
Rueh, J, W, GM 
Ruwkin, ^59 
Rvmma, 7, 49, 

Ryks Museum* 



SAAB YE, A.W., 290 
St. Etiemie, 70 
Saint Gaudens, A., xi, 15 

St. John the Baptist, 38, 44-5, 64, 87, 
164, 168, 20 1, 217, 300 

St, Louis, 123-4, I2 6> 13*1 H * 2 5> 
283, 286 

St. Moritz, 177 

St. Pol de Le"on, 76 

Salon d'Automne, 24, 27, 29, 38-9, 
67> 73-4- 7 6 > 8 - 2 8 7, 89, QI, 98, 
189, 213, 223, 234-5, 2 4* 2 44> 
247-8, 253, 263, 265-6, 267 

Salons, 12, 17, 19, 25, 29, 36-38, 48, 
54, 62, 73-6, 79-80, 87, ixi, 116, 
121-8, 154, 159, 160, 162, 168, 191, 
193, 200- 1, 204, 207, 214, 223, 
234-5, 241, 244, 246-8, 252-4, 257, 
265-7, 276-7, 283, 286, 296-7, 
306-8, see also Soeie'te" des 
Artistes Fran^ais, Socie'te' 
Nationals des Beaux- Arts, Paris; 

v Spring 1 Salon, Brussels 

Saloun, Ladislas, 228 

Salz, M. B., 32 

Samain, Louis, 102 

Samuel* Charles, 124-5 

Samuel, Juliette, 125 

Sandberg-, Gustaf, 282, 286 

Samicst, B* M., 91 

San Francisco, 60, 143, 283, 286 

Sarttamarina, Juan, 38 

Santiago, 19 

Saragossa, 28, 32, 36 

SarkissofT, Maurice, 90 

Sassi, Alfredo, 174 

Scandinavia, 9, 186, 268 et seg* 

Schadow, Gottfried, 145 

Schaerbeck, 111-3 

Schedrin, 255 

Schillings, Johannes, 154 

Schlosser, Ernest, 160 

Schmarje, Walter, 160 

Schmidt-Kestner, Evith, 162 

Schnegx, Canton, 82 

Schndder, Anders, 308 

Schmrcb, Bohtislav, 225 

Scholarships, 51 

Schott, Walter, 161 

Schrcve-Yserman, Jo, 143-4; Illns. 


Schwartz, Raphael, 253 
Schwartze, Georfifine, 140 
Schweg'erle, Hans, 160 
Schultx, Albert, Si 
Sciortino, Antonio, 191 ; Illus* 193 
Scotland, 10, 46 

Scronnens, Cesar, 128 
Sculpto-paintings, 262 
Sculptor-painters, 2, 17, 25-6, 30, 33, 

37. 43, 52, S7> 59- 6 <>> 65, 74, 82, 

8 5 93> 95> 9 8 > I1[ 6, 121, 127, 

147, 191, 237, 255, 261, 272-4, 

289, 294, 296, 299 
Sculpture, Theory of, 55, 71-2, 134-5, 

220, 250 
Secessions, 89, 121, 148, 151, 158, 

163, 213-4, 220, 237, 240, 289, 298 
Seffner, Carl, 162 
Segantini, Giovanni, 177 
Seger, E, 160 
Se"goffin, Victor J., Illus. 61 ; 62-3, 

294, 296 

Seidan, Victor, 165 
Selva, Attilio, 208-9 ; Illus. 209 
Serbia, 7, 135, 212-3 
Serbian Exhibition, London, 214 
Serbian Exhibition, Rome, 220 
Serbian heroes, 215, 223 
Serbian spirit, 215-6, 219 
Serbo-Croat Exhibition, London, 

214, 220, 222 
Sergei, Tobias, 268 
Serruys, Yvonne, 74 
Seurre, 40, 42 
Servet, Michael, 64 
Seville, 37 

Seysses, Auguste, 61 
Sex, 276 
Shakespeare, 78 
Shaw, Bernard, 45 
Shepherd, 77-8, 213 
Shubin, 254-5 
Sicily, 199-206 
Silesia, 224 

Simonis, L. E,, 92, 124 
Sinding\ Stephan, 289 
Sisley, Alfred, 168 
Sjdrgren, Nils, 286 
Skalstad, Karl, 308 
Skeibrok, 305 
Skikkilcl, Chesten, 304 
Skovg-aard, Joachim, 294 
Skovgaard, Niels, 304 
Slade School, 14 

vSlav art, 211, 224 $t seq.) 254, 266 
Slav nations, 211 ft sty ^ 232, 266 
Slav spirit, 211, 224, 232, 266-7 
Slovakia, 224 
Slovenes, 211-2, 330, 235 
Smith, Ismael, 30 
Smout, C. A,, 132; Illus* 132 
Snobism, 28 
Sobrino, F, C,, 38 



Sochos, Anto'me, 267 

Socit< des Artistes Fran^ais, 30, 

32, 52, 62, 71, 75, So, 82, 296 
Societ^ Nationale des Beaux-Arts, 

Paris, 19, 22, 24, 29, 30, 38, 46, 

52, 73-5, 82, 162, 257, 264-5, 272 
Social Royal des Beaux-Arts, 

Brussels, 12 
Societies, 5, 8, 10-12, 19, 134, 141-2, 

240-1, 244, see above 
Society of Spanish Artists, Paris, 30 
Solaz, J. M., 32 
Solidarity, 129 
Solway Memorial, lot, 104 
Sorbonne, 48 
Soriano, Inocencio, 39 
Sorolla y Bastida, Joachim, 35 
Sorolla y Garcia, Elena, 32 
Sortini, Saverio, 210 
Soudbinin, Seraphim, 257, 264 
South America, 15 
Spain, 2, 6-7, 12-15, 17-39, 46, 40, 7 2 


Spalato, 213, 220 
Spaniel, Otokar, 231, 235 
Spanish Academy, Rome, 34, 37 
Spanish Exhibition, Brighton, 29-32, 

35' 37"^ 
Spanish Exhibition, London, 22, 

27-9 3 2 > 3 6 37 

Stakhowsky, Constant in, 266 
Starck, Constantin, 161 
State-aid, 51, 290 
State-patronage, 50, 279 
State-purchase, 50 
Stattler-Iedrxeiewicz, Marie, 247 
Stedelijk Museum, sot* Amsterdam 
Stein, vera, 264 
Steinlen, Theodore, 6o t 91 
Stelletzky, 257 
Stemolak, Karl, 164 
Stevens, Alfred, 9$, *7> 2 5 
Stevens, Alfred (Belgian), 103 
Stigovic, Risto, Illus. 221? 223 
Stockholm, 7, 269 // sftf, 
Stockholm, Dramatic Theatre, 269 
Story in Sculpture, 2, 7, 61, 78,85, 

93, 97, 109, 185-6, 198, 227 
Strandman, Otto, 275 
Sturza, Jan, 231-3 
Strasbourg, 81 
Strindberg, August, 277 
Stuttgart, 89, n8 
Stuck, Franz, 148 
Suasso Museum, see Amsterdam 
Sucharda, Stanislas, 227, 230-1 
Sudre, Raymond, 30 

Sunyer, Joaqwn, 26, 2t> 

Surfaces, 65, 68, 139, 209, 221, 307, 

3 c ? 

Svec, Otokar, 235 

Svor, Anders, Illus. 305 ; 306-7 

Sweden, 7, 15, 4<>-5o 54. ^68.^87, v ^02 

Switxoriand, 49, 60, 84-9 1 

Symbolism, 33, 47i 54- ^ l )*7 7 C )> 86, 
117, 135, 138, 164, 176, 194, 196* 
202, 228, 260, ^77, 281, 293 

Szcrepkowki Jan, 244 

Szczytt~Lt K dnU'ka., Mario, 247 

Sztuka, 244 

Sxymanowski, Waclaw, -237 

T';ulolini Adamo, 189 
Tadolini, Kurica, 190 
Tadolim, Giulio 189 
Tadolini, Sclpione, iBq 
Tapehtries, 53, 58 
Tarragona, 7<-8 

Tate Gallery, London, 117-8, 251 
Tegner, Hans, 304 
Tegncr, Rudolf, u)4 
Teles, Ede, 165 
Tenichef, tVmeesH Marie, 254 
Terveuren, no 

rtt dim Chumps- KlystVH* 53 
Theatres ; * Prujfue, Stockholm 
T!unmi Piems toy, u>8; Ilius. iot 
Thiel coUetton, a7<), 187 
Thoman, J* Huvard, 14, jtoH, a</> 
Thorberg, Trygve, 308 
Thorbjorn, 308 

Thornycroft, Sir W. HnnwA 14, 1 
Thot-sett, Trygve, 308 
Thorvaldsen, Hertel, a^*8 

3<>5* 3^9 

Thytstrupj, 304 
Toltoi a$a, 256-7 
Tolntot, Count ThetHtart% * 
Tombs, 34-5, 70> 73* &, ). 

144, 153, 161, 1 74 A 17^ 

285, 39 

T5nnet, Ambrojift, 308 
Tcwtoua*, i^t 5a t 6a, 73 
Touloua*Lautrec 167 
Tourjren*ff P* N,, 257 
Tournai* 108 
TouHsamt, GHdton, BJ 
Tradition, i, a 40- i t 43, 45, 4^ jr6, 


gpt Bsiron Rnunch von, 254 

* aoi 



Trieste, 201, 209, 295 

TrocadeYo, 77, 228 

Troubetzkoy, Prince, 168, 193, 207, 

, n 25<5 

luaillon, Louis, 148; Illus 148 

Tunis, 72 

Turin, 121-3, ^7, 174, 176, 178-9, 

187, 197-9, 201, 208 
Turin, Gallery of Modern Art, 178-9 
Turkestan, 72 
Turr6, J. C., 29 
Tuscany, 194-199, 218 
Tuxen, Lauritz, 289 
Tweed, John, 56, 234 
Twembley, Jules, 91 

UFFIZI Gallery, 273 
Ugo, Antonio, 204 
Ugoiino, 38, 43-4, 69, 132 
Ukraine, 192, 266 
United States, see America 
Uprka, Frantisek, 229 
Upsala, 276, 280 
Uruguay, 31, 175 
Utne, Lars, 6, 308 
Utrecht, 131-2, 168 
Utzond, Gunnar, 308 
Utzon-Frank, Kinar, 301, 302 ; Illus. 

VAILLANT, Henriette, 137; 
Illus. 141 ; 141 
Valencia, 17, Q 
Valentin, Max, 162 
Valette, Henri* 91 
Vallgren, Vil6, 309 
Van Dantzig-, Rachel M,, Illus* 135 ; 

Van den Hof, G, Jacobs, 134 ; Illus. 

Van der Eijnde, H,, 135, 137-8, Illus. 

Van der Stappen, C,, 93, 98-9, 102, 

tiB, 121*2, 131, 141 
Van der Weyden, Roger, 101 
Van Geel, J. F., 102 
Van Geel, J, L M 102 
Van Gogh, 296 

Van Hall, TheV&se, 142 ; Illus, 144 
Van Hove, Bart, 139~4 H4 
Van Lnnteren, J., 135, 137 ; Illus, 


Van Rasbourgs A. J M 102 
Van Reijn, Theo, 135 ; Illus. 136 
Van Wyk, Ch, 140 

Vasquez, A. F., 32 

Vassalli, Luig-i, Illus. 84; 85-7 

Vedic Books, 69 

Vela del Castello, R., 32 

Vela, Lorenzo, 85-6 

Velasquez, 35 

Venice, 6, 7, 35, 53, 59, 84, 87, 106, 
109, 112, 121-2, 126-7, 131, 133, 
13^ I39-4I, H3i 147, 161, 165, 
168, 174, 178-9, 188-9, 191, 194-5, 

190, 201-2, 204, 206-9, 214, 220, 

2 30-3> 240, 244-6, 258, 264, 273, 

284 305-6 

Venice : Gallery of Modern Art, 195, 

201, 205-6 

Verhaeren, Emile, 97, 121, 128 
Verlaine, Paul, 78, 84 
Verlet, R. C., 83 
Versatility, 52, 
Vervanck, George, 128 
Veterans, 48 
Vibert, James, 87 

Victor Emanuelll Monument, Rome, 
y . ! 77> J 79> 184, 187-8, 194, 205 
Victoria and Albert Museum, Lon- 

don J5 4Si 6 7 9 r 212-15, 221, 


Vianne, 75 
Vienna, 6, 44, 89-90, 94, 120-1, 130, 

153-4. 163-5, j 68, 213-26, 220, 

225-7, 2 33 236-7, 240, 245 
Vienna, 64-5 
Vigelarid, 269 
Vigrestad, Magnus, 308 
Vik, Ing-ebrigt, 6, 306 
Visdal, 305 

Visser, Tjipke, 133, rsS, 141 
Vloors, Emile, 128 
Vin^otte, Thomas, 93, xoo, 102-4 

Illus. 104 ; no- 1 1, 114 
Volkman, Arthur, 146 
Voltaire, 62 
Vorticism, 248-51, 259 
Vos, Charles, 139 
Vosmik, Vincent, 226 
Vreug-de, L. J., 137 
Vreugde, M., 134 j Illus. 134 

Wagner, Antonin, 225-6 
Wagner, Olga, 295 
Wagner, Siegfried, 295 

Wales, 10, 121 
Wallek, Carl, 60 
Waller, Edward, 286 
Walloons, 109, 112-129 
Wandschneider, Professor, 162 




Ward, J. Q. A., xf 
Warsaw, 72, '91, 238 et $fy. 
Washington, U.S.A., 15, 35, 223 
Waterloo Memorial, 100 
Wawel Palace, Cracow, 237, 246 
Wederkinch-Madsen, Holder, 304 
Weimar, 150 
Wetonski, Pius, 245 
Whltechapel Exhibition, London, 12, 

Wiedewelt, Johannes, 288 

Wilbur- Wright Memorial, 70 

WUfert, Karl, 154 

Willumsen, Edith, 295 

Willumsen, J, F.,' 304 

Wirsler, Anders, 286 

Wirth, Zdenek, 224 

Wittig-, Edward, 245 

Wolbers, Dirk, 133, 137 ? Ilhls * ! 3 h 

Wolff, Albert, 147 

Wolmark, Alfred, 250-1 

Women, studies of, 58 60, 270-7 

Wood, Francis Derwent, 6, 8, 15, 56, 


Workingf-men, 93 
Wouters, Rik, 106, 1 27 

Wroubel, 255 
Wulffin, Willus 305 
Wyrmitts, Krm\st t 

YOURIKVITOH, Sorgv, 265 
Youth, 3 



ADKINK, tinip, 248-9, 263.4, 

fifht 165 

Ati^H> Hiux, 184 ; 185, 194 
Franz, 163 
Xe<Uuui, 133 
Xi^rn* 62 

ZijI, Lumbt fc rts 138- 
, Arnold, 

Zola, KuuUs 0^ *>^ 

3Com, Anders, 272-3* ^ 

Zurich, 74, 
Zutt, U, A. 

*<> 74i